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SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 



AN ATTEMPT TO ILLUSTRATE SOME OF 

THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ELIZABETHAN 

AND MODERN ENGLISH 



% $se of 



BY 

E. A. ABBOTT, D.D. 

HEAD MASTER OF THE CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
IQOI 

All rights reserved 



7R 

^0 

A4 



RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, 
LONDON AND BUNGAY. 

First Edition printed July, 1869. Reprinted October, 1869. 
February and June (Second Edition), 1870. Reprinted 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 
1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1279, 1881, 1883, 1884, 1886, 1888, 1891, 1894, 1897, 1901. 




974318 



SEEN BY 

PRES >;;'' IN 
c -- 



DATE. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

PBKFACE TO THIRD EDITION . . xxi 

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION ... i 

INTRODUCTION 5 

GRAMMAR. 

FAR. 

ADJECTIVES used as adverbs i 

compounded . 2 

in -ful, -less, -ble, and -tvt, both actively and passively used 3 

signifying effect used to signify cause 4 

singular used as nouns 5 

comparative, -er, more 6 

,, in -er, after -ing, -ed, -id, -ain, -st, -ect . . 7 

superlative, -est used for -very 8 

in -est after -ent, -ing, -ed, -ect 9 

,, used incorrectly for the comparative . . . 10 

comparative and superlative, pleonastically used .... 1 1 

All, both, each, every, other 12 

possessive transposed 13 

Just; mere ; proper, very; influenced by their Latin 

meaning 14-16 

More, most, used for greater, greatest 17 

One . 18 

Right used for true 19 

Self 20 

Some 21 

lormed from nouns, adverbs, &c., without change . 23 



vi CONTENTS. 

PAR. 

A HVERBS with and without -ly 23 

with prefix a- . 24 

derived from the possessive inflection 25 

After ; regain; all; almost 26-29 

Along; anon; anything; away; back 3-33 

Besides ; briefly ; by ; chance ; even ; ever 34~39 

Far ; forth ; hence; hither 4O-4 1 

Happily ; here ; hitherto ; home ; how ; howsoever . . 42-47 

Last; moreabove ; moreowf . . . 48-50 

Much; never ; none; not 5 I- 54 

Nothing; off; once ; only ; aver 55-5$ 

Presently ; round; severally ; since 59-62 

So inserted ; omitted; = "also;" = "then" . . . 63-66 

"So for such a" 67 

Something; sometimes; still; than; then 68-71 

To-fore; too; what, when; -whilst; why : yet . . . 72-76 

used as nouns and adjectives 77 

after the verb is 78 

ARTICLE. An connected with one -79 

An and one, pronunciation of 80 

A used for "one," "any" 81 

A and the omitted in archaic poetry 82 

after "as," "like," "than" . ... 83 
A omitted before nouns signifying a class or a multitude . 84 

A inserted after adjectives used as adverbs 85 

A omitted after "what," "such," &c 86 

A inserted before numeral adjectives and many .... 87 

An-gther 88 

The omitted before nouns defined by other nouns ... 89 

after prepositions . 90 

The inserted in " at the first," &c 91 

The used to denote notoriety, &c. 92 

The before verbals , 93 



CONTENTS. di 

PAR. 

The with comparatives 94 

CONJUNCTIONS. And emphatic with participles 95 

And emphatic in other cases 96 

,, in answers 97 

,, after exclamations 98 

,, in questions 99 

And used for "also" by Wickliffe . 100 

And or an apparently used for if 101 

,, with the subjunctive 102 

And if 103 

An'twere 104 

A nd if used for "even if " and " if indeed" 105 

As contracted for " ail-so " 106 

A s apparently for "as if" 107 

As that for as 108 

As used for "that" after " so ". . 109 

As parenthetical = "for so" no 

,, "as regards which," &c in 

As for "which" lia 

As, meaning "namely" 113 

As with definitions of time 1 14 

As with " seem," participles, &c. . . . . . . .115 

As a conjunctional suffix , . 116 

Because 117 

But, meaning and derivation of 118 

But in Early English 119 

But with the subjunctive and indicative 120 

But, transition of meaning 121 

But meaning prevention 122 

But taking the place of the subject 123 

But with contingency expressed or implied 124 

But sometimes ambiguous 125 

But after an execration expressed or implied 126 



vt*i CONTENTS. 

FAR. 

But for " than " after negative comparatives 127 

But passes from "except "to "only" when the negative 

is omitted 128 

But varies in its position 129 

Bttt only ; merely but, &c 130 

Or; or ever 131 

Since for "when," "ago" 132 

So = " provided that ;" so with the optative . . . .133 

Where for " whereas " 134 

Whereas for " where " 135 

Whether: " or whether " 136 

While 137 

PREPOSITIONS. Local and metaphorical meaning .... 138 
more restricted in meaning now than in Elizabethan authors 139 

A- ; after; against 140-142 

At used for a-; rejects a following adjective . . . 143,144 

By, original and derived meanings 145 

By = "as a consequence of" 146 

For, original meaning of 147 

For = "instead of," "as being" 148 

For= "as regards ;" "because of," referring to the past 149, 150 

For, transition into a conjunction 151 

For to, origin of 152 

For, variable use of 153 

For = "to prevent" 154 

For after "am" 155 

Forth a preposition 156 

From out 157 

From without a verb of motion 158 

In with verbs of motion 159 

Aifor "on" 160 

"during" 161 

., " In the case of," " about ;> 16? 



CONTENTS. ix 

PAR 

In where we use " at " 1^3 

In with the verbal 164 

Of, original meaning '65 

Of with verbs of ablation . . 166 

Of applied to past time = " from " 167 

Of ^ "as a consequence of" where we use "by," "on," 

"at,"&c 168 

Of in adjurations, &c 169 

Of preceding the agent 1 7 

Of with verbs of construction, &c.j sometimes means 

"instead of" ' '7* 

Of for " in ;" appositional genitive I7 2 

Of '= "as regards" *73 

Of -= "concerning;" "about" 174 

Of used locally for " on " 175 

Of used temporally for " during " I7 6 

Of after partitive, French-derived, and formerly impersonal 

verbs *77 

Of after verbals 1 7* 

Of redundant . . . 179 

On metaphorically used l % 

On for "of" in the sense of ''about," &c 181 

" possessively *8z 

Out a preposition l %3 

7I//for "to" l8 4 

To, radical meaning "motion to ;" hence "in addition to" 185 

To " with a view to " *86 

To " motion to the side of," "against," "towards," "in 

comparison with," "up to" . . . , '8? 

To with verbs of rest = " near " 188 

adjectives of obedience, &c i8Sa 

To "equivalent to,* "for" .... - 189 

To; "I would to God;" "to-night" 190 



x CONTENTS, 

PAR. 

Upon used metaphorically ; adverbially . . . . 191, 192 
With for " by ; " for other prepositions .... 193, 194 

" like ;" withal 195, 196 

Without for "outside of" . . . .* 197 

Preposition omitted after verbs of motion; worth; and 

hearing .... 198, 1980, 199 
,, ,, after other verbs ; before indirect 

object 200, 2OI 

,, ,, in adverbial phrases 202 

Prepositions transposed 203 

Upon. " It stands me upon " 204 

PRONOUNS, PERSONAL. A nomalies, explanation of . . . . 205 

He for him 206, 207 

Him for he; HOT me 208, 209 

Me for I; she for her 210, 211 

Thee for thou ; after " to be " 212,213 

Them for they ; us for we 214, 215 

anomalies of, between a conjunction and an infinitive, or 
where the pronouns are separated from the words on 

which they depend 216 

His for 's 217 

His, her, your, Sec., antecedents of relatives 218 

Our, your, &c., used for "of us," "of you" 219 

Me, thee, him, &c., used as datives 220 

Your, colloquial use of .221 

Our used with vocatives 222 

Him, her, &c., for "himself," "herself" 223 

He and she for " man " and " woman " 224 

Pronoun for pronominal adjective 225 

It quasi-redundant with verbs . 226 

It emphatic as antecedent .... 227 

Its post-Shakespearian . . 228 

Her for its in Shakespeare and Milton 229 



CONTENTS. ^ 

PAR. 

' Me rather had ;" " 7 were better ;" "/am sorrow" . 230 
Thou between intimate friends, but not from son to father . 231 
Thou from master to servant, you a mark of anger . . . 232 
Thou an insult, except to friends and inferiors . . , . 233 
Thou in direct appeals, you in dependent clauses . . 234 

Thou, apparent exceptions 235 

Ye and you; difference between 236 

My, mine ; thy, thine ; difference between 237 

Mine, hers, used for my, her 238 

Yours; " this of yours " 239 

transposed 240 

Thou omitted 24 1 

Pronoun redundant after a conjunctional clause .... 242 

,, in other cases 243 

PRONOUNS, RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE. 

Relative omitted 244 

,, ,, " They in France " 245 

,, ,, and attracted 246 

Relative with plural antecedent often takes singular verb ; 
and with antecedent in the second person, takes verb 

in the third 247 

Relative with supplementary pronoun ; origin of .... 248 

Supplementary pronoun ; when used 249 

Which that 250 

Who ; transition from interrogative to relative meaning . 251 

What; semi-transition, how checked 252 

What for " why ;" "whatever;" "who;" "any" 253-255 

What for " of what a nature ?" 256 

Who, " as -who should say " 257 

Who, that, and which, difference between 258 

,, ,, Shakespearian use of .... 259 

That refers to an essential characteristic ...... 260 

That after nouns used vocatively 96 1 



<ii CONTENTS 

FAR. 

That, when separated from antecedent 262 

Who, for "and he," "forhe,"&c 263 

Who personifies irrational antecedents 264 

Which interchanged with who and that 265 

Which less definite than who .... 266 

The that; that which 267 

Which more definite than that ......... 268 

Which with repeated antecedent 269 

The which 270 

Which parenthetically for " -which thing " 271 

Which for " as to ivhuh " 272 

Which, anomalies of 273 

Who for whom 274 

RELATIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS. "So at:" "as as" . 275,276 
" That that; " "that . . . (as) to;" " such which " 277, 278 

"Such that;" "such where" 279 

"Thatas;" "so... (as)" 250,281 

"So (that);" "(so) that" 282,283 

That for "because," "when," &c 284 

That omitted, then inserted . . 285 

That, " whatsoever that " 286 

That, a conjunctional affix 287 

That in 287, origin of 288 

As, a conjunctional affix 289 

VERBS, FORMS OF : 

TRANSITIVE, mostly formed from adjectives and nouns 290 
,, formed from intransitive verbs . . . .291 

Advantages of this licence 292 

Transitive verbs rarely used intransit'vely 293 

PASSIVE, formation of 294 

Passive, use of, with verbs of motion, &c 295 

Reflexive 296 

Impersonal . . 297 



CONTENTS. xiii 

PAR. 

VERBS, AUXILIARY. Be, BObj^nctive and quasi-subjunctive . 298 

fie in questions and dependent sentences 299 

Be in the plural and for euphony 300 

Wfre, subjunctive use of 301 

Were after " while " and " until " 302 

Do, did, original use of 303 

Do, did, Shakespearian use of 304 

Do omitted before not 305 

and inserted 306 

May, can ; original and subsequent meaning ..... 307 

May, antiquity of 308 

May in doubtful statements 309 

May with a negative . 310 

May for the subjunctive in the sense of purpose . . . .311 

Might = "could" 312 

May, might, used optatively 313 

Must = "is to;" original use of 314 

Shall, original meaning 315 

Will assumed the meaning of futurity with the second and 

third persons 316 

Shall assumed the meaning of compulsion with the second 

and third persons , 317 

Shall, "I shall" from inferiors 318 

Will, " I will" not used by Shakespeare for "I shall " . 319 
Will, with second person ironical or imperative . . . 320 

Will with third person, difficult passages 321 

Should denotes contingent futurity 322 

Should = "ought; " "was to " 323, 324 

Should in questions and dependent sentences 325 

Should after a past tense where shall would follow a 

present 326 

Sfiould, "should have," Shakespearian use of .... 327 
Should denoting the statement of another than the speaker 328 



xiv CONTENTS. 

PAR. 

Would for "will," "wish," "require" 329 

Would "was wont to" 330 

Would not used for " should " 331 

VERBS, INFLECTIONS OF t 

Indicative, third person plural in -en 332 

Third person plural present in -es ., 333 

,, ,, in -th 334 

Inflection in -s preceding a plural subject 335 

with two singular nouns as subject . . . 336 

Apparent cases of the inflection in -s 337 

i final misprinted 338 

Past indicative forms in - 339 

Second person singular in -ft 340 

Past indicative -t for -ted ... 341 

Participles. -Ed omitted after d and /, &c. .... 342 

-* dropped . 343 

, , Irregular formations 344 

Participial prefix y- ............. 345 

VERBS, MOODS OF : 

INDICATIVE simple present for complete present with ad 
verbs meaning " as yet," &c. . . . 346 

,, simple past for complete present with 

,, "since," &c. 347 

,, future for subjunctive and infinitive . . . 348 

INFINITIVE : to omitted, inserted 349 

,, to omitted and inserted alter the same verb . 350 
,, " It were best (to) : " " I were best (to) " 351, 352 

,, fc omitted after conjunctions 353 

H oun and infinitive used as subject or object . . . . 354 

infinitive used as a noun 355 

,, ,, indefinitely 356 

,, ,, at the beginning of a sentence 357 

For to 358 



CONTENTS. xv 

PAR. 

Infinitive active where we use passive 359 

,, complete present after verbs of intending, &c. 360 

SUBJUNCTIVE : simple form 361 

auxiliary forms 362 

., replaced by indicative after "if," &c., where 

no doubt is expressed 363 

,, used optatively or imperatively . . . . 364 

, , optative use, advantage of 365 

,, complete past 366 

,, used indefinitely after relative 367 

,, in a subordinate sentence 368 

, , after verbs of command 369 

,, irregular sequence of tenses 370 

Conditional sentences, irregularities 371 

PAJRTICIPLES AND VERBALS : 

Participles active, confusion in 372 

Participial verbal 373 

Participles passive, confusion in 374 

ed for -able 375 

Participles with nominative absolute 376 

expressing a condition 377 

without noun or pronoun 378 

,, pronoun implied from pronominal adjective . 379 

,, adjective instead of participle 380 

Participle implied 381 

ELLIPSES. Where the ellipsis can be easily supplied from the 

context 382 

in conjunctional sentences : after and 383 

after as, but, ere, if 384-387 

after like, or, since, than, though 388-391 

after till, too j 392-393 

in relative sentences 394 

in antithetical sentences 395 



xvi CONTENTS. 

PAR. 

Ellipses of neither before nor 396 

of adverbial and possessive inflection in conjunctional 

sentences 397 

of superlative inflectional conjunctional sentences . . 398 

of nominative 399 

with "has," "is,' "was'' 400 

,, in the first or second person .... 401 

,, explained 402 

of // is, there is, is 403 

of it, there 404 

after ivill, is, &c 405 

IRREGULARITIES. Double negative 406 

Double preposition 407 

Neither, nor, used like both, and 408 

Confusion of two constructions with superlative .... 409 

,, ,, ,, with -whom 410 

Other confusions of two constructions .411 

Confusion of proximity 412 

Nominative implied from participial phrases 413 

Redundant object 414 

Construction changed by change of thought 415 

,, for clearness 416 

Noun absolute 417 

Foreign idioms 418 

adjectives 419 

Transpositions of adjectival phrases 4190 

,, ofadverbs 420 

Adverbs at the beginning of the sentence 421 

Transposition of article 422 

,, in noun clauses 423 

, , of prepositions 424 

, , after an emphatic word or expression . . . 42 5 
., after relative 426 



CONTENTS. xvii 

PAR. 

Other transpositions 427 

COMPOUND WORDS. Hybrids 428 

Adverbial compounds 429 

Noun compounds 430 

Preposition compounds 431 

Verb compounds . , . 432 

Participial nouns 433 

Phrase compounds 434 

Anomalous compounds 435 

PREFIXES. A- ; ail-to- ; at- ; be- ; dis- .... 436-439 

En- ; for- ; in- and un- 440-442 

SUFFIXES, -er ; -en ; -ive ; -ble ; -less .... 443-446 

ly ; -ment : -ness j -y 447-450 

General licence of . . .451 

PROSODY. 

The ordinary verse 452 

The " pause-accent " 453 

Emphatic accents 4530 

The " pause-extra-syllable " . 454 

,, rarely a monosyllable except in 

Henry VIII 455 

Unaccented monosyllables 456 

Accented monosyllables 457 

, monosyllabic prepositions 45 7 

Two " pause-extra-syllables " 458 

WRITTEN CONTRACTIONS : 

Elizabethan spelling, contractions in 459 

Prefixes dropped 460 

Other written contractions 461 

CONTRACTIONS in pronunciation not expressed in writing . . 462 
R softens or destroys a following vowel . . . 463 

b 



jviii CONTENTS. 

PAR. 

R softens or destroys a preceding vowel 464 

Er, el, le final dropped 465 

Th and v dropped between two vowels 466 

7 unaccented in a polysyllable dropped 467 

Any vowel unaccented in a polysyllable may be dropped . 468 

Polysyllabic names with but one accent 469 

Power, prowess, being, knowing, monosyllables .... 470 

-es or -s dropped after s, se, ce, ge 471 

ed dropped after d and / 472 

-est dropped in superlatives after dentals and liquids . . 473 
VARIABLE SYLLABLES. Ed final, mute and sonant in the 

same line 474 

Words prolonged by emphasis 475 

,, shortened by want of emphasis 476 

LENGTHENING OF WORDS. R and / after a consonant intro 
duce an additional syllable, e.g. "Eng(e)land" . .47? 
A* preceded by a vowel lengthens pronunciation . . . 478 

/ and e pronounced before vowels 479 

Monosyllabic feet in Chaucer 479 

,, ,, ending in r or re 480 

Monosyllables, when prolonged 481 

,, ,, exclamations 482 

prolonged by emphasis or antithesis . . . 483 

diphthongs and long vowels 484 

,, containing a vowel followed by r ... 485 
,, other instances of prolongation .... 486 

E final pronounced 487 

E of French origin, pronounced 48? 

E final in French names pronounced 489 

Words in which the accent is nearer the end than with us . 490 

Istd final in polysyllables 491 

Words hi which the accent is nearer the beginning than 
with us , 492 



CONTENTS. xii 

PAR. 

Alexandrines, very rare ... 493 

Apparent Alexandrines, two final extra syllables .... 494 
,, ., two syllables in the middle of a verse 495 

,, ,, explained by contractions . . . 496 

,, ,, unemphatic syllables dropped . .497 

,, doubtful 498 

,, the detached foot 499 

Trimeter couplet in dialogue 500 

,, ,, in other cases 501 

,, ,, the comic 502 

,, ,, apparent 503 

Verses with four accents assigned to witches, fairies, &c. . . 504 

, ,, otherwise rare 505 

,, ,, where there is a break in the line . . 506 

,, ,, change of thought 507 

,, ,, change of construction 508 

,, ,, a number of clauses 509 

,, ,, apparent 510 

Short lines, why introduced 511 

Interjectional lines 512 

The amphibious section 513 

A verse continued, spite of interruptions 514 

Rhyme, when used 515 

Prose, when used S l S a 

PAGE 

SIMILE AND METAPHOR 430 

NOTES AND QUESTIONS .-.... 440 

INDEX TO THE QUOTATIONS ... 455 

VERBAL INDEX , , $01 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 

The success which has attended the First and Second 
Editions of the " SHAKESPERIAN GRAMMAR," and the 
demand for a Third Edition within a year of the publica 
tion of the First, has encouraged the Author to endeavour to 
make the work somewhat more useful, and to render it, as 
far as possible, a complete book of reference for all difficulties 
of Shakesperian syntax or prosody. For this purpose the 
whole of Shakespeare has been re-read, and an attempt has 
been made to include within this Edition the explanation of 
every idiomatic difficulty (where the text is not confessedly 
corrupt) that comes within the province of a grammar as 
distinct from a glossary. 

The great object being to make a useful book of reference 
for students, and especially for classes in schools, several 
Plays have been indexed so fully that with the aid of a 
glossary and historical notes the references will serve for a 
complete commentary. These Plays are, As you Like It, 
Coriolanus, Hamlet, Henry V.,Jtdius Ccesar, Lear, Macbeth, 
Merchant of Venice, Midsummer Night's Dream, Richard II., 
Richard III., Tempest, Twelfth Night. It is hoped that 
these copious indexes will meet a want, by giving some 
definite work to be prepared by the class, whether as a 
holiday task or in the work of the term. The want of some 
such distinct work, to give thoroughness and definiteness 



xxii PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 

to an English lesson, has been felt by many teachers of 
experience. A complete table of the contents of each 
paragraph has been prefixed, together with a Verbal Index 
at the end. The indexes may be of use to students of a 
more advanced stage, and perhaps may occasionally be 
found useful to the general reader of Shakespeare. 

A second perusal of Shakespeare, with a special reference to 
idiom and prosody, has brought to light several laws which 
regulate many apparent irregularities. The interesting 
distinction between thou and you (Pars. 231 235), for ex 
ample, has not hitherto attracted the attention of readers, 
or, as far as I am aware, of commentators on Shakespeare. 
The use of the relative with plural antecedent and singular 
verb (Par. 246); the prevalence of the third person plural in 
'S (Par. 333), which does not appear in modern editions of 
Shakespeare ; the "confusion of proximity" (Par. 412) ; the 
distinction between an adjective before and after a noun ; 
these and many other points which were at first either briefly 
or not at all discussed, have increased the present to more 
than thrice the size of the original book. I propose now to 
stereotype this edition, so that no further changes need be 
anticipated. 

It may be thought that the amplification of the Prosody is 
unnecessary, at all events, for the purpose of a school-book. 
My own experience, however, leads me to think that the 
Prosody of Shakespeare has peculiar interest for boys, and 
that some training in it is absolutely necessary if they are 
to read Shakespeare critically. The additions which have 
been made to this part of the book have sprung naturally 
out of the lessons in English which I have been in the 
habit of giving ; and as they are the results of practical ex 
perience, I am confident they will be found useful for school 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. xxii. 

purposes.* A conjectural character, more apparent however 
than real, has perhaps been given to this part of the book 
from the necessity that I felt of setting down every difficult 
verse of Shakespeare where the text was not acknowledged 
as corrupt, or where the difficulty was more than slight. Prac 
tically, I think, it will be found that the rules of the Prosody 
will be found to solve most of the difficulties that will 
present themselves to boys at least, in the thirteen Plays 
above mentioned. 

Besides obligations mentioned in the First Edition, I must 
acknowledge the great assistance I have received from 
MATZNER'S Englische Grammatik (3 vols., Berlin, 1865), 
whose enormous collection of examples deserves notice. 
I am indebted to the same author for some points illustrating 
the connection between Early and Elizabethan English. 
Here, however, I have received ample assistance from 
Mr. F. J. Furnivall, Mr. R. Morris, and others, whose kind 
ness I am glad to have an opportunity of mentioning. In par 
ticular, 1 must here acknowledge my very great obligation to 
the Rev. W. W. Skeat, late Fellow of Christ's College, Cam 
bridge, whose excellent edition of William of Palerne (Early 
English Text Society, 1867), and whose Mceso-Gothic Dic 
tionary (Asher, London, 1866), have been of great service to 
me. Mr. Skeat also revised the whole of the proof-sheets, and 
many of his suggestions are incorporated in the present 
work. I may add here, that in discussing the difference 
between "thou " and "you " (231-5), and the " monosyllabic 
foct" (480-6), I was not aware that I had been anticipated 
by Mr. Skeat, who has illustrated the former point (with 
reference to Early English) in William of Palerne, p. xlii., 

* The somewhat grotesque name of "amphibious verse " (Par. 513) sprang in 
this way from class-teaching. I have retained it, as answeiing its purpose, by 
communicating its meaning readily and impressively. 



xxiv PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 

and the latter in his Essay on the Metres of Chaucer (vol. i., 
Aldine Edition, London, 1866). The copious Index to 
Layamon, edited by Sir Frederick Madden, has also been or 
great service. I trust that, though care has been taken to 
avoid any unnecessary parade of Anglo-Saxon, or Early 
English, that might interfere with the distinct object of the 
work, the information on these points will be found trust 
worthy and useful. The Prosody has been revised throughout 
by Mr. A. J. Ellis, whose work on Early English Pronun 
ciation is well known. Mr. Ellis's method of scansion and 
notation is not in all respects the same as my own, but I 
have made several modifications in consequence of his 
suggestive criticisms. 

I have now only to express my hope that this little book 
may do something to forward the development of English 
instruction in English schools. Taking the very lowest 
ground, I believe that an intelligent study of English is the 
shortest and safest way to attain to an intelligent and suc 
cessful study of Latin and Greek, and that it is idle to expect 
a boy to grapple with a sentence of Plato or Thucydides if 
he cannot master a passage of Shakespeare or a couplet of 
Pope. Looking, therefore, at the study of English from the 
old point of view adopted by those who advocate a purely 
classical instruction, I am emphatically of opinion that it is 
a positive gain to classical studies to deduct from them an 
hour or two every week for the study of English. But I 
need scarcely say that the time seems not far off when every 
English boy who continues his studies to the age of fifteen 
will study English for the sake of English ; and where English 
is studied Shakespeare is not likely to be forgotten. 

E. A. A. 
y>th May, 1870. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 



THE object of this work is to furnish students of Shakespeare 
and Bacon with a short systematic account of some points of 
difference between Elizabethan syntax and our own. The 
words of these authors present but little difficulty. They can 
be understood from glossaries, and, even without such aid, 
a little reflection and attention to the context will generally 
enable us to hit the meaning. But the differences of idiom 
are more perplexing. They are more frequent than mere 
verbal difficulties, and they are less obvious and noticeable. 
But it need hardly be said, that if we allow ourselves to fancy 
we are studying Shakespeare critically, when we have not 
noticed and cannot explain the simplest Shakespearian 
idiom, we are in danger of seriously lowering our standaro 
of accurate study, and so far from training we are untraining 
our understanding. Nor is it enough to enumerate unusual 
idioms without explaining them. Such is not the course we 
pursue in Latin and Greek, and our native tongue should 
either not be studied critically at all, or be studied as 
thoroughly as the languages of antiquity.* 

The difficulty which the author has experienced in teach 
ing pupils to read Shakespearian verse correctly, and to 
analyse a metaphorical expression, has induced him to 
add a few pages on Shakespeare's prosody and on the use of 
simile and metaphor. 

* Of course it is possible to study Shakespeare with great advantage;, and y<M 
without any reference to textual criticism. Only, it should be distinctly under- 
Stood in such cases that textual criticism is not attempted. 

B 



j PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

A very important question in the study of English is, what 
should be the amount and nature of the assistance given to 
students in the shape of notes. It is clear that the mere 
getting up and reproducing a commentator's opinions, though 
the process may fill a boy with useful information, can in no 
sense be called a training. In the Notes and Questions at 
the end of this volume I have tried to give no more help 
than is absolutely necessary. The questions may be of use 
as a holiday-task, or in showing the student how to work 
the Grammar. They have been for the most part answered 
by a class of boys from fourteen to sixteen years old, and 
some by boys much younger. 

In some of the sections of the Prosody I must acknow 
ledge my obligations to Mr. W. S. Walker's work on Shake 
speare's Versification.* Other obligations are acknowledged 
in the course of the work ; but the great mass of the exam 
ples have been collected in the course of several years' close 
study of Shakespeare and contemporaneous authors. I am 
aware that there will be found both inaccuracies and incom 
pleteness in this attempt to apply the rules of classical 
scholarship to the criticism of Elizabethan English, but it is 
perhaps from a number of such imperfect contributions that 
there will at last arise a perfect English Grammar. 



REFERENCES. 
The following works are referred to by the pages .- 

Ascham's Scholemaster . (Mayor) . London, 1863. 

The Advancement of Learning . . Oxford, 1640. 

Bacon's Essays . . . (Wright) . London, 1868. 

Ben Jonson's Works . . (Gifford) . London, 1838. 

North's Plutarch London, 1656. 

Florio's Montaigne London, 1603. 

* In correcting the proof-sheets I have grained much from consulting Mr 
Valker's " Criticisms on Shakespeare." 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 3 

Wager, He/wood, Ingelend, &c., and sometimes Beaumont 
and Fletcher, are quoted from " The Songs of the Dra 
matists," J. W. Parker, 1855. 



WORKS REFERRED TO BY ABBREVIATIONS. 

Some of the plays of Shakespeare are indicated by the 
Initials of the titles, as follow : 

A. W. All's Well that Ends Well. 

A. and C. ... Antony and Cleopatra. 

A. Y. L As You Like It. 

C. of E Comedy of Errors. 

J. C. Julius Caesar. 

L. L. L Love's Labour Lost. 

M.for M. . . . Measure for Measure. 

M. of V. . . . . Merchant of Venice. 

M. W. of W. . . Merry Wives of Windsor. 

M. N. D Midsummer Night's Dream 

M. Ado .... Much Ado about Nothing. 

P.ofT.. . . . Pericles of Tyre. 

JR. and J. . . . Romeo and Juliet. 

T. ofSh Taming of the Shrew. 

T.ofA Tirnon of Athens. 

T. A Titus Andronicus. 

Tr. and Cr. . . . Troilus and Cressida. 

T. N. Twelfth Night. 

T.G.ofV.. . . Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

W. T. Winter's 1'aie. 

The quotations are from the Globe edition unless other 
wise specified.) 

Asch Ascham's Scholemaster. 

B. E Bacon's Essays. 

B. and P. ....... Beaumont and Fletcher 

B. J Ben Jonson 

B2 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

B. J E. in &<:. . Every Man in his Humour. 

., E. out &>c. . Every Man out of his Humour 

Cy.'s Rev. . Cynthia's Revels. 

Sil. Worn. . Silent Woman. 

Sejan. . . Sejanus. 

Sad Sh. . . Sad Shepherd. 

L. C. Lover's Complaint. 

N. P. . . . . . North's Plutarch. 

P. P Passionate Pilgrim. 

R. of L Rape of Lucrece. 

Sonn Shakespeare's Sonnets. 

V. and A, Venus and Adonis. 



Numbers in parentheses thus (81) refer to the paragraphs 
of the Grammar. 



INTRODUCTION 



ELIZABETHAN English, on a superficial view, appears to 
present this great point of difference from the English of 
modern times, that in the former any irregularities whatever, 
whether in the formation of words or in the combination of 
words into sentences, are allowable. In the first place, almost 
any part of speech can be used as any other part of speech. 
An adverb can be used as a verb, " They askance their eyes " 
(R. ofL.}; as a noun, "the backward and abysm of time" 
(Sonn.) ; or as an adjective, "a seldom pleasure" (Sonn.}. Any 
noun, adjective, or neuter verb can be used as an active 
verb. You can " happy " your friend, " malice " or " foot " 
your enemy, or " fall " an axe on his neck. An adjective can 
be used as an adverb ; and you can speak and act " easy," 
"free," "excellent:" or as a noun, and you can talk of 
"fair" instead of "beauty," and "a pale" instead of "a 
paleness." Even the pronouns are not exempt from these 
metamorphoses. A " he " is used for a man, and a lady is 
described by a gentleman as " the fairest she he has yet 
beheld." Spenser asks us to 

" Come down and learne the little what 
That Thomalin can sayne." Calend. JuL v. 31 (Nares). 

And Heywood, after dividing human dicers into three 
Masses thus 

' ' Some witli small fare they be not pleased, 
Some with much fare they be diseased, 
Some with mean fare he scant appeased," 



ft INTRODUCTION. 

adds with truly Elizabethan freedom 

" But of all somes none is displeased 

To be welcome." * 

In the second place, every variety of apparent grammatical 
inaccuracy meets us. He for Aim, him for he; spoke and 
took, for spoken and taken; plural nominatives with singular 
verbs ; relatives omitted where they are now considered 
necessary ; unnecessary antecedents inserted ; shall for will, 
should for would, would for wish; to omitted after " I 
ought" inserted after " I durst; " double negatives ; double 
comparatives (" more better," &c.) and superlatives ; such 
followed by which, that by as, as used for as if; that for so 
that; and lastly, some verbs apparently with two nomina 
tives, and others without any nominative at all. To this 
long list of irregularities it may be added that many words, 
and particularly prepositions and the infinitives of verbs, 
are used in a different sense from the modern. Thus 

" To fright you thus methinks I am too savage," 

Macb. iv. 2. 70. 

does not mean " I am too savage to fright you." " Re 
ceived of the most pious Edward" (170) does not mean 
" from Edward," but "by Edward;" and when Shakespeare 
says that " the rich " will not every hour survey his treasure, 
"for blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure," he does 
not mean " for the sake of," but " for fear of" blunting 
pleasure. 

On a more careful examination, however, these apparently 
disorderly and inexplicable anomalies will arrange themselves 
under certain heads. It must be remembered that the Eliza 
bethan was a transitional period in the history of the English 
language. On the one hand, there was the influx of new dis 
coveries and new thoughts requiring as their equivalent the 
coinage of new words (especially words expressive of abstiact 
ideas) ; on the other hand, the revival of classical studies and 
the popularity of translations from Latin and Greek authors 

Compare " More by all mores." T. N. v. i. 139. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

suggested Latin and Greek words (but principally Latin) as 
the readiest and most malleable metal, or rather as so many 
ready-made coins requiring only a slight national stamp to 
prepare them for the proposed augmentation of the currency 
of the language. Moreover, the long and rounded periods 
of the ancients commended themselves to the ear of the 
Elizabethan authors. In the attempt to conform English 
to the Latin frame, the constructive power of the former 
language was severely strained. 

The necessity of avoiding ambiguity and the difficulty of 
connecting the end of a long sentence with the beginning, 
gave rise to some irregularities, to the redundant pronoun 
(242), the redundant 'that' (285), and the irregular l to' (416) 

But, for the most part, the influence of the classical lan 
guages was confined to single words, and to the rhythm of 
the sentence. The syntax was mostly English both in its 
origin and its development, and several constructions that 
are now called anomalous (such as the double negative [406] 
and the double comparative [409]) have, and had from the 
earliest period, an independent existence in English, and 
are merely the natural results of a spirit which preferred 
clearness and vigour of expression to logical symmetry. 
Many of the anomalies above mentioned may be traced 
back to some peculiarities of Early English, modified by 
the transitional Elizabethan period. Above all, it must be 
remembered that Early English was far richer than Eliza 
bethan English in inflections. As far as English inflections 
are concerned the Elizabethan period was destructive rather 
than constructive. Naturally, therefore, while inflections 
were being discarded, all sorts of tentative experiments were 
made : some inflections were discarded that we have restored, 
others retained that we have discarded. Again, sometimes 
where inflections were retained the sense of their meaning 
and power had been lost, and at other times the memory 
of inflections that were no longer visibly expressed in writing 
still influenced the manner of expression. Thus Ben Jonson 
writes : 



INTRODUC TION. 

"The persons plural keep the termination of the first per- 
son singular. Tn fr>t-m>- ;,,,, 4.:n _^ 



^ V m ^ f rmer timCS ' tiU ab Ut the rei ^ n of ng 
ry VIII. they were wont to be formed by adding el 

ws f-Lonw, say, complains. But now (whatsoever is 
.e cause) ,t is quite grown out of use, and that other so 

Set this on 



He appears to be aware of the Midland plural in en (332) 
which is found only very rarely in Spenser and in Pericles of 
Tyre, but not of the Northern plural in es (333), which is very 
frequently found. in Shakespeare, and which present ThT 

veT'A rr* f " PlU , ral n Un C mbined with a sin ^lar 
verb. And the same author does not seem to be aware of 

the existence of the subjunctive mood in English He 
ignores it in his Etymology of a Verb," and, in L chapter 
on "Syntax of a Verb with a Noun," writes as follows - 

' Nouns signifying a multitude, though they be of the 
singular number, require a verb plural : 

' d Wise men rehea rsen in sentence, 

here folk be drunken there is no resistance. ' "-LYDGATE, lib ii 

And he continues thus: -"This exception is in other 
nouns also very common, especially when the verb is * 
to an adverb or conjunction: 'It is preposterous to execute 
a man before he have been condemned'" It wouU anr 
hence that the dramatist was ignorant of the force of the 
inflection of the subjunctive, though he frequently uses it 



nv 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

(act.), &c. (290) for to " gladckw," " madd^w," &c. (e) The 
adverbial e (i) being discarded, an adjective appears to 
be used as an adverb : "He raged more fierce? &c. 
(/) "Other" is used for "other(e)," pi. "other men," &c. 
(g) The ellipsis of the pronoun (399) as a nominative may 
also be in part thus explained. 

II. Inflections retained with their old power. 

(a) The subjunctive inflection frequently used to express a 
condition " Go not my horse," for " If my horse go not." 
Hence (b) as with the subj. appears to be used for as if, and 
for and if, but (in the sense of except) for except if, &c. 
(f) The plural in en; very rarely, (d} The plural in es or 
s ; far more commonly, (e) His used as the old genitive of 
he for of him. Me, 'him, &c. used to represent other cases 
beside the objective and the modern dative : " I am ap 
pointed him to murder you." 

III. Inflections retained but their power diminished 
or lost. 

(d) Thus ( he' for 'him,' 'him' for 'he;' '/' for 'me,' 
'me' for '/,' &c. (b} In the same way the s which was the 
sign of the possessive case had so far lost its meaning that, 
though frequently retained, it was sometimes replaced (in 
mistake) by his and her. 

IV. Other anomalies may be explained by reference to the 
derivations of words and the idioms of Early English. 

Hence can be explained (a) so followed by as; (b) sut,A 
followed by which (found in E. E. sometimes in the form 
whuch or wuch) ; (c) that followed by as; (d) who followed 
by he; (e) the which put for which; (_/) shall for will, should 
for would, and would for wish. 

The four above-mentioned causes are not sufficient to 
explain all the anomalies of Elizabethan style. There are 
several redundancies, and still more ellipses, which can only 
be explained as follows. 

V. (a) Clearness was preferred to grammatical correct 
ness, and (b} brevity both to correctness and clearness. 
Hence it was common to place words in the order in which 



io INTRODUCTION. 

they came uppermost in the mind without much regard to 
syntax, and the result was a forcible and perfectly unambi 
guous but ungrammatical sentence, such as : 

(a) " The prince that feeds great natures they will sway him." 

B. J. Sejanus 

(b) As instances of brevity : 

" Be guilty of my death since of my crime." R. of L. 

' ' It cost more to get than to lose in a day. " B. J. Poetaster. 

VI. One great cause of the difference between Elizabethan 
and Victorian English is, that the latter has introduced or 
developed what may be called the division of labour. A few 
examples will illustrate this. 

The Elizabethan subjunctive (see VERBS, SUBJUNCTIVE) 
could be used (i) optatively, or (2) to express a condition or (3) 
a consequence of a condition, (4) or to signify purpose after 
"that." Now, all these different meanings are expressed by 
different auxiliaries " would that !" " should he come," "he 
would find," " that he may see," and the subjunctive inflec 
tion is restricted to a few phrases with " if." " To walk " is 
now either (i) a noun, or (2) denotes a purpose, " in order to 
walk." In Elizabethan English, "to walk" might also denote 
" by walking," " as regards walking," "for walking ;" a licence 
now discarded, except in one or two common phrases, sucl. 
as " I am happy to say," &c. Similarly, Shakespeare could 
write " of vantage " for "from vantage-ground," " of charity " 
for "for charity's sake" " of mine honour " for " on my 
honour," "^purpose " for "on purpose," " of the city's cost" 
for " at the city's cost," " of his body " for " as regards his 
life," " made peace of enmity " for " peace instead of enmity," 
" we shall find a shrewd contriver of him " for " in him," 
" did I never speak of all that time " for " during all that 
time." Similarly " by " has been despoiled of many of its 
powers, which have been divided among " near," " in accord 
ance with," " by reason of," " owing to." " But " has been 
forced to cede some of its provinces to " unless " and " ex 
cept." Lastly, "that," in Early English the only relative, 



INTRODUCTION. II 

had been already, before the Elizabethan times, supplanted in 
many idioms by "who" and " which;" but it still retained 
its meanings of " because," " inasmuch as," and " when ;" 
sometimes under the forms "for that" "in that;" sometimes 
without the prepositions. These it has now lost, except in 
a few colloquial phrases. 

As a rule, then, the tendency of the English language has 
been to divide the labour of expression as far as possible by 
diminishing the task assigned to overburdened words and 
imposing it upon others. There are, of course, exceptions to 
this rule notably " who " and " which ; " but this has been 
the general tendency. And in most cases it will be found 
that the Victorian idiom is clearer but less terse than the 
corresponding Elizabethan idiom which it has supplanted. 

VII. The character of Elizabethan English is impressed 
upon its pronunciation, as well as upon its idioms and words. 
As a rule their pronunciation seems to have been more rapid 
than ours. Probably the greater influence of spoken as 
compared with written English, sanctioned many contractions 
which would now be judged intolerable if for the first time 
introduced. (See 461.) This, however, does not explain the 
singular variation of accent upon the same words in the 
same author. Why should " exile," " aspect," " confessor," 
and many other words, be accented now on the first, now 
on the second syllable ? The answer is, that during the 
unsettled Elizabethan period the foreign influence was 
contending with varying success against the native rules of 
English pronunciation. The English rule, as given by Ben 
Jonson, is definite enough. " In dissyllabic simple nouns " 
(by which it is to be supposed he means un-compounded), 
"the accent is on the first, as 'belief,' 'hdnour,' &c." But he 
goes on to say, that " all verbs coming from the Latin, either 
of the supine or otherwise, hold the accent as it is found in 
the first person present of those Latin verbs." Hence a 
continual strife over every noun derived from Latin parti 
ciples : the English language claiming the new comer as her 
naturalized subject, bound by English laws; the Latin, on the 



12 INTRODUCTION 

other hand, asserting a.partial jurisdiction over her emigrants. 
Hence access and access, precept and precept, contrdct (noun) 
and contract, instinct and instinct, relapse and rdlapse. The 
same battle raged over other Latin words not derived from 
participles : commerce and commerce, obdurate and dbdurate, 
sepulchre and sepulchre, contrary and cdntrary, authdrize 
and authorize, perse"ver and persevere, cSnfessor and confessor. 
The battle terminated in a thoroughly English manner. An 
arbitrary compromise has been effected between the com 
batants. Respect, relapse, success, successor, were ceded to the 
Latin: aspect, cdllapse,* access, sepulchre, were appropriated 
by the English. But while the contest was pending, and pri 
soners being taken and retaken on either side, we must 
not be surprised at finding the same word ranged now under 
native, now under foreign colours. 

VIII. Words then used literally are now used metaphori 
cally, and vice versa. 

The effect of this is most apparent in the altered use of 
prepositions. For instance, " by," originally meaning " near," 
has supplanted " of" in the metaphorical sense of agency, as 
it may in its turn be supplanted by " with " or some other 
preposition. This is discussed more fully under the head of 
prepositions (138). Here a few illustrations will be given from 
other words. It is not easy to discover a defined law 
regulating changes of metaphor. There is no reason why 
we should not, with Beaumont and Fletcher, talk of living 
at a " deep f rate " as well as a " high rate." But it will 
be found with respect to many words derived from Latin and 
Greek, that the Elizabethans used them literally and gene 
rally ; we, metaphorically and particularly. Thus " meta 
physical " was used by Shakespeare in the broader meaning 
of " supernatural ; " and " fantastical " could be applied even 
to a murder, in the wide sense of "imagined." So "exor 
bitant" was "out of the path," "uncommon," now only 

* Collapse is accented on the last syllable in most dictionaries. 
t " How brave lives he that keeps a fool, although the rate be deeper, 
But he that is his own fool, sir, does live a great deal cheaper." 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

applied to that which is uncommonly "expensive." So 
extravagant (" The extravagant and erring spirit," Hamlet, 
i. i) has been restricted to " wandering beyond the bounds 
of economy." " To aggravate " now means, except when 
applied to disease, " to add to the mental burdens of any 
one," hence "to vex;" but in Sonn. 146 we find "to aggra 
vate thy store " in the literal sense of " to add to the 
weight of" or "increase." So "journall" meant "diurnal" 
or "daily;" now it is restricted to a "daily" newspaper or 
memoir. The fact is that, in the influx of Greek and Latin 
words into the English language, many were introduced to 
express ideas that either could be, or were already, expressed 
in the existing vocabulary. Thus we do not require " meta 
physical " to express that which is supernatural, nor " fantas 
tical" to express that which is imagined; "exorbitant" is 
unnecessary in the sense of "uncommon;" "extravagant" 
(though it has a special force in ** the extravagant and erring 
spirit," Hamlet, i. i) is not in most cases so obvious as 
"wandering ;" "increase" is simpler than " aggravate," and 
" daily " more English than " diurnal." Similarly " specula 
tion " is unnecessary to express the power of seeing, " adver 
tised" useless in the sense of "warned" or "informed" (Lear, 
iv. 6. 214), "vulgar" in the sense of common. Such words, 
once introduced into the language, finding the broader room 
which they had been intended to fill already occupied, were 
forced to take narrower meanings. They did this, for the 
most part, by confining themselves to one out of many 
meanings which they had formerly represented, or by adopt 
ing metaphorical and philosophical instead of literal and 
material significations ; and as the sense of their derivation 
and original meaning became weaker, the transition became 
easier. This is not merely true of words derived from Latin 
and Greek. " Travail," for example, finding itself supplanted 
in its original sense by " work " or " labour," has narrowed 
itself to a special meaning : the same is true of " beef," 
" pork," &c. 

On the other hand, some Latin and Greek words that 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

express technicalities have, as the sense of their exact 
meaning was weakened, gradually become more loosely and 
generally used. Thus, " influence " means now more than 
the mere influence of the stars on men ; " triumph," " pre 
posterous/' "pomp," " civil," "ovation," and "decimate," have 
lost much of their technical meaning. Of these words it 
may be said, that Shakespeare uses them more literally and 
particularly than we do. Thus, " triumph " is used for a 
show at a festival ; " civil " is used for peaceful ; " pre 
posterous ass" (T. of Sh. iii. I. 9) is applied to a man who 
put music before philosophy ; "decimation " (T. of A. v. I. 31) 
is used in its technical sense for " a tithed death." 

One cause th?.t has affected the meaning of Latin-derived 
words has been the preference with which they have been 
selected in order to express depreciation. This has narrowed 
some words to an unfavourable signification which they did 
not originally possess. Thus, " impertinent " in Elizabethan 
authors meant "not to the point;" "officious" could then 
mean " obliging," and a clever person could be described as 
"an admirable conceited fellow" (W, T. iv. 4. 203). 

A classical termination (446) may sometimes be treated 
as active or as passive. Hence "plausibly" is used for "with 
applause" actively. 

"The Romans plausibly did give consent." R. of L. 

' ' A very inconsiderate (inconsiderable) handful of English. " 

N. P. Appendix 31. 

Thus, on the one hand, we have " fluxzzv eyes " (eyes flowing 
with tears : L. C. 8), and on the other the more common 
passive sense, as " the inexpres^w she " (the woman whose 
praises cannot be expressed). 

With respect to words of English or French origin, it is 
more difficult to establish any rule. All that can be said is 
that the Elizabethan, as well as the Victorian meaning, may 
be traced to the derivation of the word. Why, for instance, 
should not Ben Jonson write 

"Frost fearing myrtle shall impale my head." Poetast. i. I. 



INTRO D UCTION. \ 5 

i.e. "take in within its pale, surround," as justifiably as we 
use the word in its modern sense of " transfixing ? " Why 
should not sirens " train " (draw or decoy trahere) their 
victims to destruction, as well as educators "train" their pupils 
onward on the path of knowledge ? We talk of " a "world of 
trouble " to signify an infinity ; why should not Bacon (E. 38) 
talk of "a globe of precepts?" Owing to the deficiency of 
their vocabulary, and their habit of combining prepositions 
with verbs, to make distinct words almost like the Germans, 
the Elizabethans used to employ many common English 
words, such as " pass," " hold," " take," in many various 
significations. Thus we find "take" in the sense of (i) 
"bewitch;" (2) "interrupt" ("You take him too quickly, 
Marcius," B. J. Poetast.) ; (3) " consider" (" The whole court 
shall take itself abused," B. J. Cy.'s Rev. v. i) ; (4) " under 
stand " (" You'll take him presently," E. out &c. i. i) ; and 
(5) "resort to" ("He was driven by foule weather to take 
a poor man's cottage," N. P. 597). With prepositions the 
word has many more meanings. "Take out "=" copy ;" 
u takem" lt subdue;" "taken? "=" borrow;" "takeiv. with" 
(Bacon) = " side with;" "take up"="piall up" of a horse. 
And these meanings are additional to the many other 
meanings which the word still retains. To enter further into 
the subject of the formation and meaning of words is not the 
purpose of this treatise. The glossaries of Nares and Halli- 
well supply the materials for a detailed study of the subject. 
One remark may be of use to the student before referring him 
to the following pages. The enumeration of the points of 
difference between Shakespearian and modern English may 
seem to have been a mere list of irregularities and proofs of 
the inferiority of the former to the latter. And it is true that 
the former period presents the English language in a tran 
sitional and undeveloped condition, rejecting and inventing 
much that the verdict of posterity has retained and discarded. 
It was an age of experiments, and the experiments were not 
always successful. While we have accepted copious, inge 
nious, disloyal, we h? ve rejected as useless copy (in the sense 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

of "plenty"), ingin, and disnoble. But for freedom, for brevity 
and for vigour, Elizabethan is superior to modern English. 
Many of the words employed by Shakespeare and his con 
temporaries were the recent inventions of the age ; hence they 
were used with a freshness and exactness to which we are 
strangers.* Again, the spoken English so far predominated 
over the grammatical English that it materially influenced 
the rhythm of the verse (see Prosody), the construction of 
the sentence, and even sometimes (460) the spelling of words. 
Hence sprung an artless and unlaboured harmony which 
seems the natural heritage of Elizabethan poets, whereas 
such harmony as is attained by modern authors frequently 
betrays a painful excess of art. Lastly, the use of some few 
still remaining inflections (the subjunctive in particular), the 
lingering sense of many other inflections that had passed 
away leaving behind something of the old versatility and 
audacity in the arrangement of the sentence, the stern sub 
ordination of grammar to terseness and clearness, and the 
consequent directness and naturalness of expression, all con 
spire to give a liveliness and wakefulness to Shakespearian 
English which are wanting in the grammatical monotony of 
the present day. We may perhaps claim some superiority 
in completeness and perspicuity for modern English, but if 
we were to appeal on this ground to the shade of Shake 
speare in the words of Antonio in the Tempest, 

" Do you not hear us speak?" 
we might fairly be crushed with the reply of Sebastian 

" I do ; and surely 
It is a sleepy language." 

* Exceptions are "eternal" used for "infernal" (O. iv. 2, 130; J. C. i. 2. 
160; Hamlet, i. 5. 21); "triple" for "third" (A. W. ii. i. Ill); "temporary" 
for " temporal " (M. for M. v. i. 145); " important " for " importunate " (Lear, 
iv. 4.26); "expiate" for " expired " (Rich. III. iii. 3. 23); " colleagued" (Hamlet, 
i. a. 21) for "co-leagued ;" "importing" (it. 23) for "importuning." The Folio 
has " Pluto's " for " Plutus " ( ?. C. iv. 3. 102). 



GRAMMAR. 



ADJECTIVES. 

1. Adjectives are freely used as Adverbs. 

In Early English, many adverbs were formed from adjectives by 
adding e (dative) to the positive degree : as bright, adj. ; brighte, adv. 
In time the e was dropped, but the adverbial use was kept. Hence, 
from a false analogy, many adjectives (such as excellent} which could 
never form adverbs in e, were used as adverbs. We still say col 
loquially, "come quick;" "the moon shines bright" &c. But 
Shakespeare could say: 

"Which the false man does easy." Macb. ii. 3. 143 
" Some will dear abide it." J. C. iii. 2. 119. 
" Thou didst it excellent." T. of Sh. i. i. 89. 
" Which else should free have wrought." Macb. ii. i. 19. 
"Raged more fierce." Rich. II. ii. I. 173. 
" Grow not instant old." Ham. i. 5. 94. 
"'Tis noble spoken." A. and C. ii. 2. 99. 
" Did I expose myself pure for his love. " T. N.v. i. 86. 
" Equal ravenous as he is subtle." Hen. VIII. i. i. 159. 
We find the two forms of the adverb side by side in : 

" She was new lodged and newly deified." L. C. 84. 
The position of the article shows that mere is an adverb in : 

" Ay, surely, mere the truth." A. W. iii. 5. 58. 
So "It shall safe be kept." Cymb. \. 6. 209. 

"'Heaven and our Lady gracious has it pleas'd." 

i Hen. VI. i. 2 7*. 

" (I know) when the blood burns how prodigal the soul 
Lends the tongue vows." Hamlet, i. 3. 116. 
C 



i SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Such transpositions as "our lady gracious," (acj.) where 
"gracious" is a mere epithet, are not common in Shakespeare. 
(See 419.) In 

"My lady sweet, arise," Cymb. ii. 3. 29. 

"My-lady" is more like one word than "our lady," and is also 
an appellative. In appellations such transpositions are allowed. 
(See 13.) 

Sometimes the two forms occur together : 

"And she will speak most bitterly and strange." 

M. for M. v. I. 36. 

2. Adjectives Compounded. Hence two adjectives were freely 
combined together, the first being a kind of adverb qualifying the 
second. Thus : 

" I am too sudden-bold." L. L. L. ii. r. 107. 

"'Fertile-fresh:* M. W. of W. v. 5. 72. 

" More active-valiant or more valiant-young." 

I Hen. IV. v. i. 90. 
"Daring-hardy." Rich. II. i. 3. 43. 

" Honourable-dangerous." J. C. i. 3. 124. See ib. v. I. 60. 
"He lies crafty-sick." '2. Hen. IV. Prol. 37. 
" I am too childish-foolish for this world." R. III. i. 3. 142. 
"You are too senseless-obstinate, my lord." R. III. iii. i. 44. 
"That fools should be so deep '-contemplative." A. Y. ii. 7. 31. 
" Glouc. Methinks the ground is even. 
Edg. Horrible-steep." Lear, iv. 6. 3. 

In the last example it is hard to decide whether the two adjec 
tives are compounded, or (which is much more probable) "horrible" 
is a separate word used as in (i) for "horribly," as in T. TV. iii. 
4. 196. In the West of England "terrible" is still used in this 
adverbial sense. 

There are some passages which are only fully intelligible when 
this combination is remembered : 

"A strange tongue makes my cause more strange-suspicious." 

Hen. VIII. iii. i. 46. 
Erase the usual comma after "strange." 

" Here is a sitty -stately style inded." I Hen. VI. iv. 7. 72. 
Perhaps " He only in a genera! -honest thought." J. C v. 5. 71. 



ADJECTIVES.*. i g 

3. Adjectives, especially those ending in/w/, Its.-, file, and ivt, 
have both an active and a passive meaning ; just as we still say, 
" * fearful (pass.) coward," and " a. fearful (act.) danger." 

" To throw away the dearest thing he owed, 

As 'twere a careless trifle." Macbeth, i. 4. 11. 
" Such helpless harmes yt's better hidden keep." SPEN. F. Q. i. 5. 42. 
" Even as poor birds deceived with painted grapes, 

Like those poor birds that helpless berries saw." 

V. and A. 604 ; Rich. Til. i. z. 13. 
' Upon the sightless couriers of the air." Macbeth, i. 7. 23. 

" How dare thy joints forget 
To pay their awful duty to our presence?" Rich. II. iii. 3. 76. 

"Terrible" is "frightened" in Lear, i. 2. 32; "dreadful," 
"awe-struck," Hamlet, i. 2. 207; "thankful" is "thankworthy," 
P. of T. v. i. 285. So " unmeritable" (act. Rich. III. iii. 7. 155 
J. C. iv. i. 12) ; " medicinable" (act. Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 44); "sen 
sible" (pass. Macb. ii. I. 36; Hamlet, i. i. 57); " insuppressive " 
(pass. y. C. ii. 1. 134) ; "plausive" (pass. Hamlet, i. 4. 30) ; "imcom- 
prekcnsive" (pass. Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 198) ; "respective" (act. R. and 
y. iii. i. 128; pass. T. G. of V. iv. 4. 200); " unexpressive " (pass. 
,4. K Z. iii. 2. 10); "comfortable" (act. Zftzr, i. 4. 328); " deceiv- 
able" (act. /?. 77. ii. 3. 84; 7". JV. iv. 3. 21). 

"Probable," "contemptible" and "artificial," are active in 

"The least of all these signs -were probable." 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 178. 
'"Tis very probable that the man will scorn it, for he hath 

a very contemptible spirit. " M. Ado, ii. 3. 188. 
" We, Hermia, like two artificial go&s 
Have with our needles created both one flower." 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 204, 

Hence even ' ' The intrenchant air. " Macbeth, v. 8. 9. 

" Unprizable " (71 N. v. I. 58) means "not able to be made a 
prize of, captured." 

"Effect" (Rich. III. i. 2. 120) seems used for "effecter" or 
" agent " if the text is correct. 

4. Adjectives signifying effect were often used to signify the 
cause. This is a difference of thought. We still say " pale death," 
" gaunt famine," where the personification is obvious ; but we do not 
say 

c 2 



to SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Oppress'd with two iveak evils, age and hunger." 

A. Y. L. ii. 7. 132 

" Like as a sort of hungry dogs ymet. 
Doe fall together, stryving each to get 
The greatest portion of the greedie pray." 

SPENS. F. Q. vi. 11. 17. 

"And barren rage of death's eternal cold." Sonn. 13. 
Nor should we say of the Caduceus 
" His sleepy yerde in hond he bare upright." CHAUC. C. T. 1390. 

Compare also " Sixth part of each ! 

A trembling contribution ! " Hen. VII T. \. 2. 95. 

Here "trembling" is used for "fear-inspiring." 
So other Elizabethan authors (Walker): "idle agues," "rotten 
showers," "barren curses." 

5. Adjectives a-re frequently used for Nouns, even in the 
singular. 

' ' A sudden pale usurps her cheek. " V. and A. 

" Every Roman's private (privacy or private interest)." 

B. J. Sejan. iii. i. 

" 'Twas caviare to the general" Hamlet, ii. 2. 458. 
" Truth lies open to all. It is no man's several.' 1 '' B. J. Disc. 742 b. 
" Before these bastard signs of fair (beauty) were born." Sonn. 68. 
So "fair befal," Rich. II. ii. I. 129 ; Rich. III. i. 3. 282. But 
see 297. 

" Till fortune, tired with doing bad, 
Threw him ashore to give him glad." P. of T. ii. Gower, 37. 

' ' That termless (indescribable) hand 

Whose bare outbragg'd the web it seem'd to wear. " L. C. 95. 
" la/fw" = "in short." Hdmltt, i. 3. 126; Temp. i. 2. 144 
" Small (little) have continual plodders ever won." 

L. L. Z. i. i. 86. 

" By small and small. " Rich. II. iii. 7. 198 ; Rich. III. i. 3. 111. 
" Say what you can, my false o'erweighs your true." 

M.forM. ii. 4. 170. 
"I'll make division of my present (money) with you." 

T. N. iii. 4. 380. 

If the text were correct, the following would be an instance of 
an adjective inflected like a noun : 

" Have added feathers to the learned's wing." Sonn. 78. 
Rut probably the right reading is " learned'st." 



ADJECTIVES. 21 

"Wont," the noun (Hamlet, i. 4. 6), is a corruption from 
"woned," from the verb "wonye" E. E., "wunian" A.-S., "to 
dwell." Compare fjQos, 

6. Adjectives Comparative. The inflection er instead of mart 
Is found before "than." 

" Sir, your company is fairer than honest." M. for M. iv. 3. 185. 

The comparative "more Avonderful " seems to be used, as in 
Latin, for "more wonderful than usual," if the following line is to 
be attributed to Cicero as in the editions : 

" Why, saw you anything more wotuhrful?" J. C. i. 3. 14. 

In Hamlet iv. 7. 49, " my sudden and more strange return," means 
"sudden, and even more strange than sudden." 

7. The Comparative inflection-^ was sometimes used even 
when the positive ended in-ing,-ed,-iJ,-ain,-st,-ect. These termina 
tions (perhaps because they assimilate the adjective to a participle by 
their sound) generally now take ' ' more. " 

"Horrider," Cymb. iv. 2. 331 ; " cursier," T. of Sh. iii. 2. 156: 
"perfafcr," Coriol. ii. I. 91 ; " cei'iatner," M. Ado, v. 3. 62. 

8. Superlative. The superlative inflection est, like the Latin 
superlative, is sometimes used to signify ' ' very, " with little or no 
idea of excess. 

" A little ere the might/tf Julius fell." Hamlet, i. i. 114. 

"My mutfsf conscience" (Cymb. i. 6. 116) may perhaps mean 
"the mutest part or corner of my conscience," like "summus 
mons. " 



9. The Superlative inflection est is found 
-ect. Thus, "\io\ntest" (Coriol. iv. 6. 73) ; "curs/.rf" (M. ofV. ii. 
I. 46); "lyingest" (T. of Sh. i. 2. 25); "perfa-ferf," (Macb. i. 5. 2). 

This use of -est and -er (see 7) is a remnant of the indiscriminate 
application of these inflections to all adjectives which is found 
in Early English. Thus, in Piers Plowman, we have " avarous^-^" 
(B. i. 189), " merveillous^rf " (B. viii. 68). 

10- The Superlative was sometimes used (as it is still, but 
with recognized incorrectness) where only two objects are compared. 



22 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAK. 

" Between two dogs which hath the deeper mouth, 
Between two blades which bears the better temper, 
Between two horses which doth bear him best, 
Between two girls which has the merriest eye. " 

I Hen. VI. ii. 4. 15. 
"Not to bestow my youngest daughter 

Before I have a husband for the elder." T. of Sh. i. I. 50. 
" Of two usuries, the merriest was put down, and the wcisei 
allowed." M.forM. iii. 2. 7. 

Here it seems used for variety to avoid the repetition of the com 
parative. 

11. Comparative and superlative doubled. The inflections 

*r and -est, which represent the comparative and superlative degrees 
of adjectives, though retained, yet lost some of their force, and 
sometimes received the addition of more, most, for the purpose of 
greater emphasis. 

" A more larger list of sceptres." A. and C. iii. 6. 76. 

" More elder." M. of V. iv. I. 251. 

" More better." Temp. i. 2. 19. 

"Afore nearer." Hamlet, ii. I. 11. 

"Thy most worst." W. T. iii. 2. 180. 

" More braver." Temp. i. 2. 439. 

" With the most boldest." J. C. iii. I. 121. 

" Most unkindest.'' J. C. iii. 2. 187. 

" To some more Jitter place." M.for M. ii. 2. 16. 

" I would have been much more a fresher man." 

Tr. and Cr. v. 6. 21. 

Ben Jonson speaks of this as " a certain kind of English atticism, 
imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians." 
B. J. 786. But there is no ground for thinking that this idiom was 
the result of imitating Greek. We find Bottom saying : 

"The more better assurance." M. N. D. iii. i. 4. 
Note the anomaly : "Less happier lands." R. II. ii. I. 49. 

12. The Adjectives all, each, both, every, other, are some 
times interchanged and used as Pronouns in a manner different 
from modern usage. 

All for any : 

"They were slaine without all mercie." HOLINSHED. 
" Without all bail. "Sonn. 74. 



ADJECTIVES. 33 

"Without all reason." ASCH. 48. 

(Comp. in Latin " sine omni, &c.") Heb. vii. 7 : Wicklifie, " with- 
outen ony agenseiyinge ;" Rheims, Geneva, and A. V. "without all 
contradiction." 

This construction, which is common in Ascham and Andrewes, is 
probably a Latinism in those authors. It may be, however, that in 
"things without all remedy," Macb. iii. 2. 11, "without" is used in 
the sense of "outside," "beyond." See Without (i97)- 

All for every : 

" Good order in all thyng." ASCH. 62. 
" And all thing unbecoming." Macb. iii. i. 14. 
We still use "all" for "all men." But Ascham (p. 54) wrote: 
" /// commonlie have over much wit," and (p. 65) "Infinite shall 
be made cold by your example, that were never hurt by reading of 
bookes." This is perhaps an attempt to introduce a Latin idiom. 
Shakespeare, however, writes : 

" What ever /Hzvebeen thought on." Coriol. i. 2. 4. 

Each for "all" or "each one of:" 

"At each his needless heavings." W. T. ii. 3. 35. 

So every (*<? " ever-ich," "ever-each") : 

"Of every these happen'd accidents." Temp. v. I. 249. 
And "none:" '''None our parts." A. and C. i. 3. 36. 

Each for "both:" 

"And each though enemies to cither's reign 

Do in consent shake hands to torture me." Sonn. 28. 
"Each in her sleep themselves so beautify." R. of L. 404. 

"Tell me 
In peace what each of them by the other lose" Coriol. iii. 2. 44 

This confusion is even now a common mistake. Compare 

" How pale each worshipful and rev'rend guest 
Rise from a Clergy or a City feast." POPE, Imit. Hor. ii. 75. 

Each for " each other : " 

" But being both from me, both to each friend." Sonn. $44. 
(i.e. both friends each to the other.) 

Both seems put for " each," or either used for " each other," IP 
" They are both in either ' powers." Temp. i. 2. 450 



24 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

There may, however, be an ellipsis of each after both : 
" They are both (each) in cither's powers." 

Compare "A thousand groans 

Came (one) on another's neck." Sonn. 131. 

It is natural to conjecture that this is a misprint for "one or 
other's." But compare 

' ' I think there is not half a kiss to choose 
Who loves another best." W. T. iv. 4. 176. (See 88.) 

Every One, Other, Neither, are used as plural pronouns : 

" And every one to rest themselves betake." R, of L. 
" Every one of these considerations, syr, move me." ASCH. Dedic. 

'''Everything 
In readiness for Hymenseus stand." 71 A. i. i. 325. 

" Smooth every passion 
That in the nature of their lord rebel." Lear, ii. 2. 82. 

" Every " is a pronoun in 

"If every of your wishes had a womb." 

A. and C. i. 2. 38 ; A. Y. L. v. 4. 178. 
" Thersites' body is as good as Ajax' 

When neither are alive." Cymb. iv. 2. 252. 
" Other have authoritie." ASCH. 46. 
" And therefore is the glorious planet Sol 

In noble eminence enthron'd and spher'd 

Amidst the other." Tr. and C. i. 3. 89. 

Other is also used as a singular pronoun (even when not preceded 
by "each"):* 

" Every time gentler than other." J. C. i. 2. 231. 

" With greedy force each other doth assail." SPENS. F. Q. i. 5. 6. 
ie. "each doth assail the other." Rich. II. i. I. 22. 

' ' We learn no other but the confident tyrant 
Keeps still in Dunsinane." Macb. v. 4. 8. 

' ' He hopes it is no other 

But, for your health and your digestion's sake, 
An after-dinner's breath." Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 120. 
'If you think other." Othello, iv. 2. 13. 
"?T.?V&se no other." A. W. iii. 6. 27. 

It it used as a singular adjective, without the article, in Cymb. iii 4. )44: 
'" Ysu think of other place." 



ADJEC7WES. 2 5 

In the two last passages "other" may be used adverbially for 
"otherwise," as in Macbeth, i. 7. 77, which may explain 

"They can be meek that have no other cause." C. of E. ii. I. 33. 
i.e. "no cause otherwise than for meekness." 

The use of all(e) and other(e) as plural pronouns is consistent with 
ancient usage. It was as correct as " omnes " and " alii" in Latin, 
as "alle"and "andere" in German. Our modern "others said" 
is only justified by a custom which might have compelled us to say 
" tnanys" or "alls said," and which has induced us to say "our 
betterj," though not (with Heywood) "our bigger.?." The plural 
use of neither, "not both," depends on the plural use of either for 
" both," which is still retained in "on either side," used for "on both 
sides." This is justified by the original meaning of ei-ther, i.e. 
"every one of two," just as whe-ther means "which of two." 
" Either" in O.E. is found for "both." Similarly we say "none 
were taken " instead of " none (no one) was taken." We still retain 
the use of other as a pronoun without the in such phrases as " they 
saw each other," for " they saw each the other." Many is also used 
as a noun. (See 5.) Hence we have : 

" In manys looks." Sonn. 93. 

Beside the adjective "mani, " "moni" (many), there was also in 
Early English the noun "manie" or "meine" (multitude, from Fr. 
"maisgnee," Lat. "minores natu "). But it is doubtful whether 
this influenced the use just mentioned. 

13. The possessive Adjectives, when unemphatic, are some 
times transposed, being really combined with nouns (like the French 
monsieur, milord). 

" Dear my lord." J. C. ii. I. 255. 

" Good my brother" Hamlet, i. 3. 46. 

" Sweet my mother." R. and J. iii. 5. 200. 

"Oh ! poor our sex." Tr. and Cr. v. 2. 109. 

" Art thou that my lord Elijah?" I Kings xviii. 7. 

"Come, our queen." Cymb. ii. 3. 68. 
So probably, vocatively : 

"Tongue-tied our queen speak thou." W. T. i. 2. 27. 
Compare "Come on, our queen." Rich. II. \. 2. 222. 

"Good my knave." L. L. L. iii. I. 153 



26 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Good my friends." Coriol. v. 2. 8. 
"Gotdyour highness, patience." A. and C. ii. 5. 106. 
"Good my girl." i Hen. VI. v. 4. 25. 
Hence, by analogy, even 

"Good my mouse of virtue." T. N. i. 5. 69. 
The emphatic nature of this appellative " good " is illustrated by 

" Good now, sit down." Hamlet, i. I. 70: 

where the noun is omitted. So W. T. v. I. 19 ; Tempest, i. i. 16. 
" Gunnow " (good now) is still an appellative in Dorsetshire. 

Sometimes, but very rarely, the possessive adjective used vcca- 
lively is allowed to stand first in the sentence : 

" Our very loving sister, well be met." Lear, v. I. 20. 
It is possible that this use of "my," "our," &c. may be in part 
explained from their derivation, since they were originally not 
adjectives, but the possessive cases of pronouns. Thus, "sweet my 
mother," = "sweet mother of me," or "sweet mother mine." 
Similar vocatives are 

" The last of all the Romans, fare thee well." J. C. v. 3. 99. 
" The jewels of our father, with wash'd eyes, 
Cordelia leaves you. " Lear, i. i. 271. 

So Folio, "Take that, the likeness of this railer here." 

3 Hen. VI. v. 5. 38 (Globe " thou"). 

14. The Adjectives just, mere, proper, and very were 

sometimes used as in Latin. 

Just = exact. " A just seven -night." M. Ado, ii. i. 375. 

"A. jus' pound." M. of V. iv. I. 327. 

Whereas we retain this sense only in the adverbial use, "just a 
week." Compare "justum iter." 

15. Mere = "unmixed with anything else: "hence, by inference, 
' ' intact, " ' ' complete. " 

"The mere perdition of the Turkish fleet." O. ii. 2. 3. 
i.e. the " complete destruction. " 

" Strangely- visited people, 
The mere despair of surgery." Macbeth, iv. 3. 132. 

ie. "the utter despair." So Ricn. III. iii. 7. 263. 
The word now means "unmixed," and therefore, by inference, 



ADJECTIVES. 27 

"nothing but, 'bare," "insignificant." But, in accordance with 
its original meaning, "not merely" in Bacon, is used for "not 
entirely." So Hamlet, i. z. 137. 

16. Proper = "peculiar," "own." 

" Their proper selves. " Temp, iii. 3. 60. 
"With my/w/^rhand." Cymb. iv. 2. 97; T. N. v. I. 327. 
i,e. " with my own hand," as in French. So J. C. i. 2. 41, v. 3 90. 

Very = "true." " My very friends." M. of V. iii. 2. 226. 

17. More (mo-re) and most (mo-st) (comp. E. E. ma or mo; 
mar or mor ; maest, mast, or most) are frequently used as the com 
parative and superlative of the adjective "great." \_Moe, or mo, as 
a comparative (Rich. II. ii. I. 239 ; Rich. III. iv. 4. 199), is con 
tracted from more or mo-er. Compare "bet" for "bett-er," "leng" 
for "leng-er," and "streng" for "streng-er," in O. E. See also 
"sith," 62.] 

" At our more leisure." M.for M. i. 3. 49. 

*' A more requital. " K. J. ii. I. 34. 

"With most gladness." A. and C. ii. z. 169. 

" Our most quiet " (our very great quiet). 2 Hen. IV. iv. 1. 71. 

" So grace and mercy at your most need help you." 

Hamlet, i. 5. 180. 
Hence we understand : 

' ' Not fearing death nor shrinking for distress, 
But always resolute in most extremes." I Hen. VI, iv. I. 38. 

i.e. not " in the majority of extremities," as it would mean with us, 
but " in the greatest extremes." 
Hence : 

" More (instead of greater] and less came in with cap and knee." 

1 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 68. 
" And more and less do flock to follow him." 

2 Hen. IV. i. I. 209. 
'* Both more and less have given him the revolt." 

Macbeth, v. 4. 12. 

That ' ' less " refers here to rank, and not to number, is illustrated by 
" \3\&\. great ones do the less will prattle of." T. N. i. 2. 33 

So Chaucer : 

" The grete giftes to the mo*t and leste. " C. T. 22Zf. 



Z8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

18. One is used for "above all," or "alone" i.e. "all-one," hi 
Elizabethan English with superlatives. 

" He is one the truest manner'd." Cymb. i. 6. 164. 
" One the wisest prince." Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 49. 
" Have I spake one the least word." Ib. 153. 

But in Early English one is thus used without a superlative : 
" He one is to be praised." 
" I had no brother but him one" 
"He was king one" 

(Here Mr Moms conjectures that the O. E. " ane" stands for 
A.-S. dative "an-um.") 

So in Latin "justissimus unus;" and in Greek fi6vos is similarly 
used. So "alone" = "above all things." 

"That must needs be sport alone." M. N. D. iii. 2. 119. 
" I am alone the villain of the earth." A. and C. iv. 6. 30. 

" So full of shapes is fancy 
That it alone is high fantastical." 7\ N. i. I. 15. 

None. See 53. 

19. Right (which is now seldom used as an adjective, except 
with the definite article, as the opposite of "the wrong," e.g. "the 
right way," not "a right way"), was used by Shakespeare, with 
the indefinite article, to mean "real," " down-rigfit." 

"I am a right maid for my cowardice." M. N. D. iii. 2. 302. 
Compare A. and C. iv. 12. 28, "a right gipsy. " It means "true" in 
"A right description of our sport, my lord." L. L. L. v. 2. 522. 

20. Self (M = rwa [so]; -If. = Germ, leib, "body:" Wedge- 
wood, however, suggests the reciprocal pronoun, Lat se, Germ. 
sich, and he quotes, "Et il ses cars ira," i.e. "and he him self 
will go," Old French, and still retained hi Creole patois) was still 
used in its old adjectival meaning " same," especially in "one self," 
i.e. "one and the same," and "that self." Compare the German 
"selbe." 

" That ^ chain." C. of E. v. i. 10. 
" That self mould. "Kith. //. i. 2. 23. 
** One self king." T, N. i. I. 39. 



ADJECTIVES. 29 

Compare 3 Hen. VI. iii. I. 11 ; A. and C. v. I. 21 ; AT. of V. i. 
I. 148. 

Hence we can trace the use of himself, &c. The early English did 
not always use "self," except for emphasis ; their use was often the 
s-ame as our modern poetic use : 

"They sat them down upon the yellow sand." TENNYSON. 
In order to define the him, and to identify it with the previous he, 
the word self (meaning "the same" "the aforesaid") was added: 
"He bends \\imself." Thyself and myself are for thee-self, me-self. 
" One self king" may be illustrated by "one same house." MON 
TAIGNE, 228. We also find the adjectival use of "self" retained in 

" The territories of Attica selfe." N. P. 175. 
"The city selfe of Athens." N. P. 183. 

"Itself" is generally, if not always, written in the Folio "it selfe." 
There is a difficulty, however, in such a phrase as "I myself saw 
it." Why do we not find " I-self," "he-self," in such cases? 
Why, even in A.-S., do we find the rule that, when self agrees with 
the subject of the sentence, the pronoun has to be repeated in the 
dative before self: "he (him) self did it," but when the noun is in 
an oblique case self is declined like any other adjective, and agrees 
with its noun : " he hine seolfne band," i.e. "he bound himself?" 
The fact is, that in the second case " self" is an ordinary adjective 
used as an adjective: "he bound the same or aforesaid him." 
But in the former case " himself" is often an abridgment of a pre 
positional expression used as an adverb: "he did it by himself," 
"of himself," "for himself," and, being a quasi-adverb, does not 
receive the adjectival inflection.* It follows that "my," "thy," 
in "myself" and "thyself," are not pronominal adjectives, but 
represent inflected cases of the pronouns. Thus " ourself " for "our 
selves " is strictly in accordance with the A. -S. usage in 

"We will ourself in person to this war," Rich. II. i. 4. 42. 
though of course Shakespeare only uses it for "myself" in the mouth 
of a dignified personage. Similarly in Piers Plowman (B. viii. 62) 
we have " tnyn one " ( "of me one," i.e. " of me alone " [see One]) 
used for "by myself," and "him one" (William of Palerne, 17) for 
' ' by himself ; " and here ' ' myn " is the genitive of " I, " and ' ' him " 

* Myself seems used for our "by myself" in 

" I had as Ibef have been myselj alone." A. Y. L. iii. 2. 269. 



30 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

the dative of "he," and "one" is an adjective. This is also illus 
trated by the Scottish "my lane," i.e. "my, or by me, alone." 
Hence, instead of " ourselves" we have in Wickliffe, 2 Cor. x. 2, 
"but we mesuren us in us silf and comparisownen us silf to us," 
and, a line above, "hem silf " for "themselves." 

Very early, however, the notion became prevalent that the in 
flected pronoun was a pronominal adjective, and that "self" was a 
noun. Hence we find in Chaucer, " myself hath been the whip," 
"and to prove their selfes" in Berners' Froissart; and in Shake 
speare, Temp. i. 2. 132, "thy crying self." Hence the modern 
' ' ourselves, " " yourselves. " 

The use of "self" as a noun is common in Shakespeare : " Tar- 
quin'sself," Coriol. ii. 2. 98; "my woeful self" L. C. 143. Hence 
the reading of the Folio may be correct in the first of the follow 
ing lines : 

" Even so myself bewails good Gloucester's case, 
With sad unhelpful tears and with dimm'd eyes 
Look after him/' 2 Hen. VI. iii. i. 217. 

But the change to the first person is more in accordance with Shake- 
speare's-usage, as : 

" This love of theirs myself have often seen." 

T. G. of V. iii. I. 23. 
So T. G. iii. I. 147 ; ib. iv. 2. 110. 

So "himself" is used as a pronoun, without "he," in 

"Direct not him whose way himself w\& choose." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 29. 



arms" {Rich. II. ii. 3. 80) seems to mean "divided 
against themselves," "civil war." 

21. Some, being frequently used with numeral adjectives quali 
fying nouns of time, as "some sixteen months" (T. G. of V. iv. I. 
21), is also found, by association, with a singular noun of time. 

" Some hour before you took me." T. N. ii. I. 22. 

' ' I would detain you here some month or two. " M. of V. iii. 2. 9. 

" Some day or two." R. III. iii. i. 64. 

It would seem that in such expressions ' ' some " has acquired an 
adverbial usage, as in the provincialisms, " It is some late," " Five 
mile or some" (MATZNER, ii. 253). Compare 

'- 1 think 'tis now some seven o'clock."- T. of k* tv. 3, 188. 



ADJECTIVES. 31 

" Sum " is, however, found in Early English and Anglo-Saxon in 
the sense of "a certain." Compare A.-S. "Sum jungling hym 
fyligde," Mark xiv. 51. So Wickliffe, where A. V. has "A certain 
young man followed him." " Other- some" (M. N. D. i. I. 226), see 
p. 6. 

22. The licence of converting one part of speech into another 
may be illustrated by the following words used as adjectives : 
"The fine point of seldom (rare) pleasure." Sonn. 52. 
"Each under (inferior) eye." Sonn. 7. 
"This beneath (lower) world." 71 of A. i. I. 44. 

' Tile orb below 
As hush (silent) as death." Hamlet, ii. 2. 508. 

See also still, below (22). 

' ' Most/*# (palpable) and open this." B. J. Sejan. i. 2. 

" Most laid (plotted) impudence." B. J. Fox, 
As still with us, any noun could be prefixed to another with the 
force of an adjective : " water-drops," "water-thieves," "water-fly," 
&c. 

This licence, however, was sometimes used where we should 
prefer the genitive or an adjective. Thus, "the region kites" 
{Hamlet, ii. 2. 607,) for "the kites of the region ;" and "the region 
cloud," Sonn. 33. So perhaps, " a moment leisure," Hamlet, i. 3. 
133. We say "heart's ease," but Shakespeare, Hen. V. ii. 2. 27, 
says "heart-grief ;" " /ieart-H\ood," Rich. II. i. I. 172, &c. ; "foe* 
lion- traitors," ib. ii. 2. 57. Again, a word like "music" is not 
commonly used by us as a prefix unless the suffix is habitually 
eonnected with "music:" thus "music-book," " music-master," &c., 
but not "music " for "musical " as in 

"The honey of his mustc vows." Hamlet, iii. I. 164. 
Compare "venom mud," R. of L. 561 ; "venom clamours," C. of 
E. v. i. 69, for "venomous j" "venom sound," Rich. II. ii. I. 19; 
"venom tooth," Rich. III. i. 3. 291. 
This licence is very frequent with proper names. 

" Here in Philippi fields. "J. C. v. 5. 19. 

"Draw them to Tiber banks. "-J. C. i. I. 63. 
"There is no world without Verona walls." R. and J. iii. 3. 17. 

"Within rich Pisa walls." T. of Sh. ii. I. 369. 

"To the Cyprtis wars." 0. i. i. 151. 

" Turkey cushions." T. of Sh. ii. I. 355. as we still sv.v 



32 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" From Leonati seat." Cymb. v. 4. 60. 

" Venice gold." T. of Sh. ii. i. 366. 

The reason for this licence is to be found in an increasing 
dislike and disuse of the inflection in 's. Thus we find, "sake" 
frequently preceded in I Hen. IV. by an uninflected noun: "for 
recreation sake," I Hen. IV. i. 2. 174; ib. ii. I. 80; ib. v. I. 65; "for 
fashion sake," A. Y. L. iii. 2. 271. 



ADVERBS. v 

23. It is characteristic of the unsettled nature of the Elizabethan 
language that, while (see i) adjectives were freely used as adverbs 
without the termination ly, on the other hand ly was occasionally 
added to words from which we have rejected it. Thus : "fastlv " 
(L. C. 9) ; "youngly" (Coriol. ii. 3. 244). 

24. Adverbs With prefix a-= (i) Before nouns. In these adverbs 
the a- represents some preposition, as "in," "on," "of," &c. con 
tracted by rapidity of pronunciation. As might be expected, the 
contraction is mostly found in the prepositional phrases that are in 
most common use, and therefore most likely to be rapidly pro 
nounced. Thus {Coriol. iii. I. 261-2) Menenius says: "I would 
they were in Tiber" while the Patrician, " I would they were a-bed." 
Here a- means " in," as in the following : 

"3<f Fisherman. Master, I marvel how the fishes live in the sea. 
1st Fisherman. Why, as men do a-land." P. of T. ii. I. 31. 

A- is also used where we should now use "at" Compare, how 
ever, O. E. "0work." 

" Sets him new a-work." Hamlet, ii. 2.510; Lear iii. 5. 8. 

So R. of L. 1496. And compare Hamlet, ii. I. 58, "There (he) 
was a' gaming," with 

" When he is drunk, asleep, or in his rage 
At gaming." Hamlet, iii. 3. 91. 

Sometimes "of" and "a-" are interchanged. Compare "-kin' : 
and "of kind," "of Jnurst" and "a-thirst," "of buve" and "a- 
hove." Most frequently, however, "a-" represents our modern "on " 
or ''in." Compare "-live and "on live." 



ADVERBS. 33 

"Bite the holy cords a-twain." Lear, ii. 2. 80 ; L. C. 6. 
Compare "That his spere brast a-five" i.e. "burst in five pieces." 

(HAI.I.IWELL.) So 

"A-front."iHen. IV. ii.4. 222. "A-fire."Temf. I 2. 212. 
" Look up a-height" (perhaps). Lear, iv. 6. 58. 
" Beaten the maids a-row." C. of E. v. i. 170. 
"And keep in a-door." Lear, i. 4. 138. 

Thus, probably, we must explain 

" Thy angel becomes a fear " A. and C. ii. 3. 22. 

i.e. " a-fear." The word " a-fere" is found in A.-S. in the sense 
of "fearful" (Matzner, i. 394). And in the expressions "What a 
plague?" (l Hen. IV. i. 2. 51,) " What a devil?" (i Hen. IV. 
ii. 2. 39.) "A God's name" (Kick. II. ii. I. 251,) and the like, we 
must suppose a to mean "in," "on," or "of." There is some 
difficulty in 

"I love a ballad in print a life" (so Folio, Globe, "o' life"). 

W. T. iv. 4. 264. 

It might be considered as a kind of oath, "on my life." Nares 
explains it "as my life," but the passages which he quotes could be 
equally well explained on the supposition that a is a preposition. 
The expression "all amort" in i Hen. VI. iii. z. 124, and T. of Sh. 
iv. 3. 36, is said to be an English corruption of "a la mort." 
" To heal the sick, to cheer the alamort." NARES. 

The a (E. E. an or on) in these adverbial words sometimes for 
euphony retains the n : 

" And each particular hair to stand an end." Ham. i. 4. 19.* 

So Hamlet, iii. 4. 122, Rich. III. i. 3. 304; and compare "an 
hungry," "an hungered" below, where the an is shown not to be 
the article. So 

" A slave that still an end turns me to shame," T. G. of V. iv. 4. 67. 
where "an end " (like " run on head" (Homilies), i.e. " run a-head") 
signifies motion "on to the end." 

These adverbial forms were extremely common in earlier English, 

even where the nouns were of French origin. Thus we find : "a 

grief," "o-fyn" for "en-fin," "a-bone" excellently, "a-cas" by 

chance. Indeed the corruption of en- into a- in Old French itself 

* Compare " Shall stand a tip-toe. "Hen. V. iv. 3. 42. 



34 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

is very common, and we still retain from this source "rt-round " lor 
" en rond " and " -front " for " en front" 

(2) Before adjectives and participles, used as nouns. 

When an adjective may easily be used as a noun, it is intelligible 
that it may be preceded by a-. Compare "a-height," quoted above, 
with our modern "on high," and with 

' ' One heaved a-high to be hurled down below." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 86. 

It is easy also to understand a- before verbal nouns and before adjec 
tives used as nouns, where it represents on : 

"I would have him nine years a-killing." 0. iv. I. 188 
i.e. "on, or in the act of killing." So 

"Whither were you a-going?" Hen. VIII. i. 3. 50. 
l.e. "in the act of going." 

" The slave that was a-hanging there." Lear, v. 3. 274. 

" Tom's a-cold." Lear, iii. 4. 59. 
i.e. "a-kale," E. E. "in a chill" 

Some remarkable instances of this form are subjoined, in which 
nouns are probably concealed. 

" I made her weep a-good." T. G. of V. iv. 4. 170. 
i.e. "in good earnest;" but "good" may be a noun. Compare 
"a-bone" above. 

" The secret mischiefs that I set abroach." R. III. i. 3. 325 ; 

R. andj.'i. I. 111. 

where a is prefixed to "broach," now used only as a verb. " On 
broach " and " abroach " are found in E. E. Compare 
" O'er which his melancholy sits on brood." 

Hamlet, iiL i. 173. 

Compare "That sets them all agape." MlLTON, P. L. v. ; 
which is to be explained by the existence of an old noun, "gape." 

(3) As the prefix of participles and adjectives. 

In this case a- represents a corruption of the A. -S. intensive of. 
Thus from E. E. " g/Teren," we have "afered" or "afeared;" 
from A.-S. " of -gan," "a-gone." The 0/" before a vowel or A is 
sometimes changed into on or an. See On, 182. And indeed the 
prefixes an-, on-, of-, a-, were all nearly convertible. Hence "of- 
hungred" appears not only as "afingred/'but also "aw-hungered," 
as in St. Matthew xxv. 44, A. V. : " When saw we thee an hungered 



ADVERBS. 35 

or athirst?" It would be a natural mistake to treat an here as the 
article : but compare 

" They were an hungry," Coriol. i. i. 209. 

where the plural "they" renders it impossible to suppose that an is 
the article. 

Perhaps, by analogy, a- is also sometimes placed before adjectives 
that are formed from verbs. It can scarcely be said that weary is 
a noun in 

"For Cassius is a-weary of the world." 

J. C. iv. 3. 95; I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 88. 

Rather " a.-weary" like "^/-walked," means "0/-weary," i.e. 
" tired out." 

25. Adverbs ending in"s" formed from the possessive 

inflection 0f Nouns. Some adverbs thus formed are still in 
common use, such as "needs" = "of necessity." 

"Needs must I like it well." Rich. II. iii. 2. 4. 

"There must be needs a like proportion." M. of V. iii. 4. 14. 
But we find also in Shakespeare : 

" He would have tickled you other gates than he did." 

T. N.\. I. 198. 
i.e. "in another gate or fashion." 

In this way (compare "sideways," "lengthways," &c.) we must 
probably explain 

" Come a little nearer this ways." M. W. of W. ii. 2. 50. 
And "Come thy ways."T. N. ii. 5. 1. 

Compare also the expression in our Prayer-book : 

"Any ways afflicted, or distressed." 
Others explain this as a corruption of " wise." 
" Days" is similarly used : 

"'Tis but early days."Tr. and Cr. iv. 5. 12. 
i.e. "in the day," as the Germans use "morgens." Compare 
" now-a-days," and N. P. 179, "at noondaies." 
A similar explanation might suggest itself for 

" Is Warwick. friends with Margaret?" 

3 Hen. VI. iv. I. 115 ; A. and C. ii. 5. 44 

But "I am friends " is not found in E. E., and therefore pro 
bably it is simply a confusion of two constructions, " I am friend to 
him " and " we are friends. " 

D 2 



36 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

26. After was used adverbially of timt 

" If you know 

That I do fawn on men, and hug them hard, 
And after scandal them." J. C. i. 2. 76. 

Now we use afterwards in this sense, using after rarely as an adverb 
and only with verbs of motion, to signify an interval of space, as " he 
followed after. " 

27. The use of the following adverbs should be noted : 

Again (radical meaning " opposite ") is now only used in the 
local sense of returning, as in " He came back again, home again," 
&c. ; and metaphorically only in the sense of repeating, as in "Again 
we find many other instances," &c. It is used by Shakespeare 
metaphorically in the sense of "on the other hand." Thus 

" Have you 

Ere now denied the asker, and now again (on the other hand) 
Of him that did not ask but mock, bestow 
Your sued-for tongues ?" Cartel, ii. 3. 214. 
"Where (whereas) Nicias did turne the Athenians from their 
purpose, Alcibiades againe (on the other hand) had a further reach," 
&c. N. P. 172. So Rich. II. ii. 9. 27. 

It is also used literally for "back again." "Haste you again" 
A. W. ii. 2. 73, does not mean "haste a second time," but "hasten 
back." 

Again is used for "again and again," i.e. repeatedly (a previous 
action being naturally implied by again}, and hence intensively 
almost like " amain." 

" For wooing here until I sweat(ed) again. 1 " M. of V. iii. 2. 205. 
* <Veeping again the king my father's wreck." 

Tempest, i. 2. 390. 
For omission of -ed in " sweat" (common in E. E.), see 341. 

28. All (altogether) used adverbially : 

"I will dispossess her all." T. of A. \. I. 139. 

" For us to levy power is all unpossible." Rich. II. ii. 2. 126. 

In compounds all is freely thus used, "^//-worthy lord ;" " all- 
watched night;" "her a//-disgraced friend," A. and C. iii. 12. 22. 
Sometimes it seems to mean "by all persons," as in "^//-shunned." 
So, "this ^//-hating world," Rich. II. v. 5. 66, does not mean 
<: bating all," but "hating (me) universally." 



ADVERBS. 37 

All used intensively was frequently p efixed to other adverbs of 
degree, as "so. " 

" What occasion of import 
Hath alt so long detain'd you from your wife ?" 

7: ofSh. iii. i. 105. 

The connection of all and "so"' is perpetuated in the modern 
"also." Still more commonly is all prefixed to " too." 

" In thy heart-blood, though being all too base 
To stain the temper of my knightly sword." 

Rich. IT. iv. I. 28. 
"Our argument 
Is all too heavy to admit much talk." 2 Hen. IV. v. 2. 24. 

So Cymb. v. 5. 169 ; T. G. of V. iii. I. 162 ; Sonn. 18, 61, 86 ; 
R. ofL. 44, 1686. 

There are two passages in Shakespeare where ail-to requires 
explanation : 

"It was not she that called him all to nought." V. and A. 993. 

" The very principals (principal posts of the house) did seem to rend 
Anda///(? topple."/', of T. iii. z. 17. 

(1) In the first passage all- to is probably an intensive form of 
"to" which in Early English (see TOO, below) had of itself an 
intensive meaning. Originally "to "belonged to the verb. Thus 
"to-breke" meant "break in pieces." When "all" was added, as 
In "all to-breke," it at first had no connection with "to," but 
intensified "to-breke." But "to" and "too" are written in 
differently for one another by Elizabethan and earlier writers, and 
hence sprang a corrupt use of "ail-to," caused probably by the 
frequent connection of all and too illustrated above. It means here 
"altogether." 

(2) In the second passage some (a) connect "to-topple, " believing 
that here and in M. IV. of W. iv. 4. 57, "to-pinch," "to" is an 
intensive prefix, as in Early English. But neither of the two passages 
necessitates the supposition that Shakespeare used this archaism. 

(See^/. w. ofW. iv. 4. 5 below, To omitted and inserted, 350.) 

We can, therefore, either () write "ail-to" (as in the Globe), and 
treat it as meaning "altogether," or (c) suppose that "all" means 
"quite," and that "to topple," like "to rend," depends upon 
" seem." This last is the more obvious and probable construction.* 

* Or, adopting this construction, wi^ may take all to mean " the whole ho'ise. ' 
' The principals did sewn to rend, and the whole house to toppl" " 



38 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

From this use of "all too" or "all to," closely connected in 
the sense of " altogether," it was corruptly employed as an intensive 
prefix, more especially before verbs beginning with be- : " ail-to- 
Arqualify," B. J. ; " att-to-tekist," ib.; and later, "he ail-to be- 
Gullivers me," SWIFT ; " all-to-oe-tmytor'd," NARES. 

29. Almost, used for mostly, generally: 

"Neither is it almost seen that very beautiful persons are of 
great virtue. " B. E. 163. 

Our modern meaning nearly is traceable to the fact that anything 
is marly done when the most of it is done. 

Almost (see also Transpositions) frequently follows the word 
which it qualifies. 

" I swoon almost with fear." M. N. D. ii. 3. 154. 

" As like almost to Claudio as himself. " M.for M. v. I. 494. 

Hence in negative sentences we find "not-almost" where we 
should use "almost not," or, in one word, "scarcely," "hardly." 

" You cano/ reason (almost) with a man." Rich. III. ii. z. 39. 
The Globe omits the parenthesis of the Folio. 

' ' And yet his trespass, in our common reason, 
Is not almost a fault ... to incur a private check." 0. iii. 3. 66. 

i.e. " is not (I may almost say] fault enough to," &c. or " is scarcely 
fault enough to," &c. So 

" I have not breath'd almost since I did see it" C. of E. v. I. 181. 

It was natural for the Elizabethans to dislike putting the qualify 
ing "almost" before the word qualified by it. But there was an 
ambiguity in their idiom. " Not almost-a-fault" would mean "not 
approaching to a fault ;" "not-almost a fault," " very nearly not a 
fault." We have, therefore, done well in avoiding the ambiguity 
by disusing "almost" in negative sentences. The same ambiguity 
and peculiarity attaches to interrogative, comparative, and othei 
conjunctional sentences. 

" Would you imagine or almost believe ?" Rich. III. iii. 5. 35 
i.e. " Would you suppose without evidence, or (I may almost say) 
believe upon evidence?" &c. 

" Our aim, which was 
To take in many towns ere almost Rome 
Should know we were afoot." Coriol. i. 2. 24. 



ADVERBS. 39 

Alone, see One, 18. 

30. Along is frequently joined to " with " and transposed, as : 
" With him is Gratiano gone along" M. of V. ii. 8. 2. 

Hence the " with me " being omitted, " along " is often used fo: 
" along with me." 

" Demetrius and Egeus, go along, 
I must employ you in some business." Af. N. D.\. I. 123. 

Note, that here, as in T. of Sh. iv. 5. 9 ; 2 Hen. IV. ii. i. 191 ; 
0. J. I. 180 ; "go" is used where we should say "come." The 
word is used simply to express the motion of walking by WICKI.IHFE : 
Acts xiv. 8. MONTAIGNE, Florlo, 230. 
Sometimes the verb of motion is omitted, as in 

"Will you along (with us)?" Coriol. ii. 3. 157. 
" Let's along" is still a common Americanism. 
Sometimes the ellipsis refers to the third person. 

" Go you along (with him)." A. and C. v. i. 69. 

Perhaps we ought (to the advantage of the rhythm) to place a 
comma after along, in 

" Therefore have I entreated him along, 
With us to watch the minutes of this night." Ham. i. i. 26. 

30 a. Anon. The derivative meaning of anon (an-ane) is "at 
one instant," or "in an instant," and this is its ordinary use. But in 
"Still and anon."K. J. iv. I. 47. 
" Which ever and anon he gave his nose." 

I Hen. IV. i. 3. 38. 

anon seems to mean " the moment after," a previous moment being 
implied by "still," "ever." Compare our " now and then" 

31. Anything, like Any Ways, adverbially used : 

" Do you think they can take any pleasure in it, or be anything 
delighted?" MONTAIGNE, 31. 

" Any ways afflicted, or distressed." Prayer-book. 
"Ways" is, perhaps, genitive. See 25. 

32. Away. 

"She could never away with me." 2 Hen. IV. in. 2. 213. 
Li. "die could not endure me." A verb of motion is probablj 



40 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

omitted. Compare our " I cannot get on with him," " put up with 
him," and the provincial " I cannot do with him." 

" I could not do wx.'-al." M. of V. iii. 2. 72. 

So " she could never away with me" = " she could not go on her 
way," i.e. "get on with me." For the omission of the verb 
of motion compare 

" Will you along !" Coriol. ii. 3. 157. 

33. Back, for "backward." 

" Goes to and back lackeying the varying tide." 

A. and C. i. 4. 46. 
Where we should say "to and fro." 

34. Besides = "by the side of the main question," i.e. "in 
other respects," " for the rest." 

"This Timseus was a man not so well knowne as he, but besides 
(for the rest) a wise man and very hardy." N. P. 174. 

Similarly besides is used as a preposition in the sense " out of." 
"How fell you besides your five wits?" T. JV. iv. 2. 92. 

35i Briefly = " a short time ago" instead of (as with us) " in a 
short space of time." 

" Briefly we heard their drums. 
How couldst thou . . . bring thy news so late?" 

Coriol. i. 6. 16. 

Similarly we use the Saxon equivalent "shortly" to signify futurity. 

36. By (original meaning " near the side." Hence "by and by n 
as "very near," which can be used either of time or, as in Early 
English, also of place) is used for "aside," "on one side," "away," 
in the phrase 

" Stand by, or I shall gall you." K. J. iv. 3. 94. 

Whereas, on the other hand, "to stand by a person" means "to 
stand near any one. " 

37. Chance appears to be used as an adverb : 

" How chance thou art returned so soon ? " C. of E. i. 2. 42 

But the order of the words "thou art," indicates that Shake 
speare treated chance as a verb. "How may it chance or chance* 



ADVERBS. 41 

that," as Hamlet, ii. 2. 343, " How chances it they travel?" Com 
pare 

" How chance the roses there do fade so fast?" 

M. N. D. i. I. ]29. 

So Tr. and Cr. iii. I. 151 ; 2 Hen. IV. iv. 4. 20 ; Rich. HI. iv. 2. 
103 ; AT. W: of W. v. 5. 231 ; P. of T. iv. i. 23. 

Compare, however, also 

" If case some one of you would fly from us." 3 Hen. VI. v. 4. 34. 
where " case" is for the Old French " per-case." 

This use of chance as an apparent adverb is illustrated by 

" Perchance his boast of Lucrece' sovereignty 
Suggested this proud issue of a king : 
Perchance that envy of so rich a thing 
Braving compare, disdainfully did sting." A', of L. 39. 

Here "perchance" seems used first as an adverb, then as a verb, 
" it may chance that." So Shakespeare, perhaps, used chance as 
an adverb, but unconsciously retained the order of words which 
shows that, strictly speaking, it is to be considered as a verb. 

38 ( Even. " Even now" with us is applied to an action that 
has been going on for some long time and still continues, the 
emphasis being laid on "now." In Shakespeare the emphasis is 
often to be laid on "even," and "even now" means " exactly or 
only now," i.e. "scarcely longer ago than the present:" hence 
"but now." 

" There was an old fat woman even now with me." 

M. W.ofW. iv. 5. 26. 

Often "but even now" is used in this sense: M. of V. \. I. 35. 
On the other hand, both "even now" and "butnovt" can signify 
"just at this moment," as in 

" But now I was the lord 

Of this fair mansion ; . . . and even now, but now, 
This house, these servants, and this same myself 
Are yours." M. of V. iii. 2. 171. 

We use "just now" for the Shakespearian "even now," laying 
the emphasis on "just." Even is used for "even now," in the sense 
of "at this moment," in 

" A certain convocation of politic worms are even at him." 

Hamlet, iv. 3. 22. 



42 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So "even when" means "just when" in 

" (Roses) die, even when they to perfection grow." 

T. N. iL 4. 42 

39. Ever (at every time) freq. : 

" For slander's mark was ever yet the fair. " Sonn. 70. 

The latter use is still retained in poetry. But in prose we confine 
"ever" (like the Latin " unquam") to negative, comparative, and 
interrogative sentences. 

Ever seems contrary to modern usage in 

"Would I might 
But ever see that man." Temp. i. 2. 168. 

"But," however, implies a kind of negative, and "ever" means 
" at any time." 

40. Far, used metaphorically for "very." 

" Ent/ar unfit to be a sovereign." 3 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 92. 
So 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 286. 

41. Forth, hence, and hither are used without verbs of motion 
(motion being implied) : 

" I have no mind of feastingy2>r*V4 to-night. " M. of V. ii. 2. 37. 

" Her husband will be forth:' M. W. of W. ii. 2. 278. 

" By praising him here who doth hence remain." Sonn. 39. 
" From thence the sauce to meat is ceremony." Macb. iii. 4. 36. 
"Methinks I hear hither your husband's drum." Coriol. i. 3. 32. 
"Prepare thee Aeittefor France." Rich. II. v. I. 31. 
Forth, " to the end : " 

" To hear this matter/^." M. for M. v. I. 255. 

Forth, as a preposition : see Prepositions. 

42. Happily, which now means "by^vra/hap," was sometimes 
used for " haply," i.e. "by hap," just as " success " was sometimes 
'" good," at other times " ill." 

"Hamlet. That great baby you see there is not yet out of his 
swaddling-clouts. 

Ros. Happily he's the second time come to them." Hamlet, ii 
2. 402. 

" And these our ships, you happily may think, 
Are like the Trojan horse (which) was stuffed within 
With bloody veins."/", of T. i. 4. 29. 



ADVERBS. 43 

' ' Though I may fear 
Her will recoiling to her better judgment 
May fall to match you with her country fonts, 
And happily repent." Othello, iii. 3. 238. 

It means "gladly" in Macbeth, i. 3. 89. 

43. Here is used very freely in compounds: "they here ap 
proach" (Macb. iv. 3. 133); " kere-rem&m. " (ib. 148). Perhaps 
here may be considered as much an adjective, when thus used, as 
" then" in " our then dictator " (Coriol. ii. 2. 93). So in Greek. 

44. Hitherto, which is now used of time, is used by Shake 
speare of space : 

" England from Trent and Severn hitherto." 

I Hen. IV. iii. I. 74. 

45. Home. We still say "to come home," "to strike home," 
using the word adverbially with verbs of motion, but not 

"I cannot speak him home" i.e. completely. 

Coriol. ii. 2. 107. 

"Satisfy me home."Cymb. iii. 5. 83. 
" (Your son) lack'd the sense to know her estimation home." 

A. W. v. 3. 4. 
" That trusted home 
Might yet enkindle you unto the crown." Macbeth, i. 3. 121. 

46. HOW (adverbial derivative from hwa = hivu, O. E. ) used for 
''however:" 

" I never yet saw man 

How wise, how noble, young, how rarely featured, 
But she would spell him backward." M. Ado, iii. I. 60. 
" Or whether his fall enraged him or how 'twas." 

Coriol. i. 3. 69. 
HOW is perhaps used for " as " in V. and A. 815 : 

" Look, how a bright star shooteth from the sky, 
So glides he in the night from Venus' eye. " 

This, which is the punctuation of the Globe, is perhaps coriect, 
and illustrated by 

" Look, as the fair and fiery-pointed sun 
Rushing from forth a cloud bereaves our sight, 
Even so," &c. R. of L. 372. 
So V. and A. 67 ; M. of V.-\\\. 2. 127. 
Similarly, GASCO1GNE (Matzner) has : 

" ffrrw many men, so many minds. " 



\4 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

47. HOWSOe'ei for " howsoever it be," " in any case " 

" Howsoever, my brother hath done well." Cvmb. iv. 2. 146. 

So However. See 403. 

48. Last. Such phrases as "at the last," "at the first," arc 
common, but not 

" The last (time) that e'er I took her leave at court." 

A. W. v. 3. 79. 

Merely, completely. See Adjectives, Mere, 15- 
More, Most. See Adjectives, 18. 

49. Moreabove = "moreover." Hamlet, ii. 2. 126. 

50. Moreover precedes " that," like our " beside that." 

" Moreover that we much did long to see you." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 2. 

51. Much, More, is frequently used as an ordinary adjective, 
after a pronominal adjective, like the Scotch mickle, and the K. E. 
muchel* (So in A. -S.) 

" Thy much goodness." M. for M. v. I. 534. 

'Yet so much (great) is my poverty of spirit." 

Rich. III. iii. 7. 159. 
Much was frequently used as an adverb even with positive adjectives. 

"I am much ill." 2 Hen. IV. iv. 4. 111. 
So Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 115 ; J. C. iv. 3. 255. 

" Our too much memorable shame." Hen. V. ii. 4. 53. 
So Rich. II. ii. 2. 1. 
More is frequently used as a noun and adverb in juxtaposition. 

" The slave's report is seconded and more 

More fearful is deli ver'd." Coriol. iv. 6. 63. Comp. K. J. iv. 2. 42. 
" More than that tongue that more\\z.\h w<???express'd." Sonn. 23. 
"If there be more, more woeful, hold it in." Lear, v. 3. 202. 

We sometimes say "the many" (see 12), but not "the most," ID 
the sense of "most men." Hey wood, however, writes 

" Yes, since the most censures, believes and saith 
By an implicit faith." Commendatory Verses on B. J. 

* Compare " A noble peer of mitkle trust and power.* MILTON, Camus. 



ADVERBS. 45 

Needs. See 25. 

52. Never is used where we now more commonly use "ever" 
in phrases as : 

" And creep time ne'er so slow, 
Yet it shall come for me to do thee good." K. J. iii. 3. 31. 

So I Hen. VI. v. 3. 98 ; Rich. II. v. I. 64. 

There is probably here a confusion of two constructions, (l) 
"And though time creep so slow as it never crept before," and (2) 
"And though time never crept so slow as in the case I am sup 
posing." These two are combined into, "And though time creep 
(how shall I describe it ? though it crept) never so slow." Con 
struction (2) is illustrated by 

" Never so weary, never so in woe, 
I can no further crawl, no further go." M. N. D. iii. 2. 442. 

Here, strictly speaking, the ellipsis is " / have been" or " having 
been;" " I have never been so weary." But it is easy to see that 
" never so weary" being habitually used in this sense, Hermia might 
say, "I am never-so-weary," or still more easily, "though I were 
'tever-so-wcary. " 

In such phrases as "never the nearer," never seems to mean 
"nought." So Wickliffe, John xix. 21 : 

" But how he now seeth we wite nere," i.e. "we know not." 

53. None seems to be the emphatic form of "no," like "mine" 
of " my" in the modern idiom : 

" Satisfaction (there) can be none but by pangs of death." 

T. N. iii. 4. 261. 

For we could not say " there can be none satisfaction." This 
emphatic use of the pronoun at the end of a sentence is found very 
early. None seems loosely used for "not at all," like "nothing" 
(55), "no-whit," i.e. "not." And this may, perhaps, explain : 

"None a stranger there 
So merry and so gamesome." Cymb. i. 6. 59. 

Here either none means "not," "ne'er," or a comma must be 
placed after none: "none, being a stranger," which is a very harsh 
construction. 

The adverbial use of " none " may be traced to Early English and 
Anglo Saxon. Under the form "nan," i.e. " ne-an " (compare 



46 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

German "nein"), we find "nan more," and also "none longer," 
"whether he wolde or noon" (CHAUCER, Matzner). "Nan" was 
used as an adverbial accusative for "by no means" even in A.-S. 
(Matzner, iii. 131.) In Rich. II. v. 2. 99, "He shall be none" the 
meaning is, "he shall not be one of their number." "None" is 
still used by us for "nothing,'' followed by a partitive genitive, 
" I had none of it ;" and this explains the Elizabethan phrase 

"She will none of me." T. N. i. 3. 113. 

i.e. " She desires to have '.321) nothing from, as regards to do with, 
ne." So 

" You can say none of this."--/ 1 . N. v. l. 342. 

54. Not is apparently put for " not only" in the two following 
rwssages : 

" Speak fair ; you may salve so 
Not what is dangerous present, but the loss 
Of what is past" Coriol. iii. 2. 71. 

" For what he has 

Given hostile strokes, and that not in the presence 
Of dreaded justice, but on the ministers 
That do distribute it." Coriol. iii. 3. 97. 

55. Nothing, like "no-way," "naught," "not," (A.-S. naht. 
i.A "no whit,") is often used adverbially. 

" And that would set my teeth nothing on edge." 

I Hen. IV. iii. i. 133. 
"I fear nothing, what can be said against me." 

Hen. VIII. v. I. 126. 
where "what" is not put for "which." 

56. Off (away from the point) : 

"That's off: that's off. I would you had rather been silent." 

Coriol. ii. 2. 04. 
"I boast her off." Temp. iv. I. 9. 

To be off=io take Bone's hat : 

" I will practise the insinuating nod and be off" to them most 
counterfeitly." Coriol. ii. 3. 107.* 

57. Once ("once for all," "above all") : 

"Once, if he require cur voices, we ought not to deny him." 

Coriol. ii. 3. 1. 
Stands off" is used for " stands out, i.e. in relief." Hen. V ii. . 103. 



ADVERBS. 47 

" 'Tis once thou lovest, 
And I will fit thee with the remedy." M. Ado, i. i. 320. 

Hence "positively." 

"Nay, an you be a cursing hypocrite, once you must be looked 
to." M. Ado, v. i. 212. 

"Nay, an you begin to rail on society, once I am sworn not to 
give regard to you." Timon, i. 2. 251. 

The Folio and Globe place the comma after once . 
Once is sometimes omitted : 

"This is (once) for all. " Hamlet, i. 3. 131. 
Once sometimes "in a word:" 

' ' Once this your long experience of her wisdom, 
Her sober virtue, years, and modesty, 
Plead on her part some cause to you unknown." 

C. ofE. iii. i. 90. 
At once is found in this or a similar sense : 

"My lords, at once ; the cause why we are met 
Is to determine of the coronation." Rich. III. iii. 4. 1 

" My lords, at once ; the care you have of us 
Is worthy praise." 2 Hen. VI. iii. I. 66. 

Once seems to mean " at some time (future)" in 

" I thank thee, and I pray thee, once to-night 

Give my sweet Nan this ring. " M. W, of W. iii. 4. 103. 

But the word may be taken as above. 

58. Only, i.e. on(e)ly, is used as an adjective. See But (130), 
and Transpositions (420). 

"The only (mere) breath." SPENS. F. Q. i. 7. 13. 
" It was for her love and only pleasure." INGELEND. 
" By her only aspect she turned men into stones." BACON, 
Adv. of L. 274. 

We have lost this adjectival use of only, except in the sense of 
"single," in such phrases as " an only child." 

Only, like "alone" (18), is used nearly in the sense of "above 
all," "surpassing." 

' Oph. You are merry, my lord. 
Ham. Who ? I ? 
Oph. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. O God, your only jig-maker." Hamlet, iii. 3. 131. 
"Your worm is your only emperor for diet." Ib, iv 3. 22. 



48 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

58 a. Over means " over again" in 

"Trebles thee o'er. "Tempest, ii. i. 221. 
i.e. "repeats thy former self thrice." Compare 

"I would be trebled twenty times myself."--^/, of V. iii. 2. 154. 

59. Presently = "at the present time," "at once," instead of, 
as now, " soon, but not at once." 

" Desd. Yes, but not yet to die. 

Othello. O yes, presently." Othello, v. 2. 52. 

So Rich. II. iii. i. 3 ; 2. 179. 

60. Round, used adverbially in the sense of "straightforwardly." 
"Round," like "square" with us, from its connection with "regular," 
" symmetrical, " and "complete," was used to signify "plain and 
honest." Hence 

"I went round^o work." Hamlet, ii. 2. 139. 
means just the opposite of " circuitously. " 

61. Severally ("sever," Lat. separo), used for "separately." 
So 

" When severally we hear them rendered." y. C. iii. 2. 10. 

And " Contemplation doth withdraw our soule from us, and 
severally employ it from the body." MONTAIGNE, 30. 

Thus, "a several plot" (Sonn. 137) is a "separate" or "private 
plot" opposed to "a common." 

62. Since (A.-S. sith = "time," also adv.* "late," "later ;" 
" sith-than" = "after that") adverbially for " ago." 

"I told your lordship a year since" M. Ado, ii. 2. 13. 
This must be explained by an ellipsis : 

" I told your lordship (it is) a year since (I told you)." 

Compare a transitional use of "since" between an adverb and 
conjunction in " Waverley ; or, 'tis Sixty Years since. " Omit "'tis," 
and since becomes an adverb. 

So since is used for " since then," like our " ever since" in 

' And since, methinks, I would not (do not wish to) grow so 
fast." Rich. III. ii. 4. 14. 

Since, when used adverbially as well as conjunctionally, fre- 
* Sith for sitJier, like "mo" for " mo-r." (See 17.) 



ADVERBS. 49 

quently takes the verb in the simple past where we use the 
complete present : 

" I did not see him since." A. and C. i. 3. 1. 

This is in accordance with an original meaning of the word, "later," 
("sith.") We should still say, "I never saw him after that;" 
and since has the meaning of " after." 

We also find the present after "since," to denote an action that 
is and has been going on since a certain time. (So in Latin with 
" jampridem. ") 

" My desires e'er since pursue me. " T. JV. i. I. 23. 

See Conjunctions, 132- 

63. So (original meaning "in that way") is frequently inserted 
in replies where we should omit it : 

" Trib. Repair to the Capitol. 

Peop. We will so." Coriol. ii. 3. 62. 
" T. Fortitude doth consist, &c. 

D. It doth so indeed, sir." B. J. Sil. Worn. iv. 2. 

Here so means "as you direct, assert." "As" is, by derivation, 
only an emphatic form of so. See 106. 

64. So is sometimes omitted after " I think," "if," &c. 

"G. What, in metre? 
Luc. In any proportion or language. 
G. I think, or in any religion. " M. for M. i. 2. 24. 
" Will the time serve to tell ? I do not think (so)." 

Coriol. i. 6. 46 
" Haply you shall not see me more ; or if, 

A mangled shadow." A. and C. iv. z. 27. 
" Not like a corse ; or if, not to be buried." W. T. iv. 4. 131. 
"Do not plunge thyself too far in anger, lest thou hasten thy 
trial, which if, Lord have mercy on thee for a hen." A. W. ii. 
3- 223. 
Compare 

" What though ; yet I live like a poor gentleman friii." 

M. W. of W. i. r. 287 ; Hen. V. ii. I. 9 ; A. Y. /.. iii. 3. 51. 

" O, if \iprove, 
Tempests are kind and salt waves fresh in love. " 

T. N. iii. 4. 418. 



50 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

85. So is put for the more emphatic form, a.\-so. 

" Demetrius, thou dost over- ween in all, 
And so in this, to bear me down with braves. " 

T. A. ii. i. 80. 
" It is a cold and heat that does outgo 

All sense of winters and of summers so." B. J. SadSk. ii. i. 
" Mad in pursuit, and in possession so." Sonn. 129. 
"Good morrow, Antony. 

Ant. So to most noble Caesar." J. C. ii. 2. 117. 

So approaches " also" in 

"Cousin, farewell ; and, uncle, bid him so." 

Rich. II. i. 3. 247. 

So that; so as. (See Pronouns, Relative, 275, 276.) 

66. So (like the Greek ovrta ST}) is often used where we should 
use " then." " In this way" naturally leads to " thus," " on this," 
"thereupon," "then." 

" And when this hail some heat from Hermia felt 
So he dissolved." M. A". D. i. I. 245. 

So is, therefore, sometimes more emphatic than with us, as in 
(arrange thus, not as Globe) 

" Olivia. To one of your receiving enough is shown ; 

A cypress, not a bosom, hides (Fol.) my heart (pauses) 

So (i.e. after this confession) let me hear you speak. 

Via. I pity you. " 

T. N. iii. I. 133. 

So in conditional clauses. See Conjunctions, 133- 

67. So was often, and correctly, used (where we use the adverbial 
"such" or "so" with " a") before an adjective, e.g. "so great faith" 
where we say "such great faith," "so long time" where we say "so 
long a time." We seem to feel that " so" (being an adverb, and there 
fore more liable to transposition than the adjective "such") requires 
to be attached to the word which it qualifies, either (i) by introducing 
the article which necessarily links together the words thus : "so- 
great a-loss ;" or else (2) by placing "so" in a position where its 
effect is equally unmistakeable : "a-loss so-great." 

When the noun is in the plural we cannot use the former method ; 
we are, therefore, driven to the latter, and instead of saying 

" So hard termes. " N. P. 176. 
we say "terms so hard." 



ADVERBS. 51 

" In so profound abysm 1 throw all care." Sonn. 112. 

' ' My particular grief 

Is of so flood-gate and o'erbearing nature." 0. i. 3. 55. 
" And I will call him to so strict account." I Hen.IV. iii. 2.149. 
" With so full soul." Temp. iii. I. 44. 
" Of so quick condition." M. for M. i. I. 54. 
But note that in these instances the "so" follows a preposition. 
After prepositions the article (see Article, 90) is frequently omitted. 
Shakespeare could have written 

" My grief is of nature so floodgate," &c. 
" I will call him to account so strict that," &c. 
Our modern usage was already introduced side by side with the 
other as early as Wickliffe. Compare 

" So long time." St. John xiv. 9. 
with " So long a time." Hebrews iv. 7. 

68. Something used adverbially, like "somewhat." 

" A white head and something a round belly." 

2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 212. 

We should say " a somewhat round," placing the adverb between 
the article and the adjective so as to show unmistakeably that the 
adverb qualifies the adjective. "Something" may possibly be so 
taken (though "somehow" would make better sense) in 

"This somet/iing-seltled matter in his breast." Ham. iii. I. 181 

68 a. Sometimes, like " sometime," is used by Shakespeare for 
"formerly" in 

" Thy sometimes brother's wife. " Rich. II. i. 2. 54. 

So probably 

"Sometimes from her eyes 
I did receive fair speechless messages." ^/, of V. \. I. 163. 

Compare "olim" in Latin. 

69. Still used for constantly, in accordance with the derivation 
of the word, "quiet," "unmoved." It is now used only in the sense 
of "even now," "even then." The connection between "during 
all time up to the present " and " even at the present " is natural, 
and both meanings are easily derived from the radical meaning, 
"without moving from its place." Comp. the difTmnt meanings 
of dum, donee, ?&.;. fvc. 



J2 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Thou still hast been the author of good tidings.'' 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 42 

" But this thy countenance still lock'd in steel 
I never saw till now." T. and C. iv. 5. 195. 

i.e. " because it was constantly lock'd in steel." 

And this is the best, though not the most obvious, interpretation of 

" But still the house affairs would draw her hence." 

Othello, i. 3. 147. 

It is used as an adjective for constant (though some suggest 
"silent") in 

" But I of thee will wrest an alphabet, 
And by still practice learn to know the meaning." 

T. A. iii. 2. 44. 
This interpretation is corroborated by 

" But that still use of grief makes wild grief tame, 
My tongue should to thy ears not name my boys." 

Rich. III. iv. 3. 229. 

70. Than is used for then : 

"And their ranks began 
To break upon the galled shore and than 
Retire again." R. of L. 456. 

Then for than, freq. in North's Plutarch, Ascham, &c. 

In O. E. the commonest forms are "thanne" = then; "then'* 
= than. 

Then and than (like turn and tarn, quum and 'quam in Latin) are 
closely connected, and, indeed, mere varieties of the same word. 
They were originally inflections of the demonstrative, and meant "at 
that (time)," "in that (way)." As "that "is used as a relative, 
" than " has the signification of "in the way in which" (guam), 
just as then (71) is used for " at the time at which" (quum). It is 
usual to explain " He is taller tlian I" thus: " He is taller ; then 
I am tall." This explanation does not so well explain ' ' He is 
not taller than I." On the whole, it is more in analogy with the 
German als, Latin quam, Greek -ft, to explain it thus : "/# the way 
in which I am tall he is taller." The close connection between 
"in that way," "at that time," "in that place," &c., is illustrated 
by the use of there for thereupon, or then. 

" Even there resolved my reason into tears. " L. C. 42. 



ADVERBS. 53 

71. Then apparently used for " when." So in E. E. See 

That, 284. 

" And more more strong, then lesser is my fear, 
I shall endue you with ; meantime but ask, " &c. 

K. J. iv. 2. 42. 

72. To-fore, which was as common in E. E. as "be-fore" and 
" a-fore," is found in 

" O would thou wert as thou to-fore hast been." 

T. A. iii. 2. 294. 

73. TOO, which is only an emphatic form of "to" (compare 
ifpos in Greek, used adverbially), is often spelt "to" by Elizabethan 
writers (Sonn. 38, 86); and conversely, "too" is found for "to" 
(Sonn. 56, 135). 

Too seems used, like the E. E. "to," for "excessively" in 
Spenser, ShephearcFs Calendar, May : 

"Thilke same kidde (as I can well devise) 
Was too very foolish and unwise." 

Perhaps, also, in 

"Lest that your goods too soon be confiscate." C. of E. i. 2. 2. 
though the meaning may be " the goods of you also." 

"Tempt him not so too far." A. and C. i. 3. 11. 
And there is, perhaps, an allusion to the E. E. meaning in "too-too," 
which is often found in Elizabethan English. 

Too is often used in the phrase, " I am too blame" (Folio) 

" I am much too blame." 

0. iii. 3. 211, 282 ; M. of V. v. I. 166; Rich. III. ii. 2. 13. 

This is so common in other Elizabethan authors, that it seems to 
require more explanation than the confusion between "to" and 
"too" mentioned above. Perhaps "blame" was considered an 
adjective, as iu 

"In faith, my lord, you are too -wilful-blame" 

i Hen. IV. iii. I. 177. 

and " too" may have been, as in E. E., used for " excessively." 
Too seems used for "very much," or "too much," in 

" Tell him that gave me this (wound), who lov'd him too, 
lie struck my soul and not my body through." 

B. and F. F. Sh. iii I. 



54 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

The context will hardly admit of the interpretation, " Me who also 
lov'd him." 

The transition from the meaning of progressive motion to that of 
"increasingly" or "excessively," and from "excessively" to the 
modern " to excess," is too natural to require more than mention. 

73 a. What, When. What and when are often used as ex 
clamations of impatience : 

" What, Lucius, ho !" J. C. ii. I. 1. 
" When, Lucius, when?" Ib. 5. 

Some ellipsis is to be supplied, " What (is the matter)?" " When 
(are you coming)?" So in 

" Gaunt. Throw down, my son, the duke of Norfolk's gage. 
K. Rich, And, Norfolk, throw down his. 
Gaunt. When, Harry, when ?"Rich. II. i. I. 162. 

See also What, 253. 

74. Whilst. " The while" is often used in accordance with the 
derivation of the word for "(in) the (mean) time." The inflected 
forms whiles and whilest are generally used as conjunctions. But we 

have 

"If you'll go fetch him 
We'll say our song the whilst." Cymb. iv. 2. 254. 

75. Why (instrumental case of E.E. hwa, "who"), used aftei 
"for," instead of "wherefore." Like the Latin "quidenim?" it 
came after a time to mean "for indeed," as 

" And send the hearers weeping to their beds ; 
For why, the senseless brands will sympathise." 

Rick. II. v. I. 40. 

i.e. "wherefore? (because) the senseless," &c. The provincialism 
"whyfore" still exists. "For" does not correspond to "enim," 
but is a preposition by derivation. Later writers, however, and 
possibly Shakespeare, may have used "for" in "for why" as a 
conjunction. Some, however, maintain that the comma should be 
removed after " for why," and that " for why" (like dvB' v) means 
"for this that," "because," the relative containing an implied 
antecedent. 

A distinction seems drawn between " why " and " for what " in 

" Why, or for what these nobles were committed 
Is all unknown to me, my gracious lady. " Rich. III. ii. 4. 48. 



ADVERBS. 55 

Why, perhaps, refers to the past cause, for -what to the future 

object. 

" Ant. S. Shall I tell you why ? 

Drom. S. Ay, sir, and wherefore ; for they say every why hath a 
wherefore." C. of E. ii. 2. 43-45. 

i.e. " every deed said to be done owing to a certain cause is really 
done for a certain object." 
Compare 

" Say, why is this ? Wherefore ? What shall we do f " 

Hamlet, i. 4. 57. 

"Why "and " how " are both derivatives of the relative, and are 
sometimes interchanged in A.-S. "Why" seems to have been 
the ablative of instrument, and "how" the adverbial derivative of 
manner, from "who." 

76. Yet (up to this time) is only used now ifter a negative, "not 
yet" " never yet," &c. Then it was also used before a negative. 

" For (as) yet his honour never heard a play." T. of Sh. Ind. I. 96. 

" Yet I have not seen 

So likely an ambassador of love. " M. of V. ii. 9. 92. 
" Yet (up to this time) they are w^joinqd." A. and C. iv. 12. 1. 
" I will make one of her women lawyer to me, for I yet not under 
stand the case myself." Cymb. ii. 3. 80. 

The following is a remarkable passage : 

" Hel. You, Diana, 

Under my poor instructions yet (still) must suffer 
Something in my behalf. 

Diana. Let death and honesty 

Go with your impositions, I am yours 
Upon your will to suffer. 

Hel. Yet (i.e. for the present) I pray you ; 

But with the word the time will bring on summer, " &c. 

A. W. iv. 4. 30. 

i.e. "a little longer I entreat your patience, but," &c. 
Yet is also used in this sense without a distinct negative : 

" Solan. What news on the Rialto ? 

Salar. Why_y<rf it lives there uncheck'd that Antonio," &c. 

M. of V. iii. I. 1. 

77. The adverbs backward and inward are used as nouns. 
"In the dark backward and abysm of time." Temp. i. 2. f>0. 
M f was an inward of his." M. for M. iii. 2. 13" 



56 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So " Thou losest here a better where to find." I^ar, i. i. 264. 
" Nor can there be that deity in my nature 
Of here-and-everywhere." T. N. v. I. 235. 

i.e. "the divine attribute of ubiquity." 

Then, as with us, was used as an adjective. 

"Our then dictator." Coriol. ii. 2. 93. 
So "Good sometime queen." Rick. II. v. I. 37. 

" Our here approach." Macb. iv. 3. 133. See Compounds, 

78. Adverbs after "is." We still say "that is well;" but 
perhaps, no other adverb (except " soon") is now thus used. Shake 
speare, however, has 

"That's verily." Tempest, ii. I. 321. 
"Thai's worthily."* Coriol. iv. I. 53. 
" Lucius' banishment was wrongfully." T. A. iv. 4. 16. 
Some verb, as "said" or "done," is easily understood. "In 
harbour " has the force of a verb in 

"Safely in harbour 
Is the king's ship. " Tempest, i. 2. 226. 

ARTICLES. 

79. An, A, (Early Eng. An, Ane, On, One, a, o,) our indefinite 
Article, is now distinguished from our Numeral "one." In Early 
English, as in modern French and German, there was no such dis 
tinction. Hence, even in Elizabethan English, a (since it still repre 
sented, or had only recently ceased to represent, " one") was more 
emphatic than with us, a fact which will explain its omission where 
we insert it, and its insertion where we should use some more 
emphatic word, "some," "any," "one," &c. 

80. An and one, pronunciation of. The connection between 
"an "and "one" appears more obvious when it is remembered 
that "one" was probably pronounced by Shakespeare, not as now 
" won," but " un." This is made probable by the constant elision 
of " the " before "one " in " th' one " as in " th' other : " compare 
"th' one" in 

" Th' one sweetly flatters, t' other feareth harm." R. of L, 172. 
* The verb "hear" may be supplied from the context 



ARTICLES. 57 

So Kick. II. v. 2. 18. Ben Jonson (783) mentions as authorized 
contractions, " y' once " for "ye once" along with "y'utter." Com 
pare also the pun in T. G. of V. ii. i. 3 : 

"Speed, Sir, your glove. 
Val. Not mine ; my gloves are on. 
Speed. Why, then, this may be yours, for this is but one" 

This will explain the rhyme : 

" So thanks to all at once and to each one 
Whom we invite to see us crowned at Scone." 

Macbeth, v. 8. 74-5. 

In the dialect of the North of England and of Scotland, the 
" w " is still not sounded. 

" An " was always used in A.-S. and mostly in E. E. before con 
sonants as well as vowels: "ane kinges . . . dohter" (STRATMANN). 
I have not found an instance in Shakespeare of "an" before an 
ordinary consonant, but it occurs before " w " : 

" Have an wish but for't" P. of T. iv. 4. 2. 

81. A was used for one in such expressions as " He came with 
never a friend," &c. 

" He and his physicians are of a mind." A. W. i. 3. 244. 
" 'Fore God, they are both in a tale." M. Ado, iv. 2. 33. 
" An two men ride of a horse one must ride behind." 

Ib. iii. 5. 44. 
" For in a night the best part of my power 

Were in the Washes . . . devoured."^ J. v. 7. 64. 
So ' ' The Images were found in a night all hacked and hewed. " 

N. P. 172. 

" We still have slept together, 
Rose at an instant, learn'd, play'd, eat together." 

A. Y. L. i. 3. 76. 

" Myself and a sister both born in an hour." T. N. ii. l. 20. 
" You, or any living man, may be drunk at a time, man." 

Othello, ii. 3. 319. 
i.e. " at one time," " for once." 

" These foils have all a ltngih."ffam/e(, v. 2. 277. 
We find "one" and "a" interchanged in 

" Hear me one word : 
Beseech you, tribunes, hear me but a word." 

Coriol. iii I. 216 

" But shall we wear these honours for a day ? 
Or shall they last?" Rich. III. iv. 2. 5. 



58 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

We never use the possessive inflection of the unemphatic <mt 
as an antecedent ; but Shakespeare writes : 

" For taking one's part that is out of favour." Lear, i. 4. 111. 
We also find in Early English : 

" Thre persones in a Godhede." HALLIWELL. 
where a is for one. Compare Scotch " ae" for " one." 
It seems used for " any," i.e. ane-y, or one-y, in 

"There's not a one of them." Macb. iii. 4. 131. 
"Ne'er a one to be found." B. J. E. in &f. iii. 2. 

So Cymb. i. I. 24. 
And emphatically for "some," "a certain," in 

"There is a thing within my bosom tells me." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. I. 183. 
' I should impart a thing to you from his majesty. " 

Hamlet, v. 2. 92. 

" Shall I tell you a thing?" Z. L. L. v. i. 152. 
" I told you a thing yesterday." Tr. and Cr. i. 2. 185. 
" And I came to acquaint you with a matter." 

A. Y. L. i. i. 129 

82. A and The omitted in archaic poetry. In the infancy 

of thought nouns are regarded as names, denoting not classes but 
individuals. Hence the absence of any article before nouns. 
Besides, as the articles interfere with the metre, and often supply 
what may be well left to the imagination, there was additional 
reason for omitting them. Hence Spenser, the archaic poet, writes 

*' Fayre Una whom salvage nation does adore." 

F. Q. i. 6. Title. 

" And seizing cruell clawes on trembling brest." Ib. i. 3. 19. 
" Faire virgin, to redeem her deare, brings Arthure to tte 

fight." Ib. i. 8. Title. 

" From raging spoil of lawlesse victors will." Ib. i. 3. 43. 
" With thrilling point of deadly y ran brand." Ib. i. 3. 42. 
Shakespeare rarely indulges in this archaism except to ridicule it' 

" Whereat -with blade, with bloody blameful blade, 
He bravely broached his boiling bloody breast ; 
And Thisby, tarrying in mulberry shade, 
His dagger drew and died." M. N. D. v. i. 147. 
Somewhat similar is 

" In glorious Christian field." Rich. II. iv. I. f)A. 



ARTICLES. 59 

' When lion rough in wildest rage doth roar." 

M. N. D. v. I. 224. 
" Ah ! Richard with the eyes of (my or the) heavy mind." 

Rich. II. ii. 4. 18. 
" So, longest way shall have the longest moans." 

Ib. v. I. 90. 
I n a Uilheses, as 

" And with no less nobility of love 
Than that which dearest father bears his son," 

Hamlet, i. 2. 111. 

the omission of the is intelligible, since the whole class is expressed. 
But it appears not uncommon to omit the article before superlatives : 

" Best safety lies in. fear. " Hamlet, i. 3. 41. 
This is, perhaps, explained by the double meaning of the super 
lative, which means not only " the best of the class," but also " very 
good." See 8. 

83. A and The are also sometimes omitted after as, like, and 
than in comparative sentences : 

" As falcon to the lure away she flies." V. and A. 1027. 
" The why is plain as "way to parish church." 

A. Y. L. ii. 7. 52. 
" More tuneable than lark to shepherd's ear." 

M. N. D. i. i. 184. 

This is, however, common both in early and modern English. 
In such sentences the whole class is expressed, and therefore the 
article omitted. It might be asked, however, why ' ' the lure " on 
this hypothesis? The is put for its. So in E. E. (MATZNER, iii. 195) 
" ase hound doth (chase) the hare," i.e. " its prey the hare." 

A is still omitted by us in adverbial compounds, such as 
"snail-like," "clerk-like," &c. Then it was omitted as being un 
necessarily emphatic in such expressions as : 

" Creeping like snail." A. Y. L. ii. 7. 146. 
" Sighing like furnace." Ib. 148. 
"And like unletter'd clerk." Sonn. 85. 

" Like snail " is an adverb in process of formation. It is inter 
mediate between "like a snail" and "snail-like." 

84. A being more emphatic than with us, was sometimes omitted 
where the noun stands for the class, and might almost be replaced by 
the corresponding adjective. " If ever I were traitor," Rich. II. i. 3 
201 traitorous. Similarly. 



6c SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" And having now shown himself open enemy to Alcibiades. " 

N. P. 176. 

So, though we find "never a master" in the sense of "not on; 
master," yet where the " never " is emphasized and has its proper 
meaning, " at no time," the a is omitted : 

" Those eyes which nru,>.r shed remorseful tear." 

Rich. III. i. 2. 156. 

" In war was never lion rag'd so fierce." Rich. II. ii. i. 173. 

" Never master had a page so kind." Cymb. v. 5. 85. 

" Was ever king that joy'd an earthly throne." 

2 Hen. VI. iv. 9. 1. 

" 'Twas never merry world since," &c. T. N. iii. I. 109. 
On the other hand, in contrast to the example first quoted, when the 
"never" is omitted and an is emphatic, almost like one, it is in 
serted : 

" My manly eyes did scorn an humble tear." 

Rich. III. i. 2. 165. 

A is also omitted before collective nouns, such as "plenty," 
"abundance," &c., and therefore before "great number" in 

" Belike you slew great number of his people." T. N. iii. 3. 29. 

85. A inserted after some adjectives used as adverbs : 

"It was upon this fashion bequeathed me by will but poor a 
thousand pounds." A. Y. L. i. I. 2. 

This usage is found in the earlier text of LAYAMON (A.D. 1200): 
" Long a time (longe ane stunde)," ii. 290, &c., where the adjective 
appears merely to be emphasized, and not used adverbially. In the 
later text the adjective is placed, here and in other passages, in its 
ordinary position. The adjectives "each," "such," "which," 
(used for "of what kind,") and "many" were especially often thus 
used. "At darnel" = "at each meal," Piers Plough. Crede. 
109. (So in Scotch "ilka.") " Whiche a wife was Alceste, " 
CHAUCER, C. T. 11754 = "what a wife." "On moni are (later 
text, mani ane) wisen," LAYAMON, i. 24 ; " motiianes curmes," ib. 39 ; 
" of many a kind (/. t. of manian erthe)," " of many an earth." 

The last-quoted passages render untenable the theory (Arch 
bishop Trench, English PasJ and Present} which explains "many 
a man" as a corruption of "many of men." In these passages, 
t,g. " monianfs cunnes" ("of many a race "), the article or numeral 



ARTICLES. 61 

adjective ' an " is declined like an adjective, while " moni " is not. 
The inference is, that "moni" is used adverbially. In the same 
way the Germans say "mancher (adj.) mann," but "manch (adv.) 
tin mann," " ein solcher (adj.) mann," but " solch (adv.) ein mann." 
In A.-S. the idiom was "many man," not "many a man." The 
termination in y, causing "many" to be considered as adverbially 
used, may not perhaps account for the introduction of the a into 
E. E., but it may account for its retention in Elizabethan and 
modern English. Nor can it escape notice that most of the 
adjectives which take a after them end in ch, or lie ("like"), an 
adverbial termination. So beside the adjectives enumerated above, 
"thellich" (modem Dorsetshire, "thilk" or "thick"), "the like," 
answering to "whilk" ("which"), is followed by a. A in the fol 
lowing example is a preposition meaning on or in . 

" Ful ofte [a day he swelde and seyde alas ! " 

CHAUCER, Knightes Tale, 498.] 

It is perhaps some such feeling, that "many" means "often," which 
justifies the separation oi " many " and "a " in the following: 

" I have in vain said many 
A prayer upon her grave." W, T. v. 3. 144. 

Perhaps in this way (as an adjective used adverbially) we must 
explain (compare " none (adj.) inheritance," Acts vii. 5) : 

" Exceeding pleasant ; none (&dv.) a stranger there 
So merry and so gamesome." Cymb. i. 6. 59. 

like "ne'er a stranger," unless after "none" we supply "who 
was." 

A is pleonastically used in 

" I would not spend awother such a night." R. III. i. 4. 5. 

In " What poor an instrument" (A. and C. v. 2. 236), "what" 
is used for " how." 

86. A was sometimes omitted after "what," in the sense ol 
"what kind of." 

"Cassius, what night is this?" y. C. i. 3. 42. 
(A has been unnecessarily inserted by some commentators. ) 

"I'll tell the world 

Aloud what man thou art." M.forM. ii. 4. 153. 
' Jove knows -what man thou mightst have made." 

Cymb. iv. 2. 207 



te SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" What dreadful noise of waters in mine ears." 

Rich. III. i. 4. 22. 

" What case stand I in?" (IV. T. i. 2. 352) = In what a 
position am I ? 

" What thing it is that I never 
Did see man die !" Cymb. iv. 4. 35. 

We omit the article after "what" before nouns signifying a col 
lective class, saying "what wickedness!" but "what a crime!" 
" what fruit !" but " what an apple!" Hence the distinction in the 
following : " What a merit were it in death to take this poor maid 
from the world ! What corruption in this life that it will let this 
man live !" M.for M. iii. I. 240. 

A is omitted after " such :" 

"Showers of blood, 

The which, how far off from the mind of Bolingbroke 
It is such crimson tempest should bedrench," &c. 

Rich. II. iii. 3. 46. 

Here "such" probably means "the aforesaid," referring to the 
" showers of blood." 

After " such " in this sense the indefinite article is still omitted j 
naturally, since " such " is used in a defining sense. 

A is omitted after " many" in " Many time and oft." (2 lien. VI. 
ii. I. 93). Here "many-time," like "some-time," "often-times," 
" many-times" (MONTAIGNK, Introduction), seems used as one word 
adverbially. 

A is omitted before " little," where we commonly place it in the 
sense of " some:" 

" O, do not swear ; 
Hold (a) little faith, though thou hast too much fear." 

T. N. v. i. 174. 

It is perhaps caused by the antithesis which assimilates the use of 
"little" to the use of "much." "In (a) little time " (V. and A. 
132) is to be explained as a prepositional phrase approximating to 
an adverb : see 89. 

87. A was frequently inserted before a numeral adjective, for the 
purpose of indicating that the objects enumerated are regarded 
collectively as one. We still say "a score," " a fo(u)rt(een)-night.'' 
Rut we also find : 

" An eight days after these sayings." Luke i>. 28 



ARTICLES. 63 

" A two shilling or so." B. J. E. in 6-v. i. 4 ad fin. 
'"Tis now a nineteen years agone at least." B. J. Case ts altered. 

Mao in E. E. : 

"An five mile." HALLIWELL. 
This usage is not common in Shakespeare, except after "one." 

"But one seven years." Coriol. iv. I. 55. 
The a is omitted in 

" But this our purpose now is twelve-month old." 

I Hen. IV. i. i. 28. 

Compare " This three mile." Macbeth, v. 5. 37. 

The a in "a many men," "a few men," is perhaps thus to Le 
explained. Compare " This nineteen years" (M. for M. i. 3. 21), 
with " This many summers" (Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 360). So 

"A many merry men." A. Y. L. i. I. 121. 

"A many thousand warlike French." K. J. iv. 2. 199. 

So Hen. V. iv. i. 127; iv. 3. 95. And still more curiously : 

"But many a many foot of land the worse." K. J. i. I. 183. 

Some explain "a many" by reference to the old noun " many," 
"a many men," for " a many (of) men. " And the word is thus used : 

"A many of our bodies." Hen. V. iv. 3. 95. 
" O thou fond many, with what loud applause 

Didst thou beat heaven." 2 Hen. IV. i. 3. 91. 
"In many's looks." Sonn. 93. 
So perhaps A. W. iv. 5. 55. Add "their meiny" Lear, ii. 4. 35. 

Nor can it be denied that in E. E. "of" is often omitted in such 
phrases as " many manner (of) men," " a pair (of) gloves," &c. just 
as in German we have "diese Art Mensch." But we also say "a 
few men " (an expression that occurs as early as Robert of Brunne), 
and " few " seems to have been an adjective. 

It is probable that both the constructions above-mentioned are 
required to explain this use of a. Thus "a hundred men" is for 
"a hundred (of) men," but in "a twelvemonth," "a fortnight," 
" twelve" and "fourteen" are not regarded as simple nouns, bui as 
compound nouns used adj actively. Compare the double use of 
' anile," "millia," in Latin. 



64 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

88. An-Other. A is apparently put for the in 

" There is not half a kiss to choose who loves an other best." 

W. T. iv. 4. 176. 

This is, however, in accordance with our common idiom : "they 
love one an other," which ought strictly to be either " they love, the 
one the other," or " they love, one other." The latter form is still 
retained in "they love each other;" but as in "one other" there 
is great ambiguity, it was avoided by the insertion of a second " one" 
or "an," thus, "they love one an-other." This is illustrated by 
Matt. xxiv. 10 (TYNDALE) : "And shall betraye one awother and 
shall hate one the other;" whereas WICKLIFFE has, "ech other." 
So I Cor. xii. 25 : WICKLIFFE, "ech for other;" the rest "for one 
another." "One another " is now treated almost like a single 
noun in prepositional phrases, such as, "We speak to one another." 
But Shakespeare retains a trace of the original idiom in 

" What we speak one to an other." A. W. iv. I. 20. 

89. The was frequently omitted before a noun already denned 
by another noun, especially in prepositional phrases. 

"/ number ol our friends." J. C. iii. I. 216. 

" Since death of my dearest mother." Cymb. iv. 2. 190. 

" At heel oj 'that defy him." A. and C. ii. 2. 160. 

"/ absence of thy friend." T. G.ofV.'\. I. 59. 

" To sternage of their navy." Hen. V. iii. Prol. 18. 

" To relief of lazars." Ib. i. I. 15. 

"For honour of our land." Ib. iii. 5. 22. 

"Thy beauty's form in table of my heart." Sonn. 24. 

" Some beauty peep'd through lattice tf/'sear'd age." 

L. C. st. ii. 

. "Forage in blood of French nobility." Hen. V. i. 2. 110. 
" In cradle of the rude imperious surge. " 2 Hen. IV. iii. i. 20. 
" Provingynwz world's minority their right" R. of L. 
"On most part of their fleet." Othello, ii. i. 24. 
So i Hen. VI. i. 2. 79 ; 2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 36, 79; Rich. II. i. 3. 136. 
We could say " in season," but not 

" We at (the right) time of (the) year 

Do wound the bark." Rich. II. iii. 4. 57. 
So even in Pope : 

" Alas, young man, your days can ne'er be long ; 
In flower of age you perish for a song." 

POPE, Imit. Hor. L 102. 



ARTICLES. 65 

90. The is also omitted after prepositions in adverbial phrases. 

" At door." W. T. iv. 4. 352; T. of Sh. iv. f, 125. 

" At palace." W. T. iv. 4. 731. 

' At height." Hamlet, i. 4. 21. 

" Ere I went to wars." M. Ado, i. I. 307. 

" To cabin." Tempest, i. i. 18. 

" The grace 'fore meat and the thanks at end.' 

Coriol. iv. 7. 4. 

" You were in presence then." Rich. II. iv. I. 62. 
i.e. "in the presence-chamber." 

" And milk comes frozen home in pail." L. L, L. v. 2. 925. 
" With spectacles on nose and pou-:h on side." 

A. Y. L. ii. 7. 159. 
" This day was viewed in open as his queen." 

Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 405. 
" He foam'd at mouth." J. C. i. 2. 256. 
" Sticks me at heart." A. Y. L. i. 2. 254. 
" Exeunt in manner as they entered." Hen. VIII. \\.'&. 2 4 
" Than pard or cat-o'-mountain." Tempest, iv. I. 262. 

And with adjectives : 

" In hiimblest manner." Tempest, ii. 4. 144. 
"//r.rfrank." Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 161. 

"In pail" is as justifiable as "in bed," except that the former, 
not being so common as the latter, has not the same claim to the 
ndverbial brevity which dispensed with the article. Both are adver 
bial phrases, one of which has been accepted, the other rejected. 
Thus in 

" Stealing unseen to west with this disgrace." Sonn. 33. 

" to-west " is as much an adverb as " west -ward." 
Sometimes a possessive adjective is thus omitted : 

" Not Priamus and Hecuba on knees." Tr. and Cr. v. 3. 53. 
SoinE. E. "a-knee." 

Compare our " I have at hand." 

Perhaps this may explain the omission of " the" after "at" in 

" We are familiar at first." Cymb. i. 4. 112. 

where "at first " is not opposed to "afterwards " (as it is with as), 
but means " at the first," or rather " from the first," " at once." 

F 



66 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

The omission of " the " in 

" On one and other side Trojan and Greek 
Sets all on hazard." Tr. and Cr. i. i. 21. 

is in accordance with our idiom, " one another" and " each other." 
On the other hand, where " the" is emphatic, meaning " that" 01 
" the right," it is sometimes inserted before " one." 

" Morocco. How shall I know if I do choose the right ?" 
Portia. The one of them contains my picture, prince." 

M.ofV. ii. 7. 11. 

91. The was inserted hi a few phrases which had not, though 
they now have, become adverbial "At the length" (N. P. 592), 
" At the first," " At the last," &c. 

"There in the full convive we." Tr. and Cr. iv. 5. 272. 
" In the favour of the Athenians." N. P. 177. 

92. The used to denote notoriety, &c. Any word when referred 
to as being defined and well known may of course be preceded by 
the article. Thus we frequently speak of "the air." Bacon (E. 231) 
however wrote, " The matter (the substance called matter) is in a 
perpetual flux." 

Tfttis sometimes used (compare Latin "ille") for "^celebrated," 
11 the one above all others," occasionally with "alone," as 

" I am alone the villain of the earth." A. and C. iv. 6. 30. 
Or with a superlative : 

" He was the wretched" st thing when he was young." 

Rich. III. ii. 4. 18. 

" The last (prayer) is for my men : they are the poorest ; 
But poverty could never draw 'em from me." 

Hen. VIII. iv. 2. 148. 
But also without these : 

"Am I the man yet?" A. Y. L. iii. 3. 3. 

" Smacks it not something of the policy ?" K. J. ii. i. 39tf. 

" For their dear causes 
Would to the bleeding and the grim alarm 
Excite the mortified man. " Macbeth, v. 2. 4. 

The ellipsis to be supplied is added in 

"Are you the courtiers and the travell'd gallants ? 
The spritely fellows that the people talk of?" 

B. and F. Elder Brgthtr, iv. I. 



ARTICLES. 6? 

The seems to mean "the same as ever" in 

" Live you the marble-breasted tyrant still." T. N. y. I. 127. 

It is not often that "the" is used in this sense before English 
proper names. In 

"The Douglas and the Percy both together." 

I Hen. IV. v. i. 116. 

the second the may be caused by the first, which, of course, is still 
used, "the Bruce," "the Douglas," being frequent, and explicable 
as referring to the chief of the Douglases and Bruces. But we also 
have 

" To leave the Talbot and to follow us." I Hen. VI. iii. 3. 20, 31. 
and so in Early English " the Brute," " the Herod." 

The is seldom used, like the article in French, for the possessive 
adjective : 

' The king is angry : see, he bites the lip. " 

Rich. III. iv. 2. 27. 

The word "better" is used as a noun, and opposed to "the 
worse," (compare the French proverb, "le mieux est 1'ennemi 
du bien,") in 

" Bad news, by'r lady; seldom conies the better." 

Rich. III. ii. 3. 4. 

"Death," the ender of life, seems more liable to retain the mark 
of notoriety than " life." Hence 

" Where they feared the death, they have borne life away." 
Hen. V. iv. i. 181 ; Rich. III. i. 2. 179 ; ii. 3. 55 

So " Dar'd to the combat." Hamlet, i. I. 84. 
i.e. "the combat that ends all dispute." French influence is per 
ceptible in these two last instances, and in 

" To shake the head." M. of V. iii. 2. 15. 

The which (see Relative), 270. 

93. The frequently precedes a verbal that is followed by an 
object : 

" Whose state so many had the managing." Hen. V. Epilog. 
" You need not fear the having any of these lords." 

M. of V.I 2. 10ft 
" The seeing these effects will be 
Both noisome and infectious." Cymb. i. 5. 25. 
F2 



68 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" P, Pray, sir, in what? 
D In the delaying death." M. for M. iv. 2. 172. 

' ' Nothing in his life 
Became him like the leaving it." Macb. i. 4. 8. 

" The locking up the spirits." Cymb. i. 5. 41. 

So Lear, iv. 4. 9 ; Hen. VIII. iii. z. 347 ; M. for M. iii. 2. 126 ; 
M. of V. iv. i. 309 ; M. Ado, ii. 2. 53 ; 0. iii. 4, 22 ; T. N. i. 5. 84. 

The question naturally arises, are these verbals, "locking," &c. 
nouns? and, if so, why are they not followed by "of," e.g. "the 
locking of the spirits " ? Or are they parts of verbs ? and in that 
case, why are they preceded by the article ? The fact that a verb in 
E. E. had an abstract noun in -ing (A.-S. -ung) e.g. "slaeten," to 
hunt ; "slaeting," hunting renders it a priori probable that these 
words in -ing are nouns. Very early, however, the termination -ng 
was confused with, and finally supplanted, the present participle 
termination in -tide. Thus in the earlier text of Layamon (iii. 72) 
we have "heo riden singinge," i.e. "they rode singing ;" and in the 
later text the proper participial form il singende." An additional 
element of confusion was introduced by the gerundial inflection enne, 
e.g. "singenne," used after the preposition "to." As early as the 
twelfth century "to singenne" (Morris, E. E. Specimens, p. 53) 
became " to singende," and hence (by the corruption above men 
tioned) "to singinge." Hence, when Layamon writes that the 
king went out " an-slaeting " (ii. 88), or "a-slatinge" (iii. 168), it is 
not easy to prove that the verbal noun is here used : for the form 
may represent the corruption of the gerund used with the preposition 
"an" instead of with "to." And as early as Layamon we find the 
infinitive "to kumen" side by side with the present participle "to 
comende" (L 49) ; and the gerund "cumene" side by side with the 
verbal "coming" (iii. 231); and the noun "tiding(s)" spelt in the 
earlier text "tidind" or "tidinde," the present participle (i. 59). 
The conclusion is, that although " locking " is a noun, and therefore 
preceded by "the," yet it is so far confused with the gerund as to 
be allowed the privilege of governing a direct object The " of" 
was omitted partly for shortness, as well as owing to the confusion 
above mentioned. 

It is easy to trace a process of abridgment from 

" For the repealing of my banish'd brother,"^ C. iii. i. 51, 



ART1CLF.S. 69 

to (2* " Punish my life for (89) tainting of my love," 

T. N. v. I. 141. 

down to our modern (3) " for tainting my love." And hence the E. E. 
(William of Palerne, edit. Skeat), "for drede of descuverynge of 
that was do," 1. 1024, "of kastyng of lakes," 1. 942, are abbreviated 
in modern English into "disclosing that which was done" and 
"casting looks." This abbreviation is also remarkably illustrated 
bv Bacon in his third Essay. He first uses the abbreviated form, 
and then, with a verbal noun that could not so easily have a verbal 
force, he adopts the full form : ' ' Concerning the Means of procuring 
Unity. Men must beware that in the Procuring or Muniiing oj 
Religious Lnity, they do not dissolve and deface the Laws of 
Charity." It is perhaps this feeling that the verbal was an ordinary 
noun, which allows Shakespeare to make an adjective qualify it 
even though of is omitted after it 

" He shall have old turning the key." Macbeth, ii. 3. 2. 
The substantival use of the verbal with "the" before it and 
"of" after it seems to have been regarded as colloquial. Shake 
speare puts into the mouth of Touchstone : 

"I remember the kissing of her batlet and . . . the wooing cj 

a peascod instead of her." A. Y. L. ii. 4. 49-61. 
" Did these bones cost no more (in) the breeding?" 

ffamlet, v. I. 100. 

94. The (in Early Eng. thi, thy) is used as the ablative of the 
demonstrative and relative, with comparatives to signify the measure 
of excess 01 defect. 

This use is still retained. " The sooner the better," i.e. " By funo 
much the sooner by so much the better." (Lat. "quo citius, to melius." ) 

It is sometimes stated that ' ' the better " is used by Shakespeare 
for "better," &c. : but it will often, perhaps always, be found thai 
the has a certain force. 

" The good conceit I hold of thee 
Makes me tlte better to confer with thee." T. G. of V. iii. 2. 19. 

" The rather 
For that I saw." Macb. iv. 3. 184. 

In both passages "the " means " on that account." In 

" Go not my horse the better 
I must become a borrower of the night," Macb. ii/. I. 25. 

Banquo is perhaps regarding his horse as racing against night, and 



70 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" />4* better" means " the better of the two." The following pas 
sage has been quoted by commentators on the passage just quoted, 
to show that "the" is redundant. "And hee that hit it (the 
quintain) full, if he rid not the faster, had a sound blow in his 
neck, with a bag full of sand hanged on the other end." STOWE'S 
Survey of London, 1603. But the rider is perhaps here described 
as endeavouring to anticipate the blow of the quintain by being 
"the faster" of the tivo. Or more probably, "the faster" may 
mean the faster because he had struck the quintain, which, if struck, 
used to swing round and strike the striker on the back, unless he 
rode tJte (" on that account ") faster. In either case it is unscholar- 
like to say that the is redundant 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

95. And (in old Swedish an [Wedgewood] is used for "and," 
"if," and "even") emphatically used for "also," "even," "and 
that too." We still use " and that" to give emphasis and call 
attention to an additional circumstance, e.g. "He was condemned, 
and that unheard." This construction is most common in parti 
cipial phrases. The " that " is logically unnecessary, and is omitted 
sometimes by Shakespeare. 

" Suffer us to famish and their storehouses crammed with grain." 
Coriol. \. l. 82. 

" And shall the figure of God's majesty 
Be judged by subject and inferior breath, 
And he himself not present?" Rich. II. iv. i. 129. 
"When I have most need to employ a friend, 
And most assured that he is a friend, 
Deep, hollow, treacherous, and full of guile 
Be he unto me." Rich. III. ii. i. 37. 

In the last two passages an ellipsis of "be" or "to be " might be 
understood, but scarcely in the following : 

" So may he ever do and ever flourish 
When I shall dwell with worms, and my poor name 
Banish'd the kingdom. "Hen. VIII. iv. 2. 126. 
' ' Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel." 

Hamlet, i. 3. 62. 

Compare 3 Hen. VI. i. 2. 47 ; Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 51. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 71 

So perhaps Hamlet, iii. 3. 62 ; T. N. i. i. 38 ; and in the following 
irregular sentence : 

" But a man that were to sleep your sleep, and a hangman to help 
him to bed, I think he (redundant pronoun : see 243) would change 
places with his officer." Cymb. v. 4. 179. 

i. ft " and that too a hangman being ready to help him to bed." 

96. And. This use, though most frequent with participles, is 
also found without them : 

" Here comes a spirit of his, and to torment me." 

Temp. ii. 2. 15. 

"He that has and a. little tiny wit." Lear, iii. 2. 74. 
i.e. " a little and AW a very little." So 

" When that I was and a little tiny boy." T. N. v. i. 398. 

97, And is frequently found in answers in the sense of "you 
are right and" or "yes and," the "yes" being implied.* Hence 
the "and," introducing a statenvent in exact conformity with a 
previous statement, comes almost to mean "exactly." It is fre 
quently found before "so." 

' ' Hamlet. Will the king hear this piece of work ? 

Pol. (Yes) And the queen too. " Hamlet, iii. 2. 53. 
" Cass. This rudeness is a sauce to his good wit. 

Brut. And so it is." y. C. i. 2. 307. 

i.e. "you are right, and so it is ;" or "just so," " even so," 

" Pompey. I'll try you on the shore. 
Antony. And shall, sir." A. and C. ii. 7. 134. 

i.e. "You say well, and you shall," or "So you shall," "that you 
shall, " emphatically. 

" Sir M. And there's ... a head of noble gentlemen. 

Archbishop. And so there is." I Hen. IV. iv. 4. 27. 
" Parolles. After them, and take a more dilated farewell. 

Bertram. And I will do so." A. W. ii. I. 60. 

i.e. " that \sjust what I will do." 

"Mayor. But I'll acquaint our duteous citizens 
With all your just proceedings in this cause. 
Glouc. And to that end we wish'd your lordship here." 

Rich. III. iii. 4- 67 
i.e. "To that very end," " even to that end." 

* So ?ae in Greek. 



72 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

98. And is often found in this emphatic sense after statements 
implied by ejaculations, such as "faith," "sooth," "alas," &c. 
Thus 

*' Calesby. Your friends at Pomfret, they do need the priest 

Hastings. Good faith (it is so), and when I met this holy man 
Those men you talk of came into my mind. " 

Rich. III. iii. 2. 117. 

" Faith, and so we should."--! Hen. IV. iv. I. 52. 
This use is found in A.-S. 

99. "And "emphatic in questions. When a question is being 
asked, "and," thus used, does not express emphatic assent, but 
emphatic interrogation : 

"Alas! and would you take the letter of her ?" A. W. iii. 4. 1. 
i.e. "is it so indeed, and further would you actually &c.?" So 

"^</wilt thou learn of me?" Rich. III. iv. 4. 269. 
i.e. " do you indeed wish to learn of me ? " 

Hence Ben Jonson, who quotes Chaucer : 

"What, quoth she, and be ye wood?" 
adds that 

"And, in the beginning of a sentence, serveth for admiration." 
B. J. 789- 

It is common in ballads, and very nearly redundant : * 

" The Perse owt of Northumberlande, 
And a. vow to God made he." Percy (MATZNER). 

(Mr. Furnivall suggests "an avow" the original form of the word 
"vow.") 

100. "And" for "also "in Early English. We find "and" 

often used for "also," " both," &c., and standing at the beginning 
of a sentence in earlier English. Wickliffe has, 2 Cor. xi. 21, 22 : 

" In what thing ony man dare, and I dare. Thei ben ebreus, 
and I." 

"And" is used for " even" or " also " in Acts xiv. 15 : 

" And we ben deedli men like you." 
In "I almost die for food, and let me have it," A.'Y. L. ii. 7. 104. 

" I pray you " may perhaps be understood after atid t implied in the 
Imperative "let." 

* "tiese instances are said by Mr. Skeat to be corrupt. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 73 

101 And or an ( = if)- (The modern and is often spelt an in 
E. E. ) This particle has been derived from an, the imperative of 
unnan, to grant This plausible but false derivation was originated 
by Home Tooke, and has been adopted by the editorr of the 
Cambridge Shakespeare. But the word is often written and in 
Early English (Stratmann), as well as in Elizabethan author** 

" For and I shulde rekene every vice 
Which that she hath ywiss, I were to nice." CHAUC. Squirts ProL 

" Alcibiades bade the carter drive over, and he durst" N./ 1 . 166. 

"They will set an house on fire and it were but to roast their 
eggs." B. E. 89. 

" What knowledge should we have of ancient things past and 
history were not ? " Lord BERNERS, quoted by B. J. 789. 

102. "And" With the Subjunctive. The true explanation 
appears to be that the hypothesis, the if, is expressed not by the 
and, but by the subjunctive, and that and merely means with the 
addition of, plus, just as but means leaving out, or minus. 

The hypothesis is expressed by the simple subjunctive thus : 

" Go not my horse the better 
I must become a borrower of the night." Macb. iii. I. 25. 

This sentence with and would become, " I must become a bor 
rower of the night and my horse go not the better," i.e. "with, or 
on, the supposition that my horse go not the better." Similarly in the 
contrary sense, " but my horse go the better," would mean " without 
or excepting the supposition that my horse, &c." Thus Chaucer, Par 
doner fs Tale, 275 : 

" It is no curtesye 
To speke unto an old man vilonye 
But he trespas." 

So also Mandeville (Prologue} : 

" Such fruyt, thorgh the which every man is saved, but it be his 
owne defaute. 

103. And if. Latterly the subjunctive, falling into disuse, was 
felt to be too weak unaided to express the hypothesis ; and the same 
tendency which introduced "more better," " most unkindest," &c., 
superseded and by and if, an if, and if. There is nothing remark 
able in the change of and into an. And, even in its ordinary sense, 
s often written an in Early English. (See Halliwell.) 

So almost always in the Folio. See Index to Plays. 



74 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Ana or an is generally found before a personal pronoun, or "if," 
or " though ;" rarely thus : 

"And * should the empress know." T. A, ii. I. 69. 

In the Elizabethan times the indicative is often used for the 
nubjunctive. 

The following is a curious passage : 

" 0. Will it please you to 'enter the house, gentlemen? 

D. Andyour favour, lady." B. J. Sil. Worn. iii. 2. med. 
Apparently, "And your favour (be with us)," i.e. "if you please," 

104. An't were was wrongly said by Home Tooke to be put 
for " as if it were." 

" Cress. O ! he smiles valiantly. 
Pand. Does he not ? 

Cress. O yes ; and * 'twere a cloud in autumn." 

Tr. and Cr. i. 2. 139. 
" He will weep you aV were a man born in April." 

Ib. i. 2. 189. 

" I will roar you and * 'twere any nightingale. " M. N. D. i. 2. 86. 
" 'A made a fairer end and went away, and * it had been a Chris- 
torn child." Hen. V. ii. 3. 10. 

Some ellipsis is probably to be understood. " I will roar you, and 
if it were a nightingale (I would still roar better). " 
The same construction is found in E. E. 

"Ye answer and ye were twenty yere olde." 

Cov. Myst. p. 80 (MATZNER;. 

It is illustrated by the use of "ac," " atque," after "similis," 
"pariter," &c. thus : 

" (Homo) qui prosperis rebus seque ac tu ipse (gauderes) gaud- 
ret." ClC. De Amicitia, vi. I. 

i.e. "a man who would rejoice at your prosperity, and you yourself 
(would rejoice as much and no more)." "You answer in such and 
such a way, and were you twenty years old you would answer 
similarly." 

105. And if represents both "even if" and "if indeed" (i, 
both Kal et and e< Kal). 

And if is used emphatically for "even if " in 
" It dies and * if it had a thousand lives." I ffen. VI. v. 4. 75 
So I Hen. IV. i. 3. 125. 

So Folio 



CONJUNCTIONS. 75 

" What and * if 

His sorrows have so overwhelm' d his wits." Tit. And. iv. 4. 10 
" He seems to be of great authority, give him gold. And though 

authority be a stubborn bear, yet he is oft led by the nose with 

gold." W. T. iv. 4. 831. 

On the other hand, and if seems to mean " if indeed " in the 
following passages : 

" Percy. Seize it if thou darest. 
Aum. And* if\ do not, may my hands rot off!" 

Rich. II. iv. I. 49. 
" Oh father ! 

And if you be my father, think upon 

Don John my husband." MIDDLETON and ROWLEY (Walker). 
" Prince. I fear no uncles dead (419). 
Glou. Nor none that live, I hope. 

Prince. And* if they live, I hope I need not fear," 

Rich. III. iii. 2. 148, 

where the Prince is referring to his maternal uncles who have been 
imprisoned by Richard, and he says, "if indeed they live I need 
not fear." 

Thus probably we must explain : 

" O full of danger is the duke of Gloucester ! 
And the queen's sons and brothers haught and proud ; 
And were they to be ruled, and not to rule, 
This sickly land might solace as before." Rich. III. ii. 3. 29. 

Here, at first sight, "but" seems required instead of "and." But 
"and were they" means " if 'indeed they were." 

It is not easy to determine whether and though is used for " even 
though" or for " though indeed " in the following 

"I have now 

(And though perhaps it may appear a trifle) 
Serious employment for thee." MASSINGER (Walker). 

In all these passages an or and may be resolved into its proper 
meaning by supplying an ellipsis. Thus in the passage from 
Rich. II. iv. I. 49, "And\i\ do not," &c. means, "I will seize it, 
and, if I do not seize it, may my hands rot off. " 

106. Ast (A.-S. "eall-swa" with the sense "just as") is a con 
traction of al(f)-so. In Early English we find "so soon sv he 
came-" The al(l) emphasized the so, "#/(/) -so soon al(l)-so he 

4 ' So Folio. t Comp. <!><, wore, for the various meanings. 



76 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

came." Hence through different contractions, alse, ah, ase, we get 
our modern as, (Comp. the German ah.) The dropping of the 
/ is very natural if alse was pronounced like "half." The broad 
pronunciation of as may throw light upon the pun in 

" Sir And. And your horse now would make him an ass. 
Mar. Ass I doubt not" T. N. ii. 3. 185. 

It follows that as originally meant both our modern so, "in that 
way," and our modern as, "in which way." The meaning of so 
is still retained in the phrases "as soon as" and "I thought as 
much," &c., but generally as has its second meaning, viz. "in 
which way." 

107. As, like "an" (102), appears to be (though it is not) used 
by Shakespeare for as if. As above (102), the " if" is implied in 
the subjunctive. 

" To throw away the dearest thing he owed 
As 'twere a careless trifle." Macb. i. 4. 11. So v. 5. 13. 

i.e. "*' the way in which (he would throw it away) were it a 
careless trifle." Often the subjunctive is not represented by any 
inflection : 

" One cried, ' God bless us,' and ' Amen' the other, 
As they had seen me with these hangman's hands. " 

Macbeth, ii. 2. 28 ; Rich. III. iii. 5. 63. 

Sometimes the as is not followed by a finite verb : 

"As gentle and as jocund as (if I were going) to jest, 
Go I to fight." Rich. II. i. 3. 95. 

108. As, like "who," "whom," "which" (see below, Relative), 
is occasionally followed by the supplementary " that." 

" Who fair him 'quited as that courteous was." 

SPENS. F. Q.i. i. 80. 

109. AS for "that" after "so." ("In which way;" "As the 
result of which.") This is a consequence of the original connection 
of as with "so." 

"You shall be so received 
As you shall deem yourself lodged in my heart." 

L. L. L. ii. i. 174. 

" Catesby . . . finds the testy gentleman so hot 
As he will lose his head ere give consent. " 

Rich. III. iii. 4. 41. 



CONJUNCTIONS, 77 

After "sufk:" ' 

"Yet such deceit as thou that dost beguile 
Art juster far." Sonn. 

This occurs less commonly without the antecedent so : 
" My lord, I warrant you we'll play our part 
As he shall think by our true diligence 
He is no less than what we say he is." T. of Sh. Ind. i. 68. 

This points out an important difference between the Elizabethan 
and modern uses of as. We almost always apply it, like " because " 
(117), to the past and the present ; Shakespeare often uses it of the 
future, in the sense of " according as." 

11 And, sister, as the winds give benefit 
And convoy is assistant, do not sleep, 
But let me hear from you." Hamlet, i. 3. 2. 

Here a modern reader would at first naturally suppose as to mean 
"since" or "because;" but the context shows that it means 
"according as." 

110. As, in its demonstrative meaning of so, is occasionally found 
parenthetically = "for so." 

" This Jacob from our holy Abraham was 
(As * his wise mother wrought in his behalf) 
The third possessor." M. of V. i. 3. 73. 
" Who dares receive it other 
As we shall make our griefs and clamours roar 
Upon his death?" Macb. i. 7. 78. 

i,e. "so did his mother work;" "so will we make our griefs roar." 

" The fixure of her eye has motion in 't, 
As we are mock'd with art." W. T. v. 3. 68. 

There seems some confusion in the difficult passage 

" Speak truly, on thy knighthood and thy oath, 
As so defend thee heaven and thy valour." 

Rich. II. i. 3. 15. 

In the similar line 34 as is omitted. This would lead us to con 
jecture "and." But perhaps the marshal was beginning to say 
"speak truly aj may heaven defend thee," but diverged into the 
more ordinary "so," which was the customary mode of invocation. 
In that case the meaning will be "as thou wouldst desire the 
fulfilment of thy prayer, ' so help me heaven.' " 

* Comp. olov f apTvcrcu <yafiov ira/aaiV. yEscn. Pram. Vinct. 08. 



;8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAK. 

So in 

" Dukf. If this be so (as, yet, the glass seems true) 
I shall have share in this most happy wreck." 

T. AT. v. i. 272. 

The Duke has called the appearance of the twins "a natural per 
spective that is and is not" (ib. 224), i.e. a glass that produces an 
optical delusion of two persons instead of one. He now says : "if 
they are two, brother and sister (and indeed, spite of my incredulity, 
the perspective or glass seems to be no delusion), then I shall," &c. 
The curious introduction of the "wreck" suggests that the glass 
called up the thought of the "pilot's glass." (M. for M. ii. I. 168.) 
An ellipsis must be supplied in 

" Had I but time (which I have not) as this fell sergeant, 

Death, 
Is strict in his arrest. " Hamlet, v. 2. 347. 

111. As = "as regards which," "though," "for," was some 
times used parenthetically in a sense oscillating between the relative 
"which," "as regards which," and the conjunction "for," 
" though," "since." It is used as a relative in 

" But say or he or we, (as neither have [pi. see 12, Neither],) 
Received that sum." L. L. L. ii. I. 133. 

As is used in a transitional manner for "as regards which "or 
" for indeed," in 

"Though I die for it, as no less is threatened me." 

Lear, iii. 3. 19. 
"When I was young, as, yet, I am not old." 

i Hen. VI. 3. 4. 17. 
" If you will patch a quarrel 
As matter whole you've not to make it with." 

A. and C. ii. ii. 53. 

Here in the second example, " When I was young as I yet, or 
Still, am," would have retained the relatival signification of as, but 
the addition of "not old" obliges us to give to as the meaning not 
of "which," but "as regards which" or "for." So in 

" She dying, as it must be so maintained." 

M. Ado, iv. i. 216. 

112. As, owing to its relatival signification, is sometimes loosely 
used for "which." This is still usual with us, but rarely except 
when preceded by " such " or " the same." 



CONJUNCTIONS. 79 

" That gentleness as I was wont to have." J C. i 2. 33. 
" Under these hard conditions as this time 
Is like to lay upon us." J. C. i. 2. 174. 

This is still common in provincial language. See 280. 
As is used for "where" in 

" Here as I point my sword the sun arises." J. C. ii. 1. 106. 

113. As is frequently used (without such) to signify "namely:" 
" And that which should accompany old age, 

A s honour, love, obedience, troops of friends." 

Macb.y. 3. 25. 

" Tired with all these for restful death I cry, 
As to behold desert a beggar born 
And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity 
And, &c." Sonn. 66. 

So C. ofE. L 2. 98 ; Hen. VIII. iv. I. 88 ; M. of V. iii. 2. 109. 
"Two Cliffords, as the father and the son." 

3 Hen. VI. v. 7. 7. 

So A. Y. L. ii. i. 6 ; Rich. II. ii. I. 18 ; and Hamlet, i. i. 117, 
where however a line has probably dropped out between 116 
and 117. 

114. As is apparently used redundantly with definitions of time 
(as ws is -used in Greek with respect to motion). It is said by 
Halliwell to be an Eastern Counties' phrase : 

"This is my birth-day, as this very day 

Was Cassius born." J. C. v. i. 72. 
" One Lucio as then the messenger." M. for M. v. I. 74. 
The as in the first example may be intended to qualify the state 
ment that Cassius was born on "this very day," which is not 
literally true, as meaning " as I may say." Here, and in our Collect 
for Christmas Day, "or at this time to be born," as seems appro 
priate to an anniversary. In the second example the meaning of 
"as then" is not so clear ; perhaps it means " as far as regards that 
occasion." Compare 

"Yet God at last 

To Satan, first in sin, his doom applied, 
Though in mysterious terms, judg'd as then best." 

MILTON, P. L. x. 173. 

where "as then" seems to mean "for the present"' So "as yet" 
means "as far as regards time up to the present time." So io 



8o SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

German "a/s dann" means "then," and "als" is applied to oilier 
temporal adverbs. 

As in E. E. was often prefixed to dates : 
" As in the year of grace," &c. 

"^jnow"is often used in Chaucer and earlier writers for "as 
regards now," "for the present :" 

"But al that thing I must as now forbere." 

CHAUC. Knightis Tale, 27. 
In " Meantime I writ to Romeo 

That he should hither come as this dire night," 

R. and J. v. 3. 247. 
as perhaps means ''as (he did come)." 

115. As was used almost but not quite redundantly after "seem" 
(as it is still, after "regard,' : "represent") : 

" To prey on nothing that doth seem as dead." 

A. Y. L. iv. 3. 119. 
and even after "am:" 

" I am but as a guiltless messenger." A. Y. L. iv. 3. 1.2. 
" I am here in the character of" &c. 

As is also used nearly redundantly before participles to denote 
a cause, "inasmuch as :" 

"If he be now return'd 
As checking at his voyage. " Hamlet, iv. 7. 63. 

116. As, like "that" (see 287), is used as a conjunctional suffix. 
sometimes being superfluously added to words that are already con 
junctions. In the case of "when as," "where as," it may be 
explained from a desire to give a relative meaning to words interro 
gative by nature : 

" (I am) one that was a woeful looker-on 
When as the noble duke of York was slain." 

3 Hen. VI. ii. I. 46 ; i. 2. 75. 
So " Whereaj." 2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 58, for "where." 

117. Because ("for this reason that") refers to ^OR future instead 
of, as with us, to the past, in 

" The splitting rocks cower'd in the sinking sands 
And would not dash me with their rugged sides, 
Because thy flinty heart, more hard than they, 
Might in thy palace perish (act. 291), Margaret." 

A Hen. VI. iii. 2. 100. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 81 

is. "in order that thy flinty heart might have the privilege of 
destroying me." 

118. But (E. E. and modern northern English "bout") is in 
Old Saxon "bi-utan," where "bi" is our modern "by," and 
"utan" means "without." Thus but is a contraction for "by-out," 
and is formed exactly like "with-out." Hence but means excepted 
or excepting. This use of out in compounds may be illustrated by 
" outstep (except) the king be miserable." * 

" It was full of scorpyones and cocadrilles oitt-takene in the fore- 
said monethes."* 

" Alle that y have y grant the, out-take my wyfe." * 
The two latter passages illustrate the difficulty of determining 
whether but is used as a passive participle with nominative absolute, 
or as an active participle with the objective case. In the same way 
we find " excepted " and " except " placed (a) after* a noun or pronoun, 
apparently as passive participles, and (6) before, as prepositions 
Thus 

(a) " Only you excepted." M. Ado, i. I. 126. 
" Richard except" Rich. III. v. 3. 242. 

Then, on the other hand, 

(b) "Always excepted my dear Claudio." M. Ado, iii. I. 93. 
" Except immortal Csesar." y. C. i. 2. 60. 

(For the confusion between "except" and "excepted" compare 
" deject" for "dejected," &c. See below, 342.) 

The absence of inflections, however, in the above instances leaves 
us uncertain whether "except" is a preposition or participle. But 
"save" seems to be used for "saved" and "he" to be the 
nominative absolute in 

"All the conspirators save only he." t J. C. v, 5. 69. 
So " Save ihou.." Sonn. 109. 

"Nor never none 

Shall mistress be of it save I alone." T. N. iii. I. 172. 
"What stays had I but they."RicA. III. ii. 2. 76, iv. 4. 34 ; 
Cymb. ii. 3. 153; Macbeth, iii. i. 54; R. and y. i. 2. 14. 

On the other hand, Shakespeare does not agree with modern ussge 
in the inflections of the pronouns (see 206 216). 

* Halli well's Dictionary. 

( Similarly "sauf " was used in French in agreement with a noun placed in 
the nominative absolute. 

O 



8z SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

119. But is almost always used in Layamon for " unless " or 
"without" (prep.), or "without" (adv.) in the sense of "outside." 
Thus (i. 159): "that a queen should be king in this land and 
their sons be buten," (1. L boute), i.e. "without (the land)." 
So (i. 215) "buten laeve,"i.e. "wit font leave." It occurs adversa- 
lively in (i. 353) a passage which illustrates the transition, "If thou 
wilt receive his reconciliation, it will be well; but, he will never 
deliver Evelin to thee." Here but is the preposition "without," 
used adverbially as "otherwise." 

120. But, in all its uses, may be explained from the meaning of 
"out-take" or except. It is sometimes used (like and, see above) to 
except or "out-take" a whole clause, the verb being occasionally in 
the subjunctive. 

"And, but thou love me, let them find me here." 

R. andj. ii 2. 76. 
Le. "except or without thou love me." 

"And, but I be deceived, Signior Baptista may remember 
me." T. ofSk. iv. 2. 2. 

Compare I Hen. VI. iii. I. 34: " Except I be provoked. " 

So "Not without the prince be willing." M. Ado, iii. 3. 86. 

We now use " unless " in this sense, and by a comparison of 
Wickliffe with Tyndale and Cranmer it will be seen that but was 
already often superseded by "except" 

But with the subjunctive is, however, more common in Early than 
in Elizabethan English. Sometimes without the subjunctive 

" And, but she spoke it dying, I would not 
Believe her lips. " Cymb. v. 5. 41. 

" And, but he's something stain'd 

With grief that's beauty's canker, thou might'st call him 
A goodly person." Tempest, i. 2. 414. 

" The common executioner 
Falls not the axe upon the humbled neck 
But first begs pardon. " A. Y. L. iii. 5. 6. 

" And, but infirmity hath something seized 
His wish'd ability, he had himself 
The lands and waters 'twixt your throne and his 
Measured, to look upon you." W. T. v. I. 141. 

121. But. Transition of meaning. These last passages 

illustrate the transition of but from except to "on the contrary," 



CONJUNCTIONS. 83 

"byway of prevention." The transition is natural, inasmuch as 
an exception may well be called contrary to the rule. The first 
' passage is a blending of two constructions: "if she had not spoken 
it dying I would not believe," and "I would not believe, but she 
spoke it dying." Similarly: " Except infirmity had seized he had 
(would have) measured," and " He had (would have) measured, 
but (by way of prevention) infirmity hath seized. " 

The different usages of but arise, (l) from its variations between 
the meaning of "except," "unless," and the adversative meaning 
"on the other hand;" (2) from the fact that the negative before but, 
in the sense of "except," is sometimes omitted and at other times 
inserted. Thus "but ten came" may mean "ten however came," 
or " (none) but ten, i.e. only ten, came." But is now much more 
confined than it was, to its adversative meaning. We still say "it 
never rains but it pours " (where the subject is the same before and 
after but) ; and, even where a new subject is introduced, we might 
say, " I did not know but you had come," " You shall not persuade 
me but you knew," &c. ; but this use is colloquial, and limited to a 
few common verbs. We should scarcely write 

" I never saw but Humphrey duke of Gloucester 
Did bear him like a noble gentleman." 2 Hen. VI. i. 1. 183. 

122. "But" signifying prevention. The following passages 

illustrate the "preventive" meaning of but: 

" Have you no countermand for Claudio yet 
But he must die to-morrow?" M.for M. iv. 2. 95. 

i.e. "to prevent that he must die." If "but "were the ordinary 
adversative, it would be " but must he die?" 

" That song to-night 

Will not go from my mind : I have much to do 
But (to prevent myself) to go hang my head all at one side 
And sing it, like poor Barbara." Othello, iv. 3. 32. 
"Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty but to gabble like 
tinkers at this time of night?" T. N. ii. 3. 95. 
i.e. "to prevent you from gabbling," or, as Shakespeare could 
write, "to gabble." 866349. 

After verbs of "denying" and "doubting" which convey a 
notion of hindrance, but is often thus used : 

" I doubt not but to ride as fast as York" Rich. II. ii. 5. 2. 
" I have no doubt (i.e. fear) about being prevented from riding ' 



84 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So I Hen. IV. ii. 2. 14 : 

" It must not he denied but I am a plain dealing villain." 

M. Ado, i. 3. 32. 

" There must be no denial to prevent my being supposed a plain- 
dealing villain." In the last passage, however, but is used transi- 
tionally, almost as an adversative. Compare 

"It cannot be but I am pigeon-livered," Hamlet, ii. 2. 605. 
which approximates to "It cannot be (that I am otherwise than a 
coward)," i.e. "it cannot be that I am courageous ; on the contrary 
(but adversative), I am pigeon-liver'd." 

The variable nature of but is illustrated by the fact that "believe 
not but," and "doubt not but," are used in the same signification : 

" We doubt not but every rub is smoothed." Hen. V. ii. 2. 187. 

i.e. "we have no doubt of a nature to prevent our believing that," 
&c. So Rich. II. v. 2. 115. But, on the other hand, 

" I'll not believe but they ascend the sky."J?icA. III. i. 3. 287. 

.ft " I'll not believe anything except (or 'otherwise than ') that they 
ascend. " 
In the first of these passages but is semi-adversative. 

" She is not so divine 
But with as humble lowliness of mind 
She is content to be at your command." I Hen. VI. v. 5. 18. 

i.e. " not so divine as to prevent that she should be content." 
" But" and " but that " are still thus used. 

123. But (in phrases like "there is no man but hates me," where 
a subject immediately precedes but) often expels the subject from 
the following relative clause. This perhaps arose in part from a 
reluctance to repeat a subject which was already emphatically ex 
pressed. See 244. For the same reason the relative is omitted in 
such expressions as 

"There is no creature loves me." Rich.. III. v. 3. 200. 

In such cases we still sometimes omit the subject, but perhaps not 
often where but is separated from the preceding subject, as in 

" There is no vice so simple but assumes 
Some mark of virtue in its outward parts." 

M. of V. iii. 2. 81. 
On the other hand, this omission is not found in the earliest stages 



CONJUNCTIONS. 85 

of the language (Matzner, iii. p. 469), and thus we find the subject 
frequently retained in Shakespeare : 

" I found no man but ht was true to me." J. C. v. 5. 35. 

" There's ne'er a villain dwelling in all Denmark 
But h^s an arrant knave." Hamlet, i. 5. 124. 

Less frequently but expels the object in the relative clause : 

" No jocund health that Denmark drinks to-day 
But the great cannon to the clouds shall tell." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 126. 

124. But meaning except may apply to an expressed contingency, 
as (1) 

"God defend but I should still be so." I Hen. IV. iv. 3. 38. 
i.e. " God forbid everything except (I should, &c.) " 

" But being charged we will be still by land." 

A. and C. iv. II. 1. 

Le. "Excepting the supposition of our being charged." 
(2) Sometimes the contingency is merely implied. 

" I should sin 
To think but (except I should think) nobly of my grandmother. " 

Temp. i. 2. 119. 

" Her head's declined and death will seize her, but 
Your comfort makes her rescue." A. and C. iii. II. 48. 

i.e. " only your comfort." 

The last passage illustrates the connection between but meaning 
only, and but used adversatively. 

125. But thus varying between an adversative and an exceptional 
force causes many ambiguities. Thus : 

' Whenever Buckingham doth turn his hate 
On you and yours, but with all duteous love 
Doth cherish you and yours, God punish me." 

Rich. III. ii. I. 38. 

Here but means "without," or "instead of, cherishing you." 

" You salute not at the court but you kiss your hands." 

A. Y. L. iii. 2. 50. 
i.e. " without kissing your hands. " 

126. But is not adversative, but means "if not," after "beshrew 
me."&c.: 



86 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Beshrew my soul but I do love," &c. K. J. v. 4. 50. 
So 3 Hen. VI. i. 4. 150. 

" The Gods rebuke me but it is tidings 
To wash the eyes of kings." A. and C. v. i. 27;$. v. ii. 103. 

Thus we explain : 

" I'll plead for you myself but you shall have him." 

T. ofSh. ii. i. 15. 

i.e, " I'll plead for you myself if you shall not have him otherwise ;" 
but it must be admitted that the above construction may be confused 
with " I may have to plead for you myself, but (adversative) in any 
case you shall have him." So 

" I should woo hard but be your groom," Cymb. iii. 6. 70. 

is, perhaps, a confusion between " if I could not be your groom 
otherwise " and " but in any case I would be your groom." In the 
last example, however, it is possible that there is an additional con 
tusion arising from the phrase : "It would go hard with me but" 

127. But in the sense of except frequently follows negative 
comparatives, where we should use than. 

"No more but instruments." M.for M. v. I. 237. 

Here two constructions.are blended, u Nothing except instruments" 
and " only instruments ; no more." So 

"No more dreadfully but as a drunken sleep.' 

M.for M. iv. 2. 150. 
" The which no sooner had his prowess confirm'd, 

/?w/like a man he died." Macbeth, v. 8. 42. 
"I think it be no other but even so." Hamlet, i. I. 108. 
" No more but tint." A. W. iii. 7. 80. 
"With no worse nor better guard but with a knave." 

Othello, i. i. 128. 
"Thou knowest no less bttt&\\."T. N. i. 4. 13. 

Sometimes but follows an adjective qualified by the negative 
with "so." 

"Not so dull but she can learn." M. of V. iii. 2. 164. 
So Chaucer : 

" I am but dede," fCnighte's Tale. 
svhere, omitting the negative n, we should say " I am but dead." 



CONJUNCTIONS. 87 

128. But passes naturally from "except" to "only," when the 
negative is omitted. ("No-but" or "nobbut" is still used pro- 
vincially for "only.") Thus : 

" No more but that, "A. W. iii. 7. 30. 
becomes " but that." 

" Glouc. What, and wouldst climb a tree 1 
Simple. But that in all my life." 2 Hen. VI. ii. I. 99. 

i.e. "no more but that one tree," or "only that one tree." 

" Cleo. Antony will be himself. 
Ant. But stirr'd by Cleopatra." A. and C, i. I. 43. 

i.e. "not except stirr'd," "only if stirr'd." 

"But sea-room, and (yTol.) the brine and billow kiss the 
moon, I care not." P. of-T. iii. I. 45. 

" Where Brutus may but find it." J. C. i. 3. 144. 
i.e. " Where Brutus can (do nothing) but find it," i.e., as we say, 
" cannot but find it." Possibly, however, but (see 129) may be 
transposed, and the meaning may be "Brutus only,"/>. "Brutus 
alone may find it." 

" He that shall speak for her is afai off guilty 
But that he speaks." W. T. ii. I. 105. 

i.e. " simply in that he speaks," " merely for speaking." 
The effect of the negative on but is illustrated by 

" But on this day let seamen fear no wreck." K. J. iii. i. 92. 

Here, at first, but might seem to mean "only," but the subsequent 
negative gives it the force of " except." 
But perhaps means " only " in 

' ' He boasts himself 

To have a worthy feeding : but I have it 
Upon his own report, and I believe it." W. T. iv. 4. 169. 

i.f. " I have it merely on his own report, and I believe it too." 
There is, perhaps, a studied ambiguity in the reply of Hamlet : 

" Guild. What should we say, my lord ? 
Hamlet. Anything but to the purpose. " Hamlet, ii. 2. 287. 

The ellipsis of the negative explains "neither" in the following 
difficult passage : 

" To divide him inventorily would dizzy the arithmetic of memory 
and yet but yaw neither (i.e. do nothing but lag clumsily behind 
neither) in respect of his quick sail." Hamlet, v. 2. 120. 



88 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Neither" for our "either" is in Shakespeare's manner, aftei 
a negative expressed or implied. 
But means " setting aside" in 

" What would my lord, but that (which) he may not have, 
Wherein Olivia may seem serviceable." T. N. v. I. 104. 

Such instances as this, where but follows not a negative but a 
superlative, are rare : 

"Pistol. Sweet knight, thou art now one of the greatest men in 
this realm. 

Silent. By"re lady, I think 'a be, but goodman Puff of Barson. " 

2 Hen. IV. v. 3. 98. 
But seems used for " but now" in 

" No wink, sir, all this night, 
Nor yesterday : but (but now) slumbers." B. J. Fox, i. I. 

129. But (like excepted and except} varies in its position. Simi 
larly "only" varies with us: we can say either "one only" or 
"only one." 

" This very morning but." B. J. Sad Sh. ii. 2. 
Le. " only this morning." 

" Where one but goes abreast " Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 155. 
for " but one" or " one only." 

"But'm these fields of late." Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 188. 
for "but of late." 

' ' A summer's day will seem an hour but short." V. and A . 

' ' Betwixt them both but was a little stride. " 

SPENS. F. Q. ii. 7. 24. 

"And when you saw his chariot but appear." y. C. L T. 48. 
I.& "his chariot merely" or "but his chariot." 

"Your oaths are words and poor conditions but unseal'd." 

A. W. iv. 2. 30. 
i.g. "merely unsealed agreements." 

130. The same forgetfulness of the original meaning of words 
which led to "more better," &c., led also to the redundant use ol 
kit In " but only," " merely but" " but even," ,fcc. 

" Merely but art" L. C. 25. 

' ' He only lived but till he was a man." Macbeth, v. 8. 40. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 89 

" My lord, your son had only but the corpse." 

2 Hen. IV. L i. 192. 
11 Even but now " for " but now." 

M. of V. v. i. 272j ^4. F. L. u. 7. 3. 

".ffw/ a zwy prey to vroe."Rich. III. iv. 4. 106. 

' ' Augustus, 

In the bestowing of his daughter, thought 
But even of gentlemen of Rome." B. J. Sejan. iii. 2, 

Probably like "merely but." 

So " Even just. "Hen. V. ii. 3. 12. 

"But now," like "even now" (38), is capable of different mean 
ings : "a moment ago" and "at the present moment." 

"But now I was the lord 
Of this fair mansion, and even now, but now 
This house, these servants, and this same myself 
Are yours." M. of V. iii. 2. 171. 

For. See 151. 

131. Or (before). Orm this sense is a corruption of A.-S. at 
(Eng. ere), which is found in Early English in the forms er, air, 
ar, ear, or, eror. 

" Or (before) he have construed." ASCH. 95. 

As this meaning of or died out, it seems to have been combined 
with ere for the sake of emphasis. Thus : 

" Dying or ere they sicken." Macbeth, iv. 3. 173 ; 

K. J. v. 6. 44 ; Temp. v. I. 103. 

We find in E. E. "erst er," "bifore er," "before or" (Matzner, 
iii. 451). 

Another explanation might be given. Ere has been conjectured 
to be a corruption of e'er, ever, and "or ever" an emphatic form 
like "whenever," "wherever." "Ever" is written "ere" in 
Sonn. 93, 133. And compare " Or ever your pots be made hot with 
thorns." Ps_. Iviii. 

Against the latter explanation is the fact that "ever" is much 
more common than "ere." It is much more likely that "ever" 
should be substituted for "ere" than "ere" for "ever." For 
Or ... or, see 136. 



go SHAKESPK.ARTAN GRAMMAR. 

132. Since* seems used for when in 

" Beseech you, sir, 

Remember since you owed no more to time 
Than I do now." W. T. v. i. 219. 

" Remember the time past when you," &c. 

" We know the time since he was mild and affable." 

2 Hen. VI. i.'i. i. 9. 
"Thou rememberest 
Since once I sat upon a promontory." M. N. D. ii. I. 149. 

"This fellow I remember 
Since once he play'd a fanner's eldest son. " 

T. ofSh. Ind. i. 84. 
So 2 Hen. IV. iii. 2. 206. 

This meaning of since arises from the omission of "it is" in such 
phrases as " it is long since I saw you," when condensed into "long 
since, I saw you." Thus since acquires the meaning of "ago," "in 
past time," adverbially, and hence is used conjunctively for " when, 
long ago." 

Since (like the adverb) is found connected with a simple present 
where we use the complete present (so in Latin) : 

" Since the youth of the count was to-day with my lady, she is 
much out of quiet." T. N. ii. 3. 144. 

More remarkable is the use of the simple past for the complete 
present : 

" I was not angry since I came to France 
Until this instant." Hen. V. iv. 7. 58. 

Note "Whip him . . . 

So saucy with the hand of she here, what's her name? 
Since she was Cleopatra," A. and C. iii. 13. 99. 

Perhaps the meaning is " Whip him for being saucy with this 
woman, since (though she is not now worthy of the name) she 
once -was (emphatical) Cleopatra." Else "What is her new name 
since she ceased to be Cleopatra ?" If since, in the sense of " ago," 
could be used absolutely for "once," a third interpretation would 
be possible: " What's her name ? Once she was Cleopatra." 

* The old form sitk occurs several times in Shakespeare, and mostly in the 
metaphorical meaning "because." SftA in Hamlet, ii. 2. 12, is an exception. 
Sith in A.-S. meant "late," "later;" " sith-tkan," "after that." Sithenci 
(Chaucer, "sethens," "sins"} is found twice in Shakespeare. 



CONJUNCTIONS. gi 

133. So is used with the* future and the subjunctive to denott 
provided that." 

" I am content so thou wilt have it so." R. and y. iii. 5. 18. 
"Soil be new, there's no respect how vile." Rich. II. ii i. 25. 
So seems to mean "in this way," "on these terms," and the full 
construction is "be it (if it be) so that." "Be it" is inserted in 

" Be it so (that) she will not. ' ~~M. N. D. i. i. 39. 
"That" is inserted in Chaucer, Piers Ploughman, &c. 

"(Be it) So that ye be not wrath." CHAUCER, C. T. 7830. 
means " provided you will not be angry." So 

" Poor queen ! So that thy state might be no worse 
I would my skill were subject to thy curse." 

Rich. II. iii. 4. 102. 

So, thus meaning "on condition that," is sometimes used where 
the context implies the addition of "even." 

" Messenger. Should I lie, madam? 

Cleopatra. O, I would thou didst 

So (even if) half my Egypt were submerged." A. and C. ii. 5. 94. 

Sometimes the subjunctive inflection is neglected and "so as" ia 
used for "so that." 

" So as thou livest in peace, die free from strife." 

Rich. II. v. 5. 27. 

We must distinguish the conditional "so heaven help me" from 
the optative " so defend thee heaven" (Rich. II. i. 3. 34), where tht 
order of the words indicates that "be it . . . that" cannot be under 
stood. Here so means "on the condition of my speaking the truth," 
and is not connected with defend. Compare Rich. III. ii. i. 11, 16. 
See also 275-283. 

That. See Relative. 

That omitted before the subjunctive. See 311. 

134. Where is frequently used metaphorically as we now use 
whereas. 

" It (the belly) did remain 
I 1 the midst o' the body idle and unactive 

-where the other instruments 

Did see and hear, devise," &c. Coriol. i. I. 102. 

foi " whereas the other instruments did," &c. Comp. Coriol. i. 10. 1& 
So Lear, i. 2. 89 ; Rich. II. iii. 2. 186. 



92 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

135. Whereas, on the other hand, -is used for where in 

" Unto St. Alban's 
Whereas the king and queen do mean to hawk.' 

2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 58. 

" They back returned to the princely place ; 
Whereas ... a knight . . . they new arrived find." 

SPENS. F. Q. i. 4. 38. 

So " where-that." Hen. V. v. Prologue, 17. Probably both "as" 
and "that" were added to give a relative meaning to the (originally) 
interrogative adverb where. See 287. 

136. Whether is sometimes used after "or" where we should 
omit one of the two : 

" Or whether doth my mind, being crown'd with you, 
Drink up the monarch's plague, this flattery ? 
Or whether shall I say mine eye saith true," &c. Sonn. \ 14. 

" Move those eyes? 
Or whether riding on the balls of mine 
Seem they in motion ?" M. of V. iii. 2. 18. 
" Or whether his fall enraged him, or how it was." 

Coriol. i. 3. 69. 

The first example is perhaps analogous to the use of " or . . . or," 
as in 

" Why the law Salique which they have in France 
Or should or should not bar us in our claim. " 

Hen. V. i. 2. 12 ; T. N. iv. I. 65. 

There is, perhaps, a disposition to revert to the old idiom in 
which the two particles were similar : "other . . . other." (The 
contraction of "other" into "or" is illustrated by "whe'r" foi 
"whether" inO.E. and the Elizabethan dramatists.) Perhaps, also, 
additional emphasis is sought by combining two particles. We 
find "whether. . . or whether?" to express direct questions in 
A.nglo-Saxon. In the second example a previous "whether" is 
implied in the words "move those eyes?" 

137. While (originally a noun meaning "time"). Hence 
"z-while," "(for) a time;" "the while," "(in) the (mean) time;" 
" wAil-om " ( " om " being a dative plural inflexion used adverbially), 
"at a (former) time;" " wMe-ere " ( Temp. iii. 2. 127), "a time 
before," i.e. "formerly." 

So whiles (genitive of while) means "of, or during, the time." 



PREPOSITIONS. 93 

The eailiest use of while is still retained in the modern phrase "all 
the -while that he was speaking." " The -while that," from a very 
early period, is used in the condensed form "the -while," or "uhile 
that" or while; and whiles was similarly used as a conjunc 
tion. 

While now means only "during the time when," but in Eliza 
bethan English both while and whiles meant also "up to the time 
when." (Compare a similar use of "dum" in Latin and ej in 
Greek.) 

" We will keep ourself 

Till supper-time alone. While (till) then, God be with you. " 

Macbeth, iii. I. 43. 
" I'll trust you while your father's dead." 

MASSINGER (Nares). 
" He shall conceal it 
Whiles you are willing it shall come to note." T. N. iv. 3. 28. 

" Let the trumpets sound 
While we return these dukes what we decree. 

[A long flourish. 
Draw near, &c."XftA. II. i. 3. 122. 



PREPOSITIONS. 

138. Prepositions primarily represent local relations; secondarily ' 
and metaphorically, agency, cause, &c. A preposition (as after, see 
below) may be used metaphorically in one age and literally in the 
next, or vice versa. This gives rise to many changes in the meaning 
ot prepositions. 

The shades of different meaning which suggest the use of different 
prepositions are sometimes almost indistinguishable. 

We say, "a canal is full of water." There is no reason why we 
should not also say "full with water," as a garden is "fair with 
flowers." Again, " a canal is filled with water," the verb in modern 
English preferring with to signify instrumentality, but "filled of 
water " is conceivable ; and, as a matter of fact, Shakespeare does 
write "furnished of, provided of, supplied of" for with. Lastly the 
water may be regarded as an agent, and then we say, " the canal is 
filled by the water." But an action may be regarded as u of n the 
agent, as well as " 6j>" the agent, and "v/" is frequently thus used 
in the A. V. of the Bible and in Elizabethan authors, as well as 



94 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

in E. E. For these reasons the use of prepositions, depending 
upon the fashion of metaphor in different ages, is very variable. 
It would be hard to explain why we still say, "I live on bread," 
but not " Or have we eaten on the insane root?" (Macb. i. 3. 84) ; 
as hard as to explain why we talk of a "high" price or rate, 
while Beaumont and Fletcher speak of a " deeper rate." 

139. Prepositions: modern tendency to restrict their 
meaning. 

Onegeneral rule may be laid down, that the meanings of the pre 
positions are more restricted now than in the Elizabethan authors : 
partly because some of the prepositions have been pressed into the 
ranks of the conjunctions, e.g. "for," "but," "after;" partly 
because, as the language has developed, new prepositional ideas having 
sprung up and requiring new prepositional words to express them, 
the number of prepositions has increased, while the scope of each has 
decreased. Thus many of the meanings of "by" have been divided 
among "near," "in accordance with," "by reason of," "owing 
to;" "but" has divided some of its provinces among "unless," 
" except ;" " for" has been in many cases supplanted by " because 
of," "as regards;" "in" by "during." 

140. A. Ben Jonson in his Grammar, p. 785, writes thus : 
" A hath also the force of governing before a noun ' And the Pro 
tector had layd to her for manner's sake that she was a council 
with the Lord Hastings to destroy him.' Sir T. MORE." 

" Forty and six years was this temple a building." 

St. John ii. 20. 

The present text is in, but Cranmer and Tyndalehad "a." 
This a, which still exists in alive, afoot, asleep, &c. is a contrac 
tion of A.-S. on or the less common form an. We find in Early 
English "on live," "on foot," "on hunting," "on sleep;" "a 
morrow and eke an eve," for " by morning and also by evening ; " 
"a land and a water," Piers PL (where some MSS. have on), 
" (for in) God's name," "an end" for "on the (at the) end." 
In the Folio we sometimes find a where we write o' : 

"What is 't a clocke?" Rich. III. v. 3. 47. 
See Adverbs, 24 



PREPOSITIONS. 95 

141. After ("following," Latin "secundum," hence "according 
to"). 

"Say, you chose him, 

More after our commandment than as guided 
By your own true affections." Coriol. ii. 3. 238. 
1 After my seeming." 2 Hen. IV. v. 2. 128. 

Compare " Neither reward us after our iniquities," in our Prayer- 
book. 

After is now used only of space or time, except in " after the pattern, 
example, &c.," where the sense requires the metaphorical meaning. 

142. Against used metaphorically to express time. This is now 
restricted to colloquial language : 

"I'll charm his eyes against she do appear." M.N.D. iii. 2. 99. 
i.e. "against the time that she do appear." Any preposition, as 
"for," "in," can thus be converted into a conjunction by affixing 
" that," and the "that" is frequently omitted. 
" Against (the time that) my love shall be as I am now." Sonn. 63. 

"'Gainst that season comes." Hamlet, i. I. 158. 

"As against the doom." Ib. iii. 4. 50. 
i.e\ "as though expecting doom's-day." 

143. At. The use of a mentioned in 140 was becoming unin 
telligible and vulgar in Shakespeare's time, and he generally uses at 
instead. The article is generally omitted in the following and 
similar adverbial forms. 

"All greeting that a king at friend can send his brother." 

W. T. v. I. 140. 

"The vmA at help." Hamlet, iv. 3. 46. 
" At shore." MONTAIGNE. "At door." W. T. iv. 4. 352. 
" (A ship) that lay at rode."N. P. 177. 
"As true a dog as ever fought at head." T. A. v. I. 102. 
" Bring me but out at gate." Coriol. iv. I. 47. 
" At point." Coriol. v. 4. 64; Cymb. iii. 6. 17. 
But " When they were fallen at a point for rendering up the hold." 

HOLINSHED, Duncane. 

The at of price generally requires an adjective or article, as wreU 
as a noun, after it, except in "at all" We have, however, 

" If my love thou hold'st at aught," Hamlet, iv. 3. 60 
i.e. "at a whit " 



96 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

In Early English at does not seem to have been thus extensively 
used. It then was mostly used (Stratmann) in the sense of " at the 
hands of" (-vpos with gen.) : " I ask at, take leave at, learn at a 
person," &c. 

At is used like "near" with a verb of motion where we should 
use "up to :" 

" I will delve one yard below their mines, 
And blow them at the moon. " Hamlet, iii. 4. 209. 

In "Follow him at foot," Ib. iv. 3. 56. 
at is not "on" but "near," as in "at his heels." 

144, At, when thus used in adverbial expressions, now rejects 
adjectives and genitives as interfering with adverbial brevity. Thus 
we can say " at freedom," but not 

"At honest freedom." Cymb. iii. 3. 71. 
"At ample view." T. N. i. i. 27. 
" At a mournful war." Sonn. 46. 
" At heart's ease." J. C. i. 2. 207. 
We say "at loose," but not 
"Time . . . often at his very loose decides 
That which long process could not arbitrate," L. L. L. v. 2. 752. 

where "loose" means "loosing" or "parting." 
So we say " aside," but not 

"To hang my head all at one side." Othello, iv. 3. 22. 
We say "at the word," but, with the indefinite article, "in a 
word," not 

"No, at a word, madam." Coriol. i. 3. 122. 
It is, perhaps, on account of this frequent use of at in terse 
adverbial phrases that it prefers monosyllables to dissyllables. Thus 
we have "at night" and "at noon," and sometimes "at eve" and 
"at mqrn," but rarely "at evening" or "at morning," except 
where "at morning" is conjoined with "at night," as in 
"At morning and a/ night" M. of V. iii. 2. 279. 
London was not so large as it now is when Shakespeare wrote 
"Inquire at London." Rich. II. v. 3. 51. 

145. By (original meaning "near"). Hence our "to come fy 
a thing," i.e. "to come near" or "attain." 

" (How) cam'st thou by this ill tidings ?" Rich. II. iii. 4. 80. 
" I'll come liy (i.e. acquire) Naples." Temp, il I. 292. 



PREPOSITIONS. 97 

By is used in a manner approaching its original meaning in 

" Fed his flocks 
By (on) the fat plains of fruitful Thessaly." 

B. and F. Fair Sh. L I. 

"At a fair vestal throned by the west." M. N. D. ii. I. 68. 
So Wickliffe: "By (on) everi Saboth," Acts xiii. 27. Somewhat 
similar is our present colloquial "by this" of time; an expression 
which is found in 

" Of the poor suppliant who bv this I know 
Is here attending." A. W. v. 3. 134; Lear, iv. 6. 45. 

This is illustrated by the play on "by your favour," where favour 
means also "complexion," "face," in 

" Duke. Thine eye 

Hath stay'd upon some favour that it loves, 
Hath it not, boy ? 

Viola. A little, by your favour." 7. N. ii. 4. 26. 

Compare also the puns in T. AT. iii. I. 2-10. 
Hence "about," "concerning." 

" How say you by the French lord?" M. of V. \. 2. 60. 
" Tell me, sirrah, but tell me true, I charge you, 
By him and by this woman here what know you ?" 

A. W. v. 3. 237. 
" I would not have him know so much by me." 

L. L. L. iv. 3. 150. 

" I know nothing by myself," I Cor. iv. 4 (no harm about myself), 
" Many may be meant by (to refer to) the fool multitude." 

M. of V. ii. 9. 25. 
Compare B. J. Poetast. v. I : 

" Lupus. Is not that eagle meant by Csesar, ha ? .... 

Casar. Who was it, Lupus, that inform'd you first 
This should be meant by us ?" 

Hence from near came the meaning like, according to. 

" It lies you on to speak 

Not by your cwn instruction, nor by the matter 
Which your own heart prompts you." Coriol. iii. 2. 53. 

"And him by oath they duly honoured." R. of L. 410. 
i.e. " according to their oath." 

" Not friended by his wish, to your high person 
His will is most malignant. "Hen. VIII. i. 2. 140 

t.e. " in accordance with his wish," " to his heart's content. 

H 



98 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

11 If my brother wrought by my pity it should not be so." 

M.forM. in. 2. 224 
" I will believe you by the syllable 
Of what you shall deliver/' P. of T. v. I. 170. 

So, where we say "to the sound of:" 

" Sound all the lofty instruments of war, 
And by that music let us all embrace." 

By seems to mean "near," hence "with," in 

" (My daughter) hath his solicitings, 
As they fell out by time, by means and place, 
All given to mine ear." Hamlet, ii. 2. 127. 

Perhaps we may thus explain : 

" I'll trust by leisure him that mocks me once." T. A. i I. 301 
i.f. "in accordance with, to suit, my leisure." 
The use of by in 

"The people . . . bv numbers swarm to us," 

3 Hen. VI. iv. z 2. 
is the jame as in 

"By ones, by twos, by threes." CorioJ. ii. 3. 47. 
By, in the sense of "near," like our "about" (Acts xiii. 21, 
Wick, "by fourti yeeris," the rest "about"), Greek itard, was used 
from the first in rough distributive measurements in E. E. : " He 
smote to the ground by three, by four," "by nine and ten," "by 
one and one." So 

" I play the torturer by small and small 
To lengthen- out the worst that must be said. " 

Rich. II. iii. 2. 189. 

i.e. "in lengthening out by little and little." Hence, perhaps, from 
" by one by one " sprang our shorter form, " one by one," " little by 
little ;" though it is possible that "one by one " means "one next to 
or after one. " 

By is used as a noun in the expression " on the by " (as one 
passes by). B. J. 746. 

We still use by as an adverb after "close," "hard," &c., but 
we should scarcely say, 

"I stole into a neighbour thicket by." L. L. L. v. 2. 94. 

146. By ("near," " folio wing close after," hence "as a con 
sequence of "). 



PREPOSITIONS, 99 

' ' The bishop of York, 
Fell Warwick's brother, and, by that, our foe." 

3 Hen. VI. iv. 4. 12. 
"Lest, by a multitude 
The new-heal'd wound of malice should break out" 

Rich. III. ii. 2. 124. 
" So the remembrance of my former love 

Is by a newer object quite forgotten." J?. andj. ii. 4, 194. 
"Fear'd by their breed and famous by their birth." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 52. 

Hence sometimes it seems to be (but is not) used instrumentally 
with adjectives which appear to be (but are not) used as passive verbs. 
By does not mean "by means of," but "as a consequence of," in 
"An eagle sharp by fast." V. and A. 55. 
" Oh how much more does beauty beauteous seem 

By that sweet ornament which truth doth give." Sonn. 
" Laer. Where is my father ? 
King. Dead ! 

Queen. But not by him." 

Hamlet, iv. 5. 128. 

147. For (original meaning "before," "in front of "). A man 
who stands in front of another in battle may either stand as his friend 
for him or as his foe against him. Hence two meanings of for, 
the former the more common.* 

148. (I.) For, meaning "in front of," is connected with "instead 
of," " in the place of," " as being." 

" Or for the lawrell he may gain a scorne." 

B. J. on Shakespeare 
i.e. " instead of the laurel." 

" See what now thou art, 
For happy wife, a most distressed widow, 
For joyful mother, one that wails the name, 
For queen, a very caitiff crown'd with care." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 98. 

"Thyself a queen,yfcr me that was a queen." Ib. i 3. 202. 
Between this and the following meanings we may place 
" Learn now, for all." Cymb. ii. 3. 111. 
" This is for all" Hamlet, i. 3. 181. 
t.e. " once instead of, or in the place of, all." 

* Comp. uvt>, which in composition denotes against, and at other ti'nr.s intttail 
tf.far. 



joo SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" I abjure 

The taints and blames I laid upon myself 
For (as being) strangers to my nature." Macbeth, iv. 3. 125. 
" Conscience ... is turned out of all towns and cities for a 
dangerous thing." Rich. III. i. 4. 146. 

" How often have I sat crown'd with fresh flowers 
For summer's queen !" 15. and F. Fair Sh. i. i. 

Hence for is nearly redundant in 

"Let the forfeit 
Be nominated for an equal pound." M. of V. i. 3. 15C. 

There is a play on the word in 

" On went \vtfor a search, and away went I/or (packed up in a 
basket and treated like) old clothes. "-M. W. of W. iii. 5. 100. 
" Three dukes of Somerset three-fold renown'd 
For hardy and undoubted champions. " 3 Hen. VI. v. 7. 6. 

(Where probably hardy means Fr. hardi, "bold;" and "un 
doubted " means " not frightened," " doubt " like " fear " being 
used for "frighten.") 

Perhaps for comes under this head in 

" What is lie for a fool that betroths himself to unquietness." 

M. Ado, i. 3. 49 

i.e. " WTiat is he, as being a fool." It is more intelligible when the 
order is changed: "For a fool, what is he," i.e. "considered as a 
fool it being granted that he is a fool what kind of fool is he?" 
So " What is he/or a vicar?" B. J. Sil. Wont, iii. I. med. 
So in German "was fur ein?" 

149. For is hence loosely used in the sense " as regards." 

" It was young counsel for the persons and violent counsel for 
the matter." B. E. 75. 

Very commonly this for stands first, before an emphatic subject or 
object, which is intended to stand in a prominent and emphatic 
position : 

" For your desire to know what is between us, 

O'er-master it as you may." Hamlet, i. 5.139; 2. 112. 
" Now, for the taking of Sicily, the Athenians did marvellously 
covet it." N. P. 171. 

" For your intent, 
It is most retrograde to our desires." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 112 ; Rich. //. v. 3. 137. 



PREPOSITIONS. 101 

" For a certain term," "for seven days, a day" (or even "for the 
day " where one day is meant), is still customary, but not 

" Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night, 
And for the day confined to fast in fires." Hamlet, i. 4. 11. 

150. For, from meaning "in front of," came naturally to mean 
"in behalf of," "for the sake of," "because of." 

"Yet I must not (kill Banquo openly), 
For certain friends that are both his and mine." 

Macbeth, iii. i. 120. 
i.e. "because of certain friends." 

This use was much more common than with us. When we refer 
to the past we generally use "because of," reserving for for the 
future. Compare, on the other hand : 

" O be not proud, nor brag not of thy might, 
For mastering her that foil'd the God of fight." 

V. and A, 114, 
" He gave it out that he must depart for certain news." 

N. P. 179 
" No way to that, for weakness, which she enter'd." 

i Hen. VI. iii. 2. 2f. 
t.e. " no way can be compared for weakness with that," &c. 

" Of divers humours one must be chiefly predominant, but it is 
not with so full an advantage but, for the volubilitie and supplenes 
of the mind, the weaker may by occasion reobtaine the place again. " 
MONTAIGNE, 116. 

For is similarly used with an ellipse of " I lay a wager " in 

" "Now, for my life, she's wandering to the Tower." 

Rich. III. iv. i. 3. 

151. For, in the sense of "because of," is found not only 
governing a noun, but also governing a clause : 

" You may not so extenuate his offence 
For I have had such faults." M.for M. ii. i. 28. 

Le. " because I have had such faults." 

" ('Tis ungrateful) to be thus opposite with heaven, 
For (because) it requires the royal debt it lent you." 

Rich. HI. ii. 2. 96. 

So Othello, i 3. 269 ; Cymb. iv. 2. 129. And parenthetically vet- 
frequently : 



IM SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" The canker-blossoms have as deep a dye 
As the perfumed tincture of the roses, 
But/0r their virtue only is their shew, 
They live unwoo'd, and unrespected fade." Sonn. 54. 

"Oh, it is as lawful, 
For we would give much, to use violent thefts. " 

Tr. and Cr. v. I. 2L 
t.e. to rob, " because we wish to be generous." 

With the future, for meant "in order that." 

" And, for the time shall not seem tedious, 
I'll tell thee what befel me." 3 Hen. VI. iii. i. 10 

The desire of clearness and emphasis led to the addition of because, 
" But/or because it liketh well our eyes." N. P. Pref. 
" And for because the world is populous." Rick. II. v. 5. 3. 
Comp. " but only " " more better" &c. 

For, when thus followed by a verb, like after, before^ &c. ("after 
he came," "before he went"), is called a conjunction. It is often, 
like other prepositions (287) thus used, followed by "that" 
Coriol. iii. 3. 93, &c. The two uses occur together in the following 
passage, which well illustrates the transition offer : 

" I hate him for he is a Christian, 
But more for that ... he lends," &c. M. of V. i. 3. 43. 

152. For to, which is now never joined with the infinitive except 
by a vulgarism, was very common in E. E. and A. -S., and is not 
uncommon in the Elizabethan writers. It probably owes its origin 
to the fact that the prepositional meaning of "to" was gradually 
weakened as it came to be considered nothing but the sign of the 
infinitive. Hence for was added to give the notion of motion or 
purpose. Similarly in Danish and Swedish (Matzner, ii. p. 54) " for 
at " is used. Both in E. E. and in Elizabethan writers the for is 
sometimes added to the latter of two infinitives as being, by a longer 
interval, disconnected from the finite verb, and therefore requiring 
an additional connecting particle : 

" First, honour'd Virgin, to behold thy face 
Where all good dwells that is ; next_/frr to try," &c. 

B. and F. Fair Sh. v. I. 
For the same reason : 

"Let your highness 

Lay a more noble thought upon mine honour 
Than for to think that I would sink it here." A. W. v. 3. 181 



PREPOSITIONS. 103 

From the earliest period "for to," like "to," is found used 
without any notion of purpose, simply as the sign of the infinitive. 
So in Shakespeare : 

" Forbid the sea. for to obey the moon." W. T. i. 2. 427. 

153. For, Variable. The following passage illustrates the 
variableness of for : 

" Princes have but their titles for (to represent) their glories, 
An outward honour for (as the reward of) an inward toil, 
And for (for the sake of gaining) unfelt (unsubstantial) imagi 
nation 
They often feel a world of restless cares." Rich.III. i. 4. 78-80. 

154. (II.) For (in opposition to) : hence "to prevent." 

" And over that an habergeon/or percing of his herte." 

CHAUCER, Sire TAofas, 13790. 
" Love. Is there an officer there ? 

Off. Yes, two or three for failing." B. J. Alch. v. 3. 
" The which he will not every hour survey 

For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure." Sonn. 52. 
" We'll have a bib_/0r spoiling of thy doublet." 

B. and F. (Nares). 

So it is said of Procrustes, that if his victim was too long for the 
bed, " he cut off his legs for catching cold." Euphues (Malone). 

It can be proved that Sir T. North regarded for as meaning " in 
spite of," since he translates " Mais, nonobstant toutes ces raisons," 
by "But, for all these reasons," (N. P. 172); where the context 
also shows beyond dispute that for has this meaning. On the other 
hand, in 

" All out of work and cold for action," Hen. V. \. 2. 114. 
for seems to mean "for want of." .But compare T. S. iv. 3. 9. 
"starv'd for meat," where (as in the modern "badly off, well off 
for coals, &c.") "for" means "in respect of." 

For is found in E. E. in this sense, but perhaps always with thi 
emphatic "all." 

For in this sense is sometimes used as a. conjunction : 

" For all he be a Roman." Cymb. v. 4. 209. 
i.e. " Despite that he be a Roman." 

Fot may either mean " against " or (149) " for what concerns " in 
" I warrant him for drowning." Temp. i. i. 49, 



ro 4 

We still retain the use of for in the sense of in spite of, as in 
"for all your plots I will succeed." Such phrases, however, fre 
quently contain a negative, in which case it is difficult to ascertain 
whether for means because of or in spite of. 

" My father is not deady&r all your saying." 

Macbeth, iv. 2. 36. 

" (The stars) will not take their flight 
For all the morning light." MILTON, Hymn on the Nativity. 

It is a question how to punctuate 

"To fall off 

From their Creator and transgress his will 
For one restraint lords of the world besides." 

MILTON, P. L. i. 32. 

If a comma be placed after "will," and not after "restraint," then 
"besides" should be treated as though it were "except" or "but:" 
" I/ords of the world but for one restraint." 

155. For is sometimes ready for, fit for. (See 405.) 

" He isforno gallants' company without them." 

B. J. E. in &>c. i. I. 

"Your store is not for idle markets." T. N. iii. 3. 46. 
Compare our " I am for (going to) Paris." 

Some ellipsis, as " I pray," must be understood in 

" (I pray) God for his mercy. "Rich. II. ii. 2. 98 ; v. 2. 75. 

156. Forth is used as a preposition (from) : 

" Steal fort A thy father's house." M. N. D. i. i. 164. 
" Loosed them forth their brazen caves." 

2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 89, and I Hen. VI. i. 2. 54 

Sometimes with "of" or "from :" 

" That wash'd his father's fortunes forth of France." 

3 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 157. 

So Rich. II. iii. 2. 204-5; Temp. v. I. 160. The "of" in itself 
implies motion from. (See 165.) 

"From forth the streets of Pomfret" K. J. iv. 2. 148. 
So Rich. II. ii. I. 106. 

Forth, being thus joined with prepositions less emphatic than 

itself, gradually assumed a prepositional meaning, displacing the 

prepositions. Forth is not found as a preposition in E. E. See 

also Prepositions omitted. 



PREPOSITIONS. 105 

157. From is sometimes joined with out, to signify outwaid 
motion, where we use out of. 

1 f In purchasing the semblance of my soul 

From out the state of hellish cruelty." M. of V. iii. 4. 20. 
"From out the fiery portal of the East," Rich. II. iii. 3. 64. 

158. From is frequently used in the sense of "apart from," 
"away from," without a verb of motion. 

"From thence (i.e. away from home) the sauce to meat is 

ceremony." Macbeth, iii. 4. 36. 

" I am best pleased to 'b&from such a deed." K. J. iv. I. 86. 
"Which is from (out of) my remembrance." Temp. i. I. 65. 
"They run themselvesyfrww breath." B. J. Cy.'s Rev. i. I. 
" Clean from the purpose." J. C. i. 3. 35. 
"This discourse is from the subject" B. and F. Eld. S.v. I. 
"This is from my commission." T. N. i. 5. 208. 
"Anything so overdone is from the purpose of playing." 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 22. 

"This \sfrom the present." A. and C. ii. 6. 30. 
Hence " differently from : " 

" Words him a great de&lfrom the matter." Cymb. i. 4, 16. 
i.e. "describes him in a manner departing from the truth." 

"This label on my bosom whose containing 
Is so from sense in hardness." Cymb. v. 5. 431. 

" Write from it, if you can, in hand and phrase." 

T. N. v. i. 340. 

' ' For he is superstitious grown of late 
Quite from the main opinion he held once." J. C. ii. I. 196. 

" So from himself impiety hath wrought." R. of L. 

"To be so odd and from all fashions." M. Ado, iii. I. 72. 

" Particular addition from the bill 
That writes them all alike." Macbeth, iii. I. 100. 

This explains the play on the word in 

" Queen. That thou dost love thy daughter from thy soul." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 258. 

" I wish you all the joy that you can wish, 
For I am sure you can wish none from me." 

M.ofV. iii. 2. 192. 

i.e. "none differently from me," " none which I do not wish you." 
This is probably the correct interpretation of the last passage. So 
Othello, i. i. 182. 



io6 SUAXESPSARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"If aught possess theefrom me." C. of E. il 2. 180. 
Also "apart from :" 

" Nay, that's my own/rom any nymph in the court." 

B. J. Cy.'sfitv. il i. 
"From thee to die were torture more than death." 

2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 401. 

159. In, like the kindred preposition on (Chaucer uses "in a hill" 
for "on a hill"), was used with verbs of motion as well as rest 
We still say " he fell in love," " his conduct came in question." 

" He fell in a kind of familiar friendship with Socrates." 

N. P. 192. 
"Duncane fell in fained communion with Sueno." 

HOLINSHED. 

"In so profound abysm I throw all care." Sonn. 112. 
" Cast yourself in wonder." J. C. i. 3. 60. 
''Sounds of music creep in our ears." M. of V. v. 1. 56. 
"They who brought me in my master's hate." 

Rich. III. iii. 2. 56. 
"But first I'll turn yon fellow in his grave." 

16.1 2. 262; 3. 88. 

" And throw them in the entrails of a wolf." Ib. iv. 3. 23. 
" If ever ye came in hell." UDALL. 

In (for "into") with "enter," Rich. II. ii. 3. 160 ; Rich. III. v. 
3. 227. 

Into is conversely sometimes found with verbs of rest implying 
motion. "Is all my armour laid into my tent ?" Rich. III. v. 5. 51. 
"Confin'd into this rock." Tempest, i. 2. 361. 
" To appear into the world." MONTAIGNE, 224. 
And earlier " Hid into three measures of meal." WICKLIFFE, 
Luke TOM.. 21. 

160. In for on : 

" What in your own part (side) can you say to this ?" 

Othello, i. 3. 74. 

So in the phrase "in the neck," where we should say "on the 
neck " or "on the heels." 

" Soon after that depriv'd him of his life 
And, in the neck of that, task'd the whole state." 

I Hen. IV. iv. 3. 9'4. 



PREPOSI TION <T. 107 

The same phrase occurs Sonn. 131 ; MONTAIGNE, 17; N. P. 172. 
"/ pain of your dislike." 2 /. P7. Hi. 2. 257. 

161. In for "during" or "at." In has now almost lost its 
metaphorical use applied to time. As early as the sixteenth century 
" In the day of Sabbath " (WlCKLlFFE, Acts xiii. 14) was replaced 
by "on." It is still retained where the proper meaning of "in," 
" in the limits of," is implied, as with plurals, " Once in ten days" 
or "for once in my life," or "he does more in one day than others 
in two." Thus A. V. Gen. viii. 4, "In the seventh month, on the 
eighteenth day." We also find frequently in the A. V. "In the 
day of the Lord, in the day when," &c. " in the day of judgment." 
This may in part be due to a desire -to retain the more archaic 
idiom, as being more solemn and appropriate ; but perhaps the 
local meaning of in may be here recognized. We still say " in 
this calamity, crisis," &c. where we mean "entangled in, sur- 
rounded by the perils of this calamity ;" and some such meaning 
may attach to "in" when we say "In the day of tribulation, 
vengeance," &c. Occasionally, however, we find "at the day of 
judgment " (Matt. xi. 22), as also in Shakespeare in the only passage 
where this phrase occurs. Shakespeare frequently uses in for " at " 
or "during." 

" How ! the duke in council 
In this time of the night." Othello, i. 2. 93. 
" In night." V. and A. 720. 
" In all which time." Rich. III. i. 3. 127. 
" In such a night as this." M. of V. v. I. 1, 6, 9. 

"This is, sir, a doubt 
In such a time as this, nothing becoming you." 

Cymb. iv. 4. 15. 
" Nay, we will slink away in supper-time." M. ofV. ii. 4. 1. 

162. In metaphorically used for "in the case of," "about," &c. 
" Triumph in so false a foe." R. of L. 

"In second voice we'll not be satisfied." 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 149. 
" Almost all 

Repent in their election." Coriol. ii. 3. 263. 
"Our fears in Banquo stick deep." Macb. iii. I. 49. 
" (We) wear our health but sickly in his life 
Which in his death were perfect." Ib. iii. I. 107. 



io2 SHAKESPEARIA V GRAMMAR. 

We say "m my own person" or "by myself," not 

" Which in myself I boldly will defend." Rich. II. L 1. 145 
So " But I bethink me what a weary way 

In Ross and Willoughby . . , will be found." Ib. ii. 3. 10, 

Le. "in the case of Ross," equivalent to <r by Ross." 

In is used metaphorically where we should say "in the though! 
of" in 

" Strengthen your patience in our last night's speech." 

Hamlet, v. I. 317. 

163. In. We still say " it lies in your power." But we find also 

" And the offender's life lies in the mercy 
Of the duke only," M. of V. iv. I. 355. 

where we now should use at. This example illustrates the appa 
rently capricious change in the use of prepositions. 
We should now use at instead of in and of, in 

"In night and on the court and guard of safety." 

Othello, ii. 3. 216. 
and " What ! in a town ofwa.r."*fl>. 213. 

"/-round" (O. Fr. "en rond ") is used for the more modern 
"a-round" in 
" They compassed him in round among themselves." N. P. 192. 

But probably "round" is for "around." Compare "compassed 
him in." A. V. 2 Chron. xxi. 9. 

164. In is used with a verbal to signify "in the act of" or 
" while." 

" He raves in saying nothing." Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 247. 

" When you cast 

Your stinking greasy caps in hooting at 
Coriolanus' exile." Coriol. iv. 6. 131. 
"Mine eyes, the outward watch 
Whereto my finger like a dial's point 

Is pointing still, in cleansing them from tears." Rick. II. v. 5. 51 
" The fire that mounts the liquor till't run o'er, 

In seeming to augment it, wastes it." Hen. VIII. i. I. 145. 
" And may ye both be suddenly surprised 
By bloody hands in sleeping on your beds." I Hen. VI. v. 3. 41, 

* But " towns of war." Hen. V. ii. 4. 7, means " garrisoned towns," and so 
probably here, like our "man of'vzi " 



PREPOSITIONS. 109 

" As patches set upon a little breach 
Discredit more in hiding of the fault." K. J. iv. 2. 32. 

It is probable, as the last example suggests, that these verbals are 
nouns after which "of" is sometimes expressed. Hence " in sleep 
ing" may simply be another form of " a-sleeping." But the in 
brings out, more strongly than the a-, the time in which, or -while, 
the action is being performed. It is also probable that the influence 
of the French idiom, "en disant ces mots," tended to mislead 
Erglish authors into the belief that in was superfluous, and that the 
verbals thus used were present participles. (See also 93.) In is used 
thus with a noun : 

" Wept like two children in (during) their deaths' sad stories." 

Rich. III. iv. 3. 8. 

"(These blazes) giving more light than heat, extinct in both, 
Even in their promise, while it is a-making." 

Hamlet, \. 3. 119. 

165. Of (original meaning "off" or "from"). Comp. d*6 ; 
"ab," Mceso-Gothic "af." 

In Early English of is used for "From," "out of," "off," as in 
" He lighted of his steed, arose of the dead," "The leaves fall oj 
the tree. " This strong meaning of motion was afterwards assigned 
to "off" (which is merely an emphatic form of of), and hence of 
retained only a slight meaning of motion, which frequently merged 
into causality, neighbourhood, possession, &c. 

Off is, perhaps, simply of in 

" Over-done or come tardy off."* Hamlet, iii. 2. 28. 
t.f. "fallen short of." Compare varepfiv. Otherwise "come off" is 
a passive participle, 295. 

Of retains its original meaning in 

" Overhear this speech 
Of vantage." Hamlet, iii. 3. 33. 

i,e. "from the vantage-ground of concealment." 

" Therefore of all hands must we be forsworn." 

L. L. L. iv. 3. 219 

i,e. "from all sides," "to which ever side one looks;" hence "ir 
any case." 

" Being regarded of all hands by the Grecians." N. P. 176 
* Compare "Too late tf/oui intents." Rich. III. ill 5. 69 



110 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So our modern " off hand," applied to a deed coming from the 
hand, and not from the head. Hence "of hand" is used where we 
use "on" (175) in 

" Turn of no hand." M. of V. ii. 2. 45. 

Of also retains this meaning with some local adjectives and ad 
verbs, such as " north of f " "south of," " within fifteen hundred paces 
of" (Hen. V. iii. 7. 136). We could say "the advantage of" but 
not " You should not have the eminence of him." 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 2. 266. 
'There is a testril of (from) me too." T. N. ii. 3. 34. 

166. Of used for "out of," "from," with verbs that signify, either 
literally or metaphorically, depriving, delivering, &c. 

"We'll deliver you of your great danger." Coriol. v. 6. 15. 
" I may be delivered of these woes." K. J. iii. 4. 55. 
This use of of is still retained in the phrase "to be delivered of a 
child." 

" Heaven make thee free of it." Hamlet ', v. 2. 342. 

" To help him of his blindness." T. G, of V. iv. 2. 45. 

" Unfurnish me of reason. "-JV. T.v. I. 123. 

" Take of me my daughter," M. Ado, ii. I. 311. 

" Rid the house of her." 7! SA. i. I. 150. 

" Scour me this famous realm ^enemies." B. and F. 

" That Lepidus of the triumvirate 

Should be deposed." A. and C. iii. 6. 28. 
" His cocks do win the battle still of mine. " A.andC. ii. 3. 33 
" Get goal for goal of youth." A. and C. iv. 8. 22. 
"I discharge thee of thy prisoner." M. Ado, v. i. 327. 
In virtue of this meaning, of is frequently placed after forth and 
out, to signify motion. 

Hence, metaphorically, 

" He could not justify himself of the unjust accusations." N. P. 173. 
Of is also used with verbs and adjectives implying motion frori, 
such as "fail," "want," &c. Hence 

" But since you come too late ^our intents." Rich. III. iii. 5. 69. 

167. Of thus applied to time means "from." So still "of late. ' 
" I took him of a child up." B. J. E. in drv. ii. I. 

Le. "from a child, when a mere child." So in E. E. "of youth." 



t: Of long time he had bewitched them with sorceries." 

Acts viiL II. 
" Being of so young days brought up with him." 

Hamlet, iL 2. 11. 

168. Of, meaning "from," passes naturally into the meaning 
'resulting from," "as a consequence of." 

" Of force. "-M. of V. iv. I. 421 ; I Ken. IV. iil 2. 120. 
" Of no right" i Hen. IV. iii. 2. 100. 
"Bold of your worthiness." L. L. L. ii. I. 28. 
"We were dead of sleep." Temp. v. I. 230. 

" And of that natural luck 
He beats thee 'gainst the odds." A. and C. ii. 3. 26. 

Hence "What shall become of this?" M. Ado, iv. I. 211; T. N 
iL I. 37, means " what will be the consequence of this ?" 
So "by means of:" 

" And thus do we of wisdom and of reach 
By indirection find direction out." Hamlet, iL I. 64. 

While by is used of external agencies, of is used of internal 
motives, thus: 

" Comest thou hither by chance, or of devotion ?" 

2 Hen. VI. ii. I. 88. 

" The king of his own royal disposition." Rich. III. \. 3. 63. 
" Of purpose to obscure my noble bhth." I Hen. VI. v. 4. 22. 
" Art thou a messenger, or come of pleasure ?" 

2 Hen. VI. v. I. 16. 
Sometimes "out of" is thus used: 

" But thou hast forced me, 
Out of thy honest truth, to play the woman. " 

Hen. VIII. iiL 2. 431. 

Of, "as a result of," is used as a result for "with the aid of," 
"with," or "at." 

" That . . . she be sent over <^ the King of England's cost." 

2 Hen. VI. L I. 61. 

" Of the city's cost, the conduit shall run nothing but claret wine." 

Ib. iv. 6. 3. 
Hence the modern phrase "To die of hunger." 

169. Of hence is used in appeals and adjurations to signify 
"out of," 

" Of charity, what km are you to me? 'T. N. v. I. 237. 



112 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Hence, the sense of " out of" being lost, = "for the sake 
of," "by." 

" Speak of all loves." M. N. D. ii. 2. 154. 
This explains 

" Let it not enter in your mind, of love." M. of V. ii. 9. 42. 
Similar is the use of of in protestations : 

" Leon. We'll have dancing afterwards. 

Ben. First, of my word." T. N. v. 4. 123. 
" A proper man, 0/"mine honour." 2 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 103. 

170; Of meaning "from" is placed before an agent (from whom 
the action is regarded as proceeding) where we use "by." 

" Received 0/" (welcomed by) the most pious Edward." 

Mocb. iiL 6. 27. 
" Like stars ashamed of day." V. and A. 

i.e. " shamed by day." 

Of is frequently thus used with "long," "'long, "or "along." 
LAYAMON. "Along of" = "from alongside of" (irapd 
with gen. ). 

" The good old man would fain that all were well 

So 'twere not 'long of him." 3 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 32. 
" 'Long all of Somerset." I Hen. VI. iv. 3. 46, 33. 
" I am so wrapt and throwly lapt of jolly good ale and 
old." STILL. 

171. Of is hence used not merely of the agent but also of the 
instrument. This is most common with verbs of construction, and 
of filling ; because in construction and filling the result is not merely 
effected with the instrument, but proceeds out of it. We still retain 
of with verbs of construction and adjectives of fulness ; but the Eliza 
bethans retained ^"with verbs of fulness also. 

" Supplied of kernes and gallow-glasses. " Macb. i. 2. 18. 

" I am provided of a. torch-bearer." M. of V. ii. 2. 24. 

"You are not satisfied of these events." Ib. v. I. 297. 

"Mettle where*?/" thy proud child arrogant man is puffed." 

T. of A. iv. 3. 180. 

" Mixt partly of Mischief and partly ^/Remedy." B. E.i\? r 

Hence " Flies 

Whose woven wings the summer dyes 

Of many colours." B. and F. Fair Sf>. v. I. 



PREPOSITIONS. H 3 

Gf with verbs of construction from "out ^""sometimes assumes 
the meaning of " instead of." 

" Made peace of enmity, fair love of hate. " Rich. III. ii. I. 60. 
And with " become : " 
"(Henry) is Baking become a banish'd man." 3 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 25. 

172. Of is hence used metaphorically with verbs of construction, 
as in the modem 

" They make an ass of me." T. N. v. i. 19. 
But of is also thus found without verbs of construction, as . 
' Apem. Or thou shalt find 
Timon. A fool of thee. Depart." 

T. of A. iv. 3. 232. 
" E'en such a husband 

Hast thou of me as she is for a wife." M. of V. iii. 5. 89. 
" We should have found a bloody day of this." I Hen. VI. iv. 7. 34. 

" We shall find of him 
A shrewd contriver." J. C. ii. I. 157. 
" We lost a jewel of her." A. W. v. 3. 1. 
" You have a nurse of me." P. of T. iv. I. 25. 
"You shall find of the king, sir, a father." A. W. i. I. 7. 
It. "in the king." 

173. Of is hence applied not merely to the agent and the instru 
ment, but to any influencing circumstance, in the sense of "as 
regards," "what comes from." 

" Fantasy, 

Which is as thin of substance as the air." R. andj. i 4. 99. 
" Roses are fast flowers of their smells." B. E. 188. 
" A valiant man of his hands." N. P. 614. 
" But of his cheere did seem too solemn-sad." SPEN. F. O_. L I. 

Under this head perhaps come : 

" Niggard of question ; but of our demands 
Most free in his reply." Hamlet, iii. I. 13. 

" Of his own body he was ill, and gave 
The clergy ill example." Hen. VIII. iv. 2. 43. 

"That did but show thee, of a fool, inconstant 
And damnable ungrateful." W. T. iii. 2. 187. 

i.e. "as regards a fool," " in the matter of folly." 

This may almost be called a locative case, and may illustrate the 

I 



Ii 4 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Latin idiom "versus animi." It is common in E. E. We still say, 
in accordance with this idiom, "swift 0/foot," "ready of wit," &c. 

174. Of passes easily from meaning "as regards" to "concern 
ing," "about." 

" Mine own escape unfoldeth to my hope 

The like of him." T. N. i. 2. 21. 
" You make me study of that." Temp. ii. I. 81. 
" Tis pity of him." M. for M. ii. 3. 42 ; A. and C. i. 4. 71. 
"'Twere pity of my life." M. N. D. iii. I. 44. 
" I wonder of there being together." Ib. iv. i. 128. 
" Wise (^"(informed of) the payment day." B. E. 

"He shall never more 
Be fear'd of doing harm." Lear, ii. 2. 113. 
"The same will, I hope, happen to me, of death." 

MONTAIGNE, 36 
i.e. " with respect to death." 

" I humbly do desire your grace of pardon." 

M.ofV. iv. i. 402. 
" I shall desire you of more acquaintance." 

M. N. D. iii. i. 183 ; A. Y. L. v. 4. 56. 

For this use of "desire" compare A. V. St. John xii. 21, "they 
desired him saying," where Wickliffe has "preieden," "prayed." 

"I humbly do beseech you of your pardon." 0. iii. 3. 212. 
"The dauphin whom of succours we entreated." 

Hen V iii. $. 45. 

" Yet of your royal presence I'll adventure 
The borrow of a. week." W. T. i. 2. 38. 
" We'll mannerly demand thee of thy story." Cymb. iii. 6.92. 
" Enquire of him." Rich. II. iii. 2. 186. 
i.e. "about him." 

" Discern of the coming on of years." B. E. 105. 

" Having determined of the Volsces and,"&c. Coriol. ii.2.41. 

"I'll venture so much of my hawk or hound." 

T. ofSh. v. 2. 72. 
" Since of your lives you set 
So slight a valuation." Cymb. iv. 4. 48. 

In " No more can you distinguish of a man 

Than of his outward show," Rich. III. iii. I. 9, 10. 

the meaning seems to be, " you can make no distinctions abcut men 
more than," i.e. " except, about their appearances." So 



PREPOSITIONS. 115 

"Since my soul could of men distinguish."- -Ha mitt, iii. 2. C9. 
In the following passages we should now use " for : " 
" France whereof England hath been an overmatch." B. E. 1 13. 
" I have no mind of feasting." M. of V. ii. 5. 37. 
" In change of him." 7>. and Cr, iii. 3. 27. 
" Of this my privacy I have strong reasons. " 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 1 W. 
" In haste whereof, most heartily I pray 
Your highness to assign our trial day." Rich. II. i. i. 150. 

As we say " what will become of (about) me I" so 
"What will betide of m." Rich. III. i. 3. 6. 

We say " power over us," not 

" The sovereign power you have of us." Hamlet, ii. 2. 27. 

"I have an eye on him," not 

"Nay, then, I have an eye of you." Ib. 301. 

175. Of signifying proximity of any kind is sometimes used locally 
in the sense of " on." The connection between of and on is illustrated 
by M. of V. ii. 2, where old Gobbo says : ' ' Thou hast got more 
haire on thy chin than Dobbin my philhorse has on his taile ;" and 
young Gobbo retorts, ' ' I am sure he had more haire of his taile than 
I have of my face. " 

" Gra. My master riding behind my mistress 

Cart. Both of one horse." T. of Sh. iv. I. 71. 
Of is sometimes used metaphorically for " on." 
Compare " A plague of all cowards !" I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 127. 
with " A plague upon this howling. " Temp. i. I. 39. 

"Who but to-day hammer'd^ this design." W. T. ii. 2. 49. 
"I go of message." 2 Hen, VI. iv. I. 113. 
A message may be regarded as a motive from which, or as an 
object towards which, an action proceeds, and hence either of 01 
" on " may be used. 

Compare " He came ofzn errand." M. W. of W. i. 4. 80. 
with "I will go on the slightest errand."^/. Ado, ii. i. 272. 
" Sweet mistress, what your name is else I know not, 

Nor by what wonder you do hit of mine." C.ofE. iii. 2 30 
Aid also " And now again 

Of him that did not ask, but mock, bestow 
Your sued-for tongues." Coriol. ii. 3. 215. 
I 2 



1 16 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMA R. 

" I will bestow some precepts of this virgin." 

A. W. iii. 5. 103 ; T. N. iii. 4. 2. 

" Trustyng of (comp. "depending on") the continuance." 

ASCH. Ded. 

176. Of, signifying "coming from," "belonging to," when used 
with time, signifies "during." 

" These fifteen years : by my fay a goodly nap ! 

But did I never speak of all that time?* T. of Sh. Ind. 2. 84. 
" There sleeps Titania sometime of the night " M. N. D. ii. I. 253. 
i.e. " sometimes during the night." 

"My custom always of the afternoon." Hamlet, i. 5. 60. 
" And not be seen to wink of all the day." L. L. L. i. I. 43. 
" Of the present." Tempest, i. i. 24. 
So often ' Of a sudden." 

177. Of is sometimes used to separate an object from the direct 
action of a verb : (a) when the verb is used partitively, as " eat of," 
"taste of," &c. ; (b) when the verb is of French origin, used with 
"de," as "doubt," "despair," "accuse," "repent," "arrest," 
"appeal," "accept," "allow;" (c) when the verb is not always 
or often used as a transitive verb, as "hope" or "like," especially 
in the case of verbs once used impersonally. 

(a) "King. How fares our cousin Hamlet ? 

Hamlet. Excellent, i' faith : of the chameleon's dish. " 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 98. 
(6) "To appeal each other of high treason." Rich. II. i. I. 27. 

" Of capital treason we arrest you here." Ib. iv. i. 151. 
(c) " So then you hope of pardon from Lord Angelo ?" 

M. for M. iii. I. 1. 
" I will hope 0/"better deeds to-morrow." A. and C. i. I. 62. 

The of after "to like" is perhaps a result of the old impersonal 
use of the verb, "me liketh," "him liketh," which might seem to 
disqualify the verb from taking a direct object. Similarly " it 
repents me of" becomes " I repent of;" " I complain myself of 
becomes " I complain of." So in E. E. "it marvels me of" becomes 
" I marvel of." Hence 

" It was a lordling's daughter that liked of her master." 

P. P. 212. 

"Thou dislikest of virtue for the name." A. W. ii. 3. 13L 



PREPOSITIONS. 1 1 7 

" I am a husband if you like of me." M. Ado, v. 4. 55). 
So Z. L. L. i. i. 107 ; iv. 3. 158 ; Rich. III. iv. 4. 354. 

"To like of nought that would be understood." 

BEAUMONT on B. J. 

178. Of naturally followed a verbal noun. In many cases we 
should call the verbal noun a participle, and the of has become 
unintelligible to us. Thus we cannot now easily see why Shake 
speare should write 

" Dick the shepherd blows his nail." L. L. L. v. 2. 923. 
and on the other hand 

" The shepherd blowing of his nails." 3 Hen. VI. ii. 5. 3. 

But in the latter sentence blowing was regarded as a noun, the 
prepositional "a," "in," or "on" being omitted. 

" The shepherd was a-blowing of his nails." 

In the following instances we should now be inclined to treat the 
verbal as a present participle because there is no preposition before it : 

" Here stood he (a-)mumbling <T/" wicked charms." Lear, ii. I. 41. 
" We took him (a-)setting of boys' copies." 2 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 96. 
" And then I swore thee, (a-)saving <7/"thy life." J. C. v. 3. 38. 
" Here was he merry (a-)hearing of a song." A. Y. L. ii. 7. 4. 

where "hear of" does not mean, as with us, "hear about." So 
Lear, v. 3. 204. In all the above cases the verbal means " in the 
act of." 

In most cases, however, a preposition is inserted, and thus the 
substantival use of the verbal is made evident. Thus : 

" So find we profit by losing of our prayers." A. and C. ii. I. 8. 
" Your voice for crowning of the king." 

Rich. III. iii. 4. 29 ; Hamlet, i. 5. 175 ; Lear, i. 3. 1. 
" With halloing and singing of anthems." 2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 213. 
" What, threat you me with telling of the king?" 

Rich. HI. i. 3. 113. 
"About relieving of the sentinels." I Hen. VI. ii. I. 70; iii. 4. 29. 

If it be asked why "the" is not inserted before the verbal, 
t.g. "about the relieving of the sentinels," the answer is that 
relieving is already denned, and in such cases the article is generally 
omitted by Shakespeare. (See 89.) 



Il8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

When the object comes before the verbal, of must be omitted : 

" Ophelia. Hamlet . . . shaking of mine arm 
And thrice his head thus -waving. Hamlet, ii. I. 92. 

The reason is obvious. We can say " in shaking of mine arm," 
but not " in his head thus waving." 

Compare C. ofE.v. I. 153 ; A. Y. L. ii. 4. 44, iv. 3. 10 ; IV. T. iii. 
3. 69 ; I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 166 ; R. and J. v. I. 40. 

" Yet the mother, if the house hold of our lady." ASCH. 40. 

" Hold," by itself, would mean " actually hold " (capiat). " Hold 
of" means "be of such a nature as to hold" (capax sit), "hold 
ing of." 

179. Of is sometimes redundant before relatives and relatival 
words in dependent sentences, mostly after verbs intransitive. 

1 ' Make choice of which your highness will see first. " 

M. N. D. v. i. 43. 
" What it should be ... I cannot dream of." 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 10. 
" Making just report 
Of how unnatural and bemadding sorrow 
The king hath cause to plain." Lear, iii. 2. 38. 
" He desires to know of you of whence you are," 

P. of T. ii. 3. 80. 

where, however, "whence" is, perhaps, loosely used for "what 
place," and of strictly used for " from." 

The redundant and appositional of, which we still use after 
" town," "city," "valley," &c., is used after "river" (as sometimes 
by Chaucer and Mandeville) in 

" The river of Cydnus." A. and C. ii. 2. 192. 

180. On, Upon (interchanged in E. E. with "an"), represents 
juxcaposition of any kind, metaphorical or otherwise. It was in 
Early English a form of the preposition "an" which is used as an 
adverbial prefix (see 141) ; and as late as Ascham we find 

" I fall on weeping." ASCH. iii. 4. 
" For sorrow, like a heavy- hanging bell 

Once set on ringing, with his own weight goes. " JR.ofL. 1494. 
Compare also our a-head with 

" Hereupon the people ran on-head in tumult together." N. P. 191 
" Why runnest tnou thus on head?" Homily en Matrimony. 



PREPOSITIONS. 119 

The metaphorical uses of this preposition have now been mostly 
divided among of, in, and at, &c. We still, however, retain the 
phrase, "on this," "on hearing this," &c. where on is "at the 
time of," or " immediately after." But we could not say 

"Here comes (333) the townsmen on (in) procession." 

2 Hen. VI. ii. i. 68. 

"Read on (in) this book." Hamlet, iii. i. 44. So MON 
TAIGNE, 227 : "To read on some book." 
"Blushing on (at) her." R. of L. st. 453. 
" On (at) a moderate pace." T. N. ii. 2. 3. 
" The common people being set on a broile." N. P. 190. 
(Comp. our " set on fire.") 

"Horses on ('in' or 'of') a white foam." N. P. 186. 
"On (of) the sudden." Hen. VIIL iv. 2. 96. 
"And live to be revenged on ('for' or 'about ') her death." 

R. ofL. 1778. 

" Be not jealous on (of) me." J. C. i. 2. 71. 
" Fond on her. "-M N. D. ii. I. 266. 
"Nod on (at) him."-^ C. i. 2. 118. 
" Command upon me." Macbeth, iii. I. 17. 
On, like "upon," is used metaphorically for "in consequence 
of" in 

" Lest more mischance 
On plots and errors happen." Hamlet, v. 2. 406 ; 

for "m dependence on " in 

" I stay here on my bond." M. of V. iv. I. 242. 

In ' ' She 's wandering to the tower 

On pure heart's love to greet the tender princes," 

Rich. III. iv. i. 4. 

there is a confusion between "on an errand of love" and "out of 
heart's love" 

181. On is frequently used where we use "of" in the sense of 
"about," &c. Thus above, "jealous on" and in Sonn. 84, " Fond 
on praise." In Early English (Stratmann) we have " On witch 
craft I know nothing." " What shall become on me?" " Denmark 
won nothing on him." Compare 

"Enamour'd on his follies." I Hen. IV. v. 2. 71. 
41 His lands which he stood seized on."* Hamlet, i. i. 88. 
Glche, "of." 



120 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Or have we eaten on the insane root ?" Macbeth, \. 3. 4. 
"lie is so much made on here." Coriol. iv. 5. 203. 
"What think you on't." Hamlet, i. I. 55. 

Note the indifferent use of on and "of" in 

" God have mercy on his soul 
And of all Christian souls." Hamlet, iv. 5. 200. 

The use of on in 

" Intended or committed was this fault? 
If on the first, I pardon thee," Rich. II: v. 3. 34. 

is illustrated by 

" My gracious uncle, let me know my fault, 
On what condition stands it." Ib. ii. 3. 107. 

182. Oh, being thus closely connected with "of," was frequently 
used even for the possessive "of," particularly in rapid speech 
before a contracted pronoun. 

"One en's ears." Coriol. ii. 2. 85. So Coriol. i. 3. 72 ; iL 
I. 202. 

"The middle on's face." Lear, iv. 5. 20. 

"Two on's daughters." Ib. i. 4. 114. 

"Two on's." Cyme. v. 5. 311. 

"My profit on't." Temp. i. 2. 365, 456. 

"You lie out on't, sir." Hamlet, v. I. 132 ; Lear, iv. I. 52. 

" He shall hear on't." B. J. E. in &c. 

"I am glad ^V." J. C. i. 3. 137. 

In the two last examples on may perhaps be explained as meaning 
"concerning," without reference to "of." 

The explanation of this change of "of" to " on " appears to be as 
follows. " Of" when rapidly pronounced before a consonant became 
"o'. 

"Body o' me." Hen. VIII. v. z. 22. 
" O' nights." T. N. i. 3. 5. 

Hence the o' became the habitual representative of "of" in collo 
quial language, just as "a-" became the representative of "on" or 
"an." But when o' came before a vowel, what was to be done? 
Just as the "a-" was obliged to recur to its old form "an" before 
a vowel or mute h (compare Hamlet, i. 4. 19, "to stand an-end" 
and ^ee 24), so before a vowel o' was forced tc assume a euphonic 
x. '.Compare the Greek custom. ) 



PREPOSITIONS. 121 

And even when the pronoun is not contracted, we find hi Coriel. 
iv. 5. 174, the modern vulgarism 
"Worth six on him." 
"To break the pate on thee." I Hen. IV. ii. I. 34. 

183. Out (out from) is used as a preposition \\knforth. 

" You have push'd out your gates the veiy defender of them." 

Coriol. v. 2. 41 
(Early Eng. " Come out Ireland," " Out this land.") 

" Out three years old." Temp. i. 2. 41, " beyond three years." 
Explained by Nares, " completely." 

From out. See 157. 

184. Till is used for to : 

"From the first corse till he that died to-day," 

Hamlet, i. 2. 105. 

where probably till is a preposition, and "he" for "him." See He 
"Lean'd her breast up till a thorn." P. P. st. 21. 

Early Eng. "He said thus til (to) him," and, on the other hand, 
" To (till) we be gone." So "unto" in Chaucer for "until." 

"I need not sing this them until (for 'unto them')." 

HEYWOOD. 
"We know where#&7 (whereto) it doth amount." 

L. L. L. v. 2. 494. 
" And hath shipped me in/// (into) the land." Hamlet,^. 1. 81. 

185. To* (see also Verbs, Infin.). Radical meaning motioi. 
towards. Hence addition. This meaning is now only retained will, 
verbs implying motion, and only the strong form "too" (comp. oj 
and off) retains independently the meaning of addition. But in 
Elizabethan authors too is written to, and the prepositional meaning 
" in addition to " is found, without a verb of motion, and sometimes 
without any verb. 

" But he could read and had your languages 

And tot as sound a noddle," &c. B ]. Fox, ii. I. 
"If he ... to his shape, were heir of all this land." 

K. J. L I. 144 
Comp. KOOC throurhout. 



t23 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR, 

11 And to that dauntless temper of his mind 
He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valour." 

Macbeth, Hi. I. 62 

Le. "in addition to that dauntless temper." To, in this sense, has 
been supplanted by "beside." Compare also 

" Nineteen more, to myself." B. J. E. in &*c. iv. 5. 
To is used still adverbially in "to and fro," and nautical expres 
sions such as "heave to," "come to." This use explains "Go to," 
M. of V. ii. 2. 169. "Go" did not in Elizabethan or E. E. neces 
sarily imply motion from, but motion generally. Hence "go to" 
meant little more than our stimulative " come, come." 

186. To hence means motion, "with a view to," "for an end, "&c. 
This is of course still common before verbs, but the Elizabethans 
used to in this sense before nouns. 

" He which hath no stomach to this fight." Hen. V. iv. 3. 35. 

" For to that (to that end) 
The multiplying villanies of Nature 
Do swarm upon him. " Macbeth, i. 2. 10. 
"Prepare yourself to death." W. T. iii. I. 167. 
"Arm you to the sudden time." K. J. v. 6. 26. 
" The impression of keen whips I 'Id wear as rubies 
And strip myself to (for) death as to a bed." 

M.forM. ii. 4. 102. 

"Giving to you no further personal power 
To (for the purpose of) business with the king." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 37. 

" Pawn me to this your honour." T. A. i. I. 147. 
"Few words, but, to effect, more than all yet." 

Lear, iii. I. 52. 
" He is frank'd up to fatting for his pains." 

Rich. III. i. 3. 314. 
Hence it seems used for for in 

"Ere I had made a prologue to my brains 
They had begun the play." Hamlet, v. 2. 30 

And perhaps in 

" This is a dear manakin to you, Sir Toby." T. N, iii. 2. 57. 
But see 41 9 a, for this last example. 

187. To hence, even without a verb of motion, means "motion 
to the side of." Hence "motion to and consequent rest near," as in 



PREPOSITIONS. 123 

' ' Like yourself 

Who ever yet have stood to charity." Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 86. 
" To this point I stand." Hamlet, iv. 5. 187. 
"I beseech you, stand to me." 2 Hen. IV. ii. I. 70. 
i.e. " Come and stand by me, help me." 
Motion against in : 

"The lady Beatrice hath a quarrel to you." M. Ado, ii. i. 243 
So T. N. iii. 4. 248 ; Coriol. iv. 5. 133. 
Motion to meet; 

" To her doom she dares not stand." B. and F. Fait Sh. v. i. 
Motion toward: 

"What wouldst thou have to Athens ?" T. of A. iv. 3. 287. 
" To Milan let me hear from thee by letters." 

T. G. of V. i. i. 57. 

Hence "by the side of," "in comparison with." 
" Impostors to true fear." Macb. iii. 4. 64. 

i.e. "Impostors when brought to the side of, and compared with, 
true fear." 

" There is no woe to his correction, 
Nor to his service no such joy on earth. " 

T. G.ofV.i\.4. 138, 139. 

"The harlot's cheek, beautied with plastering art, 
Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it 
Than is my deed to my most painted word." 

Hamlet, iii. I. 51-53 

In " Treason can but peep to what it would, 
Acts little of his will," Ib. iv. 5. 125. 

either to means "towards," an unusual construction with "peep," 
or the meaning is " treason can do nothing more than peep in 
comparison with what it wishes to do." 

" Undervalued to tried gold." M. of V. ii. 7. 53. 
Hence "up to," "in proportion to," "according to." 

" The Greeks are strong and skilful to their stiength." 

Tr. and Cr. i. I. 7. 
" That which we have we prize not to the worth. " 

M. Ado, iv. i. 22C. 
" To 's power he would 
Have made them mules." Coriol. ii. I. 262. 



124 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Perform 'd to point the tempest that I bade thee." 

Temp. \. a. 194. 
" He needs not our mistrust, since he delivers 

Our offices and what we have to do 

T the direction just." Macb. iii. 3. 4. 

F fence "like." 

" My lady, to the manner of the days, 
In courtesy gives undeserving praise. " L. L. L. v. 2. 365. 

" Looked it of the hue 

To such as live in great men's bosoms?" B. J. Sejan. v. I. 
" This is right to (exactly like) that (saying) of Horace." 

B. J. E. out &>c. ii. I. 
To seems to mean " even up to " in 

" And make my senses credit thy relation 
To points that seem unpossible." P. of T. v. 2. 125. 

188. To is sometimes used without any sense of motion for 
"near." 

" It would unclog my heart 
Of what lies heavy to '(." Coriol. iv. 2. 48. 
" Sits smiling to my heart." Hamlet ', i. 2. 124. 
for " by " in 

" Where . . . the best of all her sex 
Doth only to her worthy self abide." B. and F. R SA. ii. 1. 

In the difficult passage ( W. T. iv. 4. 550) : 

" But, as the unthought on accident is guilty 
To what we wildly do." 

" Guilty" seems used for " responsible," and chance 'is said to be 
"responsible to" rashness (personified). (Or is to "as to" i.e. as 
regards ?) 

In N. P. 175 there is "to the contrary," (but this is a translation 
of "au contraire,") for "on the contrary." 

To is inserted after "trust" (whereas we have rejected it in 
parenthetical phrases, probably for euphony's sake). 

"And, trust to me, Ulysses, 
Our imputation will be oddly poised." Tr. and Cr. L 3. 339. 

To seems "up to," "as much as," in 

" I'll part sooner with my soul of reason than yield to one foot 
of land." B. and F. Elder Brother, iii. 5. 



PREPOSITIONS. 125 

188a. "To," with Adjectives signifying obedience, &c. 

To is still used in the sense of "towards " after some adjectives, such 
as (i) "gentle," (2) "disobedient," (3) "open." But we could 
not say 

(1) "If thou dost find him tractable to us." Rich. III. iii. 1. 174. 

(2) "A will most incorrect (unsubmissive) to heaven." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 95. 
"The queen is stubborn to justice." Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 122. 

(3) " Penetrable to your kind entreats." Rich. III. iii. 7. 225. 
"Vulgar to sense."* Hamlet, i. 2. 99. 

i.e. " open to ordinary observation." 

Similarly to is used after nouns where we should use "against," 
"in the sight of:" 

" Fie ! 'tis a fault to heaven, 
A fault against the dead, a fault to nature, 
To reason most absurd." Hamlet, i. 2. 103. 

189. To, from meaning "like," came into the meaning of 
"representation," "equivalence," "apposition." (Comp. Latin 
"Habemus Deum amico.") 

"I have a king here to my flatterer." Rich, II. iv. I. 386. 

"To crave the French king's sister 
To wife for Edward." 3 Hen. VI. iii. I. 31. 
"Now therefore would I have thee to my tutor." 

T. G. of V. iii. i. 84. 
"Destiny . . . that hath to instrument this lower world." 

Temp. iii. 2. 54. 
"And with her to dowry some petty dukedoms." 

Hen. V. iii. ProL 31. 

" Lay their swords to pawn." M. IV. of W. iii. I. 113. 
"Had I admittance and opportunity to friend." Cymb. i. 4. 118. 
"Tunis was never graced before with 
Such a paragon to their queen." Temp. ii. I. 75. 

Compare also Macb. iv. 3. 10 ; J. C. iri. i. 143. 

" The king had no port to friend." CLARENDON, Hist. ^. 
"A fond woman to my mother (i.e. who was my mother) 
taught me so. " WAGER. 

Thus "to boot" means "by -way of, or for, addition." So in . X. 
"to sooth" is used for "forsooth." 

* So " retentive to," J. C. L 3. M. 



126 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

190. To, in the phrase "I would to God," may mean " near," "in 
the sight of;" or there may be a meaning of motion : "I should 
desire (even carrying my desire) to God. " In the phrase " He that 
is cruel to halves" (B. J. Disc. 759), to means, perhaps, "up to the 
limit of." Possibly, however, this phrase may be nothing but a 
corruption of the more correct idiom " Would God that," which is 
more common in our version of the Bible than " I would." The to 
may be a remnant and corruption of the inflection of "would," 
"woL/(f ;" and the 7 may have been added for the supposed neces 
sity of a nominative. Thus 

" Now wold^ God that I might sleepen ever." 

CHAUCER, Monke's Tale, 14746. 

So " thou wert best" is a corruption of " it were best for thee." 

This theory is rendered the more probable because, as a rule, in 
Wickliffe's version of the Old Testament, " Wolde God" is found 
in the older MSS., and is altered into "we wolden" in the later. 
Thus Genesis xvi. 3 ; Numbers xx. 3 ; Joshua vii. 7 ; Judges ix. 29 ; 
2 Kings v. 3 (Forshall and Madden, 1850). However, Chaucer 
has "I hoped to God" repeatedly. 

To was used, however, without any notion of "motion toward 
the future " in to-night (last night). 

" I did dream to-night" M. of V. ii. 5. 18 ; 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 31. 

So in E. E. "to year" for " this year," "to summer," &c. Perhaps 
the provincial " I will come the night, the morn," &c. is a corruption 
of this "to." It is, indeed, suggested by Mr. Morris that to is 
a corruption of the demonstrative. On the other hand, to in E. E. 
was "often used with a noun to form adverbs." LAYAMON 
(Glossary). 

" He aras to J>an mid-nihte," LAYAMON, i. 324. 
is used for " he arose in the midnight." 

Unto, like To, 185, is used for " in addition to :" 

" Unto my mother's prayers I bend my knee." 

Rich. 77. v. 3. 97 

191. Upon ("for the purpose of") is still used in "/<?/ an 
errand," but not, as in 

" Upon malicious bravery dost thou come ?" Othello, i. I. 100. 



PREPOSITIONS. 127 

We should use "over" in 

" I have no power upon you," A. and C. i. 3. 23. 
and we should not use upon in 

" And would usurp upon my watery eyes." T. A. iii. I. 269. 

" Let your highness 
Command upon me." Macbeth, iii. I. 17. 

though after."claim" and "demand" upon is still used. So "an 
attack upon" is still English, but not 

"I have o'erheard a plot of death upon him." Lear, iii. 6. 9C. 
nor " I am yours . . . upon your will to suffer." A. W. iv. 4. 30. 

i. ft "in dependence on." It would seem that the metaphorical use 
of upon is now felt to be too bold unless suggested by some strong 
word implying an actual, and not a possible influence. Thus 
"claim" and "demand" are actual, while "power" may, perhaps, 
not be put in action. So "attack" and "assault" are the actual 
results of "plot." Yet the variable use of prepositions, and their 
close connection with particular words, is illustrated by the fact that 
we can say, "I will wait upon him," but not 

" I thank you and will stay upon your leisure." A. W. iii. 5. 48. 

Even here, however, our "wait upon" means, like "call upon" an 
actual interview, and does not, like "stay upon" signify the " staying 
in hope of, or on the chance of, audience. " 
Upon also means " in consequence of." 

" When he shall hear she died upon (i.e. not ' after,' but ' in 
consequence of") his words." M. Ado, iv. I. 225. 

" And fled is he upon this villany." Ib. v. I. 258. 
" Break faith upon commodity." K. J. ii. I. 597. 
"Thy son is banish'd upon good advice." Rich. II. i. 3. 233 

In " You have too much respect upon the world," 

M. of V.\. i. 74. 

there is an allusion to the literal meaning of "respect." "You 
look too much upon the world." The upon is connected with 
"respect," and is not used like our "for" in "I have no respect 
for him. " 

The use of "upon" to denote "at" or "immediately after" is 
retained in "upon this ;" but we could not say 

"You come most carefully upon your hour." Hamlet, i. 1.6. 



128 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

192. Upon is often used like on adverbially after the verb "look.' 1 

"Nay, all of you that stand and look upon." Rich. II. iv. I. 237. 
"Why stand we like soft-hearted women here 

And look upon, as if," &c. 3 Hen. VI. ii. 3. 27. 
" Strike all that look upon with marvel, come." W. T. v. 3. 100. 
"Near upon" is adverbial in 

" And very near tipon 

The duke is entering." M. for M. iv. 6. 14. 
" Indeed, my lord, it followed hard upon." Hamlet, i. z. 179. 

Upon, from meaning superposition, comes to mean "in accord 
ance with" (like "after") : 

" Upon my power I may dismiss this court. " 

M. of V. iv. I. 104. 

193. With (which, like "by," signifies juxtaposition) is often 
used to express the juxtaposition of cause and effect. 

"I live with (on) bread like you." Rich. II. iii. 2. 175. 

We could say "he trembles with, fear," "fear" being regarded 
as connected with the trembler, but not 

" My inward soul 

With nothing trembles : at something it grieves 
More than with parting from my lord the king." 

Rich. 11. ii. 2. 12, 13. 
" As an unperfect actor on the stage 
Who with his fear is put besides his part. " Sonn. 23. 

We should say "in his fear" (or "by his fear," personifying 
Fear) ; or append the clause to the verb, "put beside his part with 
fear. " 

" It were a better death than die with mocks, 
Which is as bad as die with tickling." M. Ado, iii. r. 79, 80. 

"Another choaked with the kernell of a grape, and an emperour 
die by the scratch of a combe, and Aufidius with stumbling against 
the doore, and Lepidus with hitting his foot." MONTAIGNE, 32. 

Here the use of "by" seems intended to distinguish an external 
from an internal cause. 

We say "so far gone in fear," but not 

" Thus both are gone with conscience ai d remorse." 

Rich. III. iv. 3. 20. 
"This comes with seeking you."--/'. N. UL 4. 366. 



PREPOSITIONS. lay 

"I feel remorse in myself with his words." 2 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 111. 
More rarely, with is used with an agent : 

" Rounded in the ear 

With that same purpose-changer, that sly devil." K. f, ii. I. 587. 
" We had like to have had our two noses snapped off with two 
old men without teeth." M. Ado, v. i. 116. 

" Boarded with a pirate." 2 Hen. VI. iv. 9. 33. 
" lie was torn to pieces with a bear." W. T. v. 2. 66. 
" Assisted with your honoured friends." Ib. v. I. 13 
This explains 

" Since I am crept in favour with myself 
I will maintain it with some little cost." Rich. III. \. 2. 260. 

The obvious interpretation is, ' ' since I have crept into the good 
graces of myself ;" but the second line shows the "I" to be superior 
to "myself," which is to be maintained by the "I." The true 
explanation is, " since I have crept into (Lady Anne's) favour with 
the aid of my personal appearance, I will pay some attention to my 
person." Add, probably, Hamlet, iii. 2. 207. 
This meaning is common in E. E. : 

"He was slayn wy\> (by) Ercules." 

R. OF BRUNNE, Chron. i. 12. 340. 
With = " by means of." 

" He went about to make amends with committing a worse fault.' 5 
N. P. 176, where the French is "par une autre." So N. P. 176. 

With = "in addition to, " even when there are not two nouns tc 
be connected together : 

' ' Very wise and with his wisdome very valiant." N. P. 664. 

With is, perhaps, used for "as regards," "in relation to," as in 
our modern " this has not much weight with me," in 

"Is Caesar with Antonius priz'd so slight?" A. and C. i. I. 56. 
though here, perhaps, as above, with may mean "by." At all 
events the passage illustrates the connection between " with" and 
"by." Compare 

' ' His taints and honours 

Wag'd equal with (i.e. in) him." A. and C. v. I. 31. 
"So fond with gain." R. of L. 134. 

194. With is hence looseiy used to signify any connection with 
an action, as in "to change with" (MONTAIGNE, 233), where we 
should say "to exchange for." So, though we still say "I parted 

K 



130 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

'jtith a house," or "with a servant (considered as a chattel)," we 
could not say 

"When you parted with the king." Rich. II. ii. 2. 2. 
" As a long-parted mother with her child." 

Ib. iii. 2. 8 ; Rich. III. i. 4. 251 

where with is connected with parting. See 419^ So 
" I rather will suspect the sun with cold 

Than thee with wantonness. " M. W. of W. iv. 4. 5. 
as we say "I charge him with." 

"Next them, with some small distance, follows a gentleman 
bearing the purse." Hen. VIII. ii. 4, stage direction. 

" Equal with," 3 J7<?. F7. iii. 2. 137, is like our "level with. " In 
" The violence of either grief or joy 
Their own enactures with themselves destroy," 

Hamlet, iii.- 2. 207. 
" with themselves" seems to mean "by or of themselves." 

Note " They have all persuaded with him." M. of V. iii. 2. 283. 
i.e. "argued with." So "flatter" is used for "deal flatteringly'' 1 
in T. N. i. 5. 322, and in the first of the following lines : 

" K. Rich. Should dying men flatter with those that live? 
Gaunt. No, no, men living flatter those that die." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 88, 89, 

"(She) married with my uncle." Hamlet, i. 2. 151. 
"I will break with her." M. Ado, i. i. 311. 
i.e. " open the matter in conversation with." 

195. With is used by Ben Jonson for like. 

" Not above a two shilling. 

B. Tis somewhat with the least." B. J. E. in drv. i. 4. 
" Something like, very near the least. " 

" He is not with himself." T. A. i. i. 368. i.e. "in his senses.'' 
Ben Jonson also uses without in the sense of "unlike," "beyond." 
" An act without your sex, it is so rare." B. J. Sejan. ii. i. 

196. Withal, the emphatic form of " with " (see "all "), is used 
for with after the object at the end of a sentence. Mostly, the 
object is a relative. 

" These banish'd men that I have kept withal.-' 1 

T. G.ofV. v. 4. 152. 
i.e. " With whom I have lived." A. '/. iii. i. 327. 



PREPOSITIONS. iji 

"And this is false you burden me withal." C. of E. Y. I. 268. 
i.e. "this with which you burden me." 

" Such a fellow is not to be talk'd -withal." M.forM. v. I. 347 

Sometimes "this" is understood after -withal, so that it means 
"with all this," and is used adverbially : 

" So glad of this as they I cannot be 

Who are surprised withal." Temp. iv. i. 217. 
i.e. "surprised with, or at, this." Here however, perhaps, and 
elsewhere certainly, with means "in addition to," and "HB/4-all 
(this)" means "besides." 

" I must have liberty withal." A. Y. L. ii. 7. 48. 

" Adding -withal." Rich. II. iv. I. 18, &c. 

But in " I came hither to acquaint you withal" A. Y. L. \. I. 139. 
there is no meaning of "besides," and withal means "there 
with," "with it." 

Withal follows its object, but is (on account of the "all" at the 
end of the previous verse) not placed at the end of the sentence, in 

" Even all I have, yea, and myself and all 
Will I withal endow a child of thine." Rich. III. iv. 4. 249. 

197. Without (used locally for " outside "). 

" What seal is that that hangs without thy bosom ?" 

Rich. II. v. I. 50. 

" Without the peril of the Athenian law." M. N. D. iv. I. 150. 
"A mile without the town." Ib. i. I. 104. 

This explains the pun : 

" Val. Are all these things perceived in me ? 
Speed. They are all perceived without ye." T. G. of V. ii. I. 35. 

Reversely, "out of" is used metaphorically for "without." 

" Neither can anything please God that we do if it be done out 
of charity." HALLIWELL. 

198. Prepositions are frequently omitted after verbs of 

motion. Motion in : 

"To r/the streets at noon."* A. and C. L 4. 20. 
" She o>a<yV many a wood." SPENS. F. Q. i. 7. 28. 
" To creep the ground." " Tower the sky. " MILTON, P. L. vii. 441 
" To s>ee great Pompey pass the streets of Rome." J. C. L i. 47. 
K 2 



132 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Motion to or from : 

"That gallant spirit hath aspired the clouds." 

R. andj, iii. i. 122, 

"Ere we could arrive the point proposed." J. C. i. 2. 110. 
" Arrived our coast. " 3 Hen. VI. v. 3. 8. 
" Some sailors that escaped the wreck." M. of V. iii. I. 110. 
"When we with tears parted Pentapolis." P. of T. v. 3. 38. 
"Depart the chamber and leave us." 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5, 91 
" To depart the city." N. P. 190. 
" Since presently your souls must part your bodies." 

Rich. II. iii. I. 3. 

We can still say "to descend the hill," but not "to descend the 
summit," nor 

" Some (of her hair) descended her sheav'd hat. " L. C 31. 
These omissions may perhaps illustrate the idiom in Latin, anil 
in Greek poetry. 

Verbs of ablation, such as "bar," "banish," "forbid," often 
omit the preposition before the place or inanimate object. Thus 

" We'll bar thee/nwz succession." W. T. iv. 4. 440. 
Or " Of- succession." Cymb. iii. 3. 102. 

becomes " Bars me the right" 

M.ofV.ii.i.\&; Rich. III. iv. 4. 400 ;A.Y.L.\.\. 20. 

Where a verb can take either the person or thing as an object, it 

naturally takes an indirect object without a preposition. Compare 

" Therefore we banish you our territories." Kick. II. i. 3-139. 

198 a. The preposition is omitted after some verbs and 
adjectives that imply "value," "worth," &c. 

" The queen is valued thirty thousand strong." 

3 Hen. VI. v. 3. 14. 

" Some precepts worthy the note." A. W. iii. 5. 104. 
An imitation of this construction is, perhaps, to be traced in 

" Guilty so great a crime." B. and F. F. Sh. iv. I. 
The omission of a preposition before "good cheap" (A.-S. cedp, 
"price," "bargain"), I Hen. IV. iii. 3. 50, may perhaps be thus 
explained without reference to the French " bon marche." And 
thus, without any verb or adjective of worth, 

" He has disgraced me and hindered me half a million:' 

M.ofV. iii. i. 57 



PREPOSITIONS. 13; 

" Semblative" (unless adverbial [i]) is used with the same con 
struction as "like" in 

" And all is seinblative a woman's part." T. N. i. 4. 34. 

199. The preposition is also sometimes omitted before the thing 
heard after verbs of hearing : 

"To listen our purpose." M. Ado, iii. I. 12. 
"List a brief tale." Lear, v. 3. 181. 
So J. C. v. 5. 15 ; Hamlet, i. 3. 30 ; J. C. iv. I. 41. 

' ' Listening their fear. " Macbeth, ii. 2. 28. 
Hence in the passive, 

" He that no more must say is 'listen 'd more." 

Rich. II. ii. I. 9. 
"Hearken* the end." 2 Hen. IV. ii. 4. 305 ; Temp. \. 2. 122. 

200. The preposition is omitted after some verbs which car 
easily be regarded as transitive. Thus if we can say ' ' plot mj 
death," there is little difficulty in the licence. 

" That do conspire (for) my death." Rich. III. iii. 4. 62. 
" (In) Which from the womb I did participate" T.N. v. 1.245. 
" She complained (about) her wrongs." R. of L. 1839. 
" And his physicians fear (for) him mightily." 

Rich. HI. \. i. 137. 

So l Hen. IV. iv. i. 24 ; T. of A. ii. z. 12 ; T. A. ii. 3. 305 ; 
M.ofV. iii. 2. 29. 
This explains 

" O, fear me not." Hamlet, i. 3. 52 ; iii. 4. 7. 
" That he would labour (for) my delivery. "Rich. III. i. i. 253. 
" To look (for) our dead. "Hsn. V. iv. 7. 76. 
" I must go look (for) my twigs." A. W. iii. 6. 115. 
" He hath been all this day to look (for) you." A. Y. L. ii. 5. 34. 
And in the difficult passage 

" O, whither hast thou led me, Egypt ? See 
How I convey my shame out of thine eyes 
By looking back what I have left behind 
'Stroy'd in dishonour." A. and C. iii. II. 53. 

While turning away from Cleopatra, Antony appears to say, that 
he is looking back (for) the fleet that he has left dishonoured and 
destroyed. 

* The Globe inserts "at,'' the reading of the quarto. 



134 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So " Scoffing (at) his state. "Rich. II. iii. 2. 163. 

" Smile you (at) my speeches as I were a fool ! " Lear, 
" Thou swear 'st (by) thy gods in vain." Ib. i. I. 163. 
" Yet thus far, Griffith, give me leave to speak (of) him." 

Hen. VIII. iv. 2. 32. 

Both here and in L. L. L. v. 2. 349 ; Macbeth, iv. 3. 159; T. A 
L 4. 20, "speak" is used for describe. In Macbeth, iv. 3. 154, "'tis 
ipoken" is used for "'tis said." Again, "said" is used foi 
" called" in 

"To be said an honest man and a good housekeeper." 

T. N. iv. 2. 10 ; so Macbeth, iv. 3. 210. 

"Talking that" is used like "saying that" in Tempest, ii. I. 96. 
"Speak," however, in R. and J. iii. I. 158, "Spake him fair" 
means " speak to : " but in the same expression M. of V. iv. I. 271 
it means "speak of." Similarly, " whisper " is often used without 
a preposition before a personal object. 

" He came to whisper Wolsey. " Heti. VIII. i. I. 179. 
" They whisper one another in the ear." K. J. iv. 2. 189. 
" Your followers I will whisper to the business." 

W. T. i. 2. 437 

Rarely, " whisper her ear. " M. Ado, iii. i. 4. 
In some cases, as in 

" She will attend it better," 

T. N. i. 3. 27, 2. 453; M. of V. v. 4. lOb 
the derivation may explain the transitive use. 

"Despair thy charm," Macbeth, v. 8. 13. 

is, perhaps, a Latir.ism. So "sympathise," meaning "suffer with," 
is used thus : 

" The senseless brands will sympathise 
The heavy accent of thy moving tongue." 

Rich. II. v. i. 47. 

"Deprive," meaning "take away a thing from a person," like 
"rid," can dispense with " of" before the impersonal object. 

" 'Tis honour to deprive dishonour'd life." R. of L. 1186. 
This explains how we should understand ' 

" Which might deprive your sovereignty of reason." 

Hamlet, i. 4. 73. 

i.e. " which might take away your controlling principle of reason. ' 
So, perhaps, " frees all faults." Tempest, Epilogue, 18. 



PREPOSITIONS. 135 

This seems to nuve arisen from the desire of brevity. Compare 
the tendency to convert nouns, adjectives, and neuter verbs into 
active verbs (290). 

201. The preposition was also omitted before the indirect 
object of some verbs, such as "say," "question," just as we still 
omit it after the corresponding verbs, "tell" and "ask." 

" Sayest (to) me so, friend?"?: of Sh. i. z. 190. 
" You will say (to) a beggar, nay." Rich. III. iii. i. 119. 
" Still question 'd (of) me the story of my life." Othello, i. 3. 129, 
In "Hear me a word," Rick. III. iv. 4. 180. 
it must be a question whether me or -word is the direct object. In 

"I cry thee mercy," Rich. III. iv. 4. 515. 

"mercy" is the direct object. This is evident from the shorter 
form 

"(I) Cry mercy." Rick. III. v. 3. 224. 

After "give," we generally omit "to," when the object of "to " 
is a personal noun or pronoun. But we could not write 

" A bed-swerver, even as bad as these 

That (to whom) vulgars (the vulgar) give bold'st titles. " 

W. T. ii. I. 94. 
" Unto his lordship, (to) whose unwished yoke 

My soul consents not to give sovereignty." M. N. D. i. I. 81. 

Somewhat similar is 

" This 'longs the text." P. of T. ii. Gower, 40. 
for " belongs (to) the text" 

202. Preposition omitted in adverbial expressions of time, 
manner, &c. 

" Forbear to sleep the nights, and fast the days." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 118. 
This is illustrated by our modern 

" (Of) What kind -of man is he ?" T. N. i. 5. 159. 
" But wherefore do not you a mightier way 
Make war upon this bloody tyrant, time?" Sonn. 16. 

" My poor country 
(Shall) More suffer, and more sundry ways, than ever." 

Macbeth, iv. 3. 48 ; so tt. i. 3. 154 
" Revel the night, rob, murder, and commit 
The newest sins the newest kind of -ways." 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 12d 



136 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

' ' And ye sad hours that move a sullen pace. " 

B, and F. F. Sh. iv i. 
"I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver 
Of my whole course of life ; what drugs, what charms, 
What conjuration, and what mighty magic 
(For such proceeding I am charg'd withal) 
I won Xia daughter." Othello, i. 3. 91. 
" How many would the peaceful city quit 
To welcome him ! Much more, and much more cause, * 
Did they this Harry." Hen. V. v. Prol. 34. 

" Tc keep Prince Harry in continual laughter the wearing out oj 
rix fashions, which is four terms." 2 Hen. IV. v. I. 84. 

" Why hast thou not served thyself into my table so many meals?" 
Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 45 : i.e. "during so many meals." 
" To meet his grace just distance 'tween our armies." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. I. 225 

" That I did suit me all points like a man." A. Y. L. i. 3. 118 
" But were I not the better part made mercy." Ib. iii. I. 2. 
" And when such time they have begun to cry." Coriol. iii. 3. 19. 
"Where and what time your majesty shall please." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 45C 
" What time we will our celebration keep." T. N. iv. 3. 30. 

" Awhile they bore her up, 
Which time she chanted snatches of old tunes." Ham. iv. 7. 178. 

In the following cases it would seem that a prepositional phrase is 
condensed into a preposition, just as "by the side of" (Chaucer, 
" byside Bathe") becomes "be-side," and governs an object. 
"On this side Tiber." J. C. iii. 2. 254. 
" Fasten'd ourselves at either end the mast. " C. of E. \. I. 86. 
" A sheet of paper writ o' both sides the leaf." L. L. L. v. 2. 8. 
' On each side her the Bishops of London and Winchester. " 
Hen. VIII. iv. I (order of coronation}. 
" She is as forward of our breeding as 
She is in the rear our birth." W. T. iv. 4. 522. 

" Our purpose " seems to mean " for our purpose," in 

"Not to know what we speak to one another, so we seem to 
know, is to know straight, our purpose: chough's language, gabble 
enough and good enough." A. W. iv. I. 21. 

This seems the best punctuation. " Provided we seem to know 
what we say to one another, ignorance is exactly as good as know 
ledge, foi our purpose. " 

* But " and (there was) much more cause " may be a parenthesis. 



PREPOSITIONS. 137 

Hence the use of this for " in this way" or "thus" is not so bold 
is it seems : 

" What am I that thou shouldst contemn me this ? 
What were thy lips the worse for one poor kiss?" 

V. and A. 203. 

Perhaps, however, "contemn" is confused with "refuse." But this 
is used for "thus" in E. E. 

All constantly repeated adverbial expressions have a tendency to 
abbreviate or lose their prepositions. Compare " alive " for " on 
live," "around" for "in round," "chance" for "perchance,' 
"like " for "belike," &c. In some adverbial expressions the pre 
position can be omitted when the noun is qualified by an adjective, 
but not otherwise. Thus we can use "yester-day," "last night," 
"this week," adverbially, but not "day," "night," "week," 
because in the latter words there is nothing to indicate how time 
is regarded. In O. E. the inflections were sufficient to justify an 
adverbial use, "dayes," "nighter." (Compare MKT&S.) But the 
inflections being lost, the adverbial use was lost with them. 

203. Prepositions: transposed. (See also Upon.) inA.-S. 

and E. E. prepositions are often placed after their objects. In some 
cases the preposition may be considered as a separable part of a 
compound transitive verb. Thus in 

" Ne how the Grekes with a huge route 
Three times riden all the fire aboute," CHAUC. C. T. 2954. 

"ride about" may be considered a transitive verb, having as its 
object "fire." Naturally, emphatic forms of prepositions were 
best suited for this emphatic place at the end of the sentence ; and 
therefore, though " to," " tyll," " fro," " with," " by," "fore," were 
thus transposed, yet the longer forms, "untylle," "before," "be 
hind," "upon," "again," were preferred. Hence in the Elizabethan 
period, when the transposition of the weaker prepositions was not 
allowed, except in the compound words "whereto," "herewith," 
&c. (compare "se-cum, quo-cum") the longer forms are still, though 
rarely, transposed. 

For this reason, "with," when transposed, is emphasized into 
"withal." The prepositions "after," "before," and "upon," are 
thus transposed by Shakespeare : 

" God before." Hen. V. i. 2. 307; iii. 6. 16-5, for "'fore God.' 
" Hasten youi generals after." A. and C. ii. 4. 8 



138 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So " \ need not sing this them until (unto). " HEYWOOD. 
" For fear lest day should look their shames upon.'" 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 88r 
" That bare-foot plod I the cold ground upon." A. W. iii. 4. 6. 

"For my good will is to't, 
And yours it is against." Tempest, iii. I. 31. 

The use of prepositions after the relative, which is now somewhat 
avoided, but is very common in E. E., is also common in Shake 
speare, and is evidently better adapted to the metre than the modern 
idiom, as far as regards the longer forms. " Upon which" is not 
so easily metricized as 

" Ten thousand men that fishes gnawed upon." Rich. III. i. 4. 25. 
"The pleasure that some fathers feed upon." Rich. II. ii. i. 79. 

204. Prepositions transposed. " It stands me upon. " This 
phrase cannot be explained, though it is influenced, by the custom of 
transposition. Almost inextricable confusion seems to have been 
made by the Elizabethan authors between two distinct idioms : (i) 
"it stands on" (adv.), or "at hand," or "upon" (comp. "instat," 
irpocriJKfi), i.e. "it is of importance," "it concerns," "it is a matter 
of duty ;" and (2) "I stand upon" (adj.), i.e. " I in-sist upon." 

In (i) the full phrase would be, "it stands on, upon, to me," 
but, owing to the fact that " to me" or " me " {the dative inflection) is 
unemphatic, and " upon " is emphatic and often tised at the end of the 
sentence, the words were transposed into "it stands me upon." 
"Me" was thus naturally mistaken for the object of upon. 

Hence we have not only the correct fonn 

" It stands me (dative) much upon (adverb) 
To stop all hopes." Rich. III. iv. 2. 59. 

(Sc Hamlet, v. 2. 63, where it means "it is imperative on me.") 
But also the incorrect 

" It stands your grace upon to do him right." 

Rich. II. ii. 3. 138. 
" It only stands 
GUI lives upon to use our strongest hands." A. and C. ii. I. 51. 

where "grace" and "lives" are evidently intended to be the objects 
of "upon," whereas the Shakespearian use of "me" (220) renders 
it possible, though by no means probable, that " me," in the first of 
the above examples, was used as a kind of dative. 



PRONOUNS. 139 

Hence by analogy 

" It lies you on to speak." Coriol. iii. 2. 52. 

The fact that this use of upon in "stand upon" is not a mere 
poetical transposition, but a remnant of an old idiom imperfectly 
understood, may be inferred from the transposition occurring in 
Elizabethan prose : 

" Sigismund sought now by all means (as it stood him upon) to 
make himself as strong as he could." NARES. 

Perhaps this confusion has somewhat confused the meaning of the 
personal verb " I stand on." It means " I trust in " (M. W. of W. 
ii. I. 242), "insist on" (Hen. V. v. 2. 93), and "I depend on" 
(R. and J. ii. 2. 93), and in 

"The moist star 
Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands. " 

Hamlet, i. r. 119. 



PRONOUNS. 
205. Persona], Irregularities of (omission of, insertion of, 

,see Relative and Ellipses)- The inflections of Personal Pro 
nouns are frequently neglected or misused. It is perhaps impossible 
to trace a law in these irregularities. Sometimes, however, euphony 
and emphasis may have successfully contended against grammar. 
This may explain / in "and /," "but /," frequently used for me. 
" 'Tween you and /" seems to have been a regular Elizabethan 
idiom. The sound of d and t before me was avoided. For 
reasons of euphony also the ponderous tliou is often ungrammatically 
replaced by thee, or inconsistently by you. This is particularly the 
case in questions and requests, where, the 'pronoun being especially 
unemphatic, tlwu is especially objectionable. To this day many of the 

.Jriends use thee invariably for thou, and in the Midland and North 
of England we have "wilta?" for "wilt thou?" Compare E. E. 
" wiltow ?" for "wilt thou?" " J>inkestow ? " for "thinkest thou ?'' 
and similarly, in Shakespeare, thou is often omitted after a ques 
tioning verb. Again, since he and she could be used (sec below) 
for "man" and "woman," there was the less harshness in using 
he for him and she for her. Where an objective pronoun is immedi 
ately followed by a finite verb, it is sometimes treated as the subject, 
as below, ' ' no man like he doth tjrieve. " 



140 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

208. He for him: 

" Which of he or Adrian, for a good wager, begins to crow ?" 

Tempest, ii. I. 28. 

Some commentators insert "them" after "which of." (See 408.) 
" I would wish me only he. " Coriol. i. I. 236. 
"And yet no man like he doth grieve my heart." 

R. and J. iii. 5. 84. 

"From the first corse till he that died to-day." Ham. i. 2. 104. 
where "till" is a preposition. See Prepositions, Till, 184. 

207. He for him precedes its governing verb in the following 
examples : 

" Thus he that over-ruled I over-sway'd." V. and A. 109. 

" And he my husband best of all affects." M. W. of W. iv. 4. 87. 

So probably /*<? depends upon "within" in 

" Tis better thee without than he within." Macbeth, iii. 3. 14. 

208. Him for he. 

Him is often put for "he," by attraction to " whom" understood, 
for "he whom." 

"Him (he whom) I accuse 

By this the city ports hath enter'd. " Coriol. v. 6. 5. 
" Ay, better than him (he whom) I am before knows me." 

A. Y. L. i. i. 46. 

" When him (whom) we serve's away." A. and C. iii. I. 15. 
" Your party in converse, him (whom) you would sound, 
He closes with you," &c. Hamlet, ii. I. 42. 

Sometimes the relative is expressed : 

" His brother and yours abide distracted but chiefly him that 
you term'd Gonzalo " Temp. v. i. 14. 

Sometimes he is omitted : 

" Whom I serve above is my master." A. W. ii. 3. 261. 

" To (him to) -whom it must be done." J. C. ii. i. 831. 
In " Damn'd be him, 1 ' Macbeth, v. 8. 34. 
perhaps let, or some such word, was implied. 

209. I for me (for euphony : see 205) : 

"Here's none but thee and /." 2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 69 

" All debts are cleared between you and /." M. of V. iii. 2. 321 



PRONOUNS. 141 

"You know my father hath no child but I." A. Y. L. i. 2. 18. 

" Unless you would devise some virtuous lie 
And hang some praise upon deceased /. " Sonn. 72. 

The rhyme is an obvious explanation of the last example. But, 
in all four, / is preceded by a dental. 

So " Which may make this island 

Thine own for ever, and I, thy Caliban, 
For aye thy foot-licker. " Temp. iv. I. 217. 

210. Me for I : 

"No mightier than thyself or me" J. C. i. 3. 76. 
"Is she as tall as me?" A. and C. iii. 3. 14. 
Probably than and as were used with a quasi-prepositional force. 

211. She for her : 

"Yes, you have seen Cassio and j>k together." O. iv. 2. 3. 

" So saucy with the hand of she here what's her name ?" 

A. and C. iii. 13. 98. 

She was more often used for "woman" than "he" for "man." 
Hence, perhaps, she seemed more like an uninflected noun than 
"he " and we may thus extenuate the remarkable anomaly 

" Praise him that got thee, she that gave thee suck." 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 252. 

212. Thee for thou. Verbs followed by thee instead of thru 
have been called reflexive. But though " haste thee" and some 
other phrases with verbs of motion, may be thus explained, and 
verbs were often thus used in E. E., it is probable that " look thee" 
"hark thee" are to be explained by euphonic reasons. Thet, thus 
used, follows imperatives which, being themselves emphatic, require 
an unemphatic pronoun. The Elizabethans reduced thou to thee. 
We have gone further, and rejected it altogether. (See 205. ) 

"Blossom, speed thee well." W. T. iii. 3. 46. 

" Look thee here, boy." Ib. 116. 

"Run tfiee to the parlour." M. Ado, iii. i. 1. 

" Haste thee." Lear, v. 3. 251. 

" Stand thee by, friar." M. Ado, iv. I. 24. 

"Hark/Vk^a word." Cymb. i. 5. 32. 

"Look thee, 'tis so." T. of A. iv. 3. 530. 

44 Come thee on." A. and C. iv. 7. 16. 



142 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Now, fellow, fare thee well. " Lear, iv. 6. 41. 

"HoldtAef, there's my purse." A. W.'w. 5. 46;^ C. v,$. 85. 

" Take thee that too." Macbeth, ii. I. 5. 
In the two latter instances thee is the dative. 
Thee is probably the dative in 

"Thinkst thee?" Hamlet, v. 2. 63. 

or, at all events, there is, perhaps, confusion between " Thinks it 
thee?" i.e. "does it (E.E.) seem to thee?" and "thinkst thou ?" Very 
likely "thinkst" is an abbreviation of "thinks it." (See 297.) 
Compare the confusion in 

"Where it thinkst best unto your royal selfe." 

Rich. III. iii. I. 63 (Folio). 

213. Thee for thou is also found after the verb to be, not 
merely in the Fool's mouth : 

"I would not be thee, nuncle." Lear, i. 4. 204. 
but also Timon : 

" I am not thee."T. of A. iv. 3. 277. 
and Suffolk : 

" It is thee I fear." 2 Hen. VI. iv. I. 117. 

where thee is, perhaps, influenced by the verb, "I fear," so that 
there is a confusion between " It is thou whom I fear" and " Thee 
I fear." In these cases thee represents a person not regarded as 
acting, but about whom something is predicated. Hence thou was, 
perhaps, changed to thee according to the analogy of the sound of 
he and she, which are used for "man" and " woman." 

214. Them for they : 

" Your safety, for the which myself and them 
Bend their best studies."^ J. iv. 2. 50. 

Perhaps them is attracted by " myself" ; but more probably it is 
a kind of quotation of "myself and them " from the previous line. 

215. Us for we in " shall V "Shall" (315), originally mean 
ing necessity or obligation, and therefore not denoting an action on 
the part of the subject, was used in the South of England as an 
impersonal verb. (Compare Latin and Greek.) So Chaucer, " us 
oughte," and we also find " as us wol," i.e. " as it is pleasing to us." 
Hence in Shakespeare 



PRONOUNS. t43 

"Say, where shall'j lay him?" Cymb. iv. 2. 233. 
"Shall'j have a, play of this?" Ib. v. 5. 228. 
" Shall'j attend you there?" W. T. i. 2. 178. 
"Shall'-r to the Capitol?" Coriol. iv. 6. 148. 

216. After a conjunction and before an infinitive we often find 
F, thou, &c., where in Latin we should have "me," " te," 
&c. The conjunction seems to be regarded as introducing a new 
sentence, instead of connecting one clause with another. Hence the 
pronoun is put in the nominative, and a verb is, perhaps, to be 
supplied from the context. 

" What he is indeed 
More suits you to conceive than /(find it suitable) to speak of." 

A. Y. L. i. 2. 279. 
i.f. "than that I should speak of it." 

' : A heavier grief could not have been imposed 
Than I to speak my griefs unspeakable. " C. of E. i. I. 33. 

"The soft way which thou dost confess 
Were fit for thee to use as they to claim." Coriol. iii. 2. 83. 

" Making night hideous, and we fools of nature 

. So horridly to shake our disposition." Hamlet, i. 4. 54. 

"Heaven would that she these gifts should have, 
And 1 "to live and die her slave." A. Y. L. iii. 2. 162. 

Sometimes the infinitive is implied, but not expressed : 

" To beg of thee it is my more dishonour 
Than thou of them." Coriol. iii. 2. 125. 

/, thou, and he, are also used for me, thee, and him, when they 
stand quasi-independently at some distance from the governing verb 
or preposition. 

" But what o' that ? Your majesty and we that have free souls, 
it touches us not." Hamlet, iii. 2. 252. 

"I shall think the better of myself and thee during my life; 1 
for a valiant champion, ?.nd thou for a true prince." I Hen. IV. 
ii. 4. 300. 

" (God) make me that nothing have with nothing griev'd, 
And thou with all pleas'd that hast all achieved. " 

Rich. II. iv. I. 217 

" With that same purpose-changer, that sly devil, 
That daily break-vow, he that wins of all." K. J. ii. I. 668 



f44 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Now let me see the proudest, 
He that dares most, but wag his finger at thee. " 

Wen. VIII. v. 3. 181. 

(To punctuate, as in the Globe, " the proudest he" is intolerably 
harsh. ) 

"Justice, sweet prince, against that woman there, 
She whom thou gavest to me to be my wife, 
That hath abused and dishonour'd me." C. of E. v. I. 198. 

" Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes 
Which art my near'st and dearest enemy, 
Thou that art like enough," &c.? I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 123. 

217. His w ^s sometimes used, by mistake, for 's, the sign of the 
possessive case, particularly after a proper name, and with especial 
frequency when the name ends in s. -This mistake arose in very 
early times. The possessive inflection 's (like the dative plural 
inflection um) was separated by scribes from its noun. Hence after 
the feminine name " Guinivere," we have in the later text of LAYA- 
MON, ii. 511, "for Gwenayfer his love." The h is no more a 
necessary part of this separate inflection than it is of "his," the 
third pers. sing, indie, pres. of "beon" ("be"). " His" is con 
stantly found for "is" in Layamon. No doubt the coincidence in 
sound between the inflection 's and the possessive "his" made the 
separation seem more natural, and eventually confused 's with his. 

" Mars his sword . . . nor Neptune's trident nor Apollo's bow." 

B. J. Cy.'s Rev. \. \. 
Also, by analogy, 

" Pallas her glass." BACON, Adv. of L. 278. 

This is more common with monosyllables than with dissyllables, 
as the 's in a dissyllable is necessarily almost mute. Thus 

"The count /for gallies." Z N. iii. 3. 26. 

"Mars his true moving." I Hen. VI. i. 2. 1. 
So Tr. and Cr. iv. 5. 176, 255, &c. 

" Charles /to gleeks." I Hen. VI. iii. 2. 123. 

but never, or very rarely, " Phoebus his." 

The possessive inflection in dissyllables ending in a sibilant sound 
is often expressed neither in writing nor in pronunciation. 

" Marry, my uncle Clarence (Folio) angry ghost." 

Rich. III. iii. i. 144; il I. 137 



PRONOUNS, 145 

"For yWJ//<r<r sake." J. C. iv. 3. 19. 
"At every sentence end. " A. Y. L. iii. 2. 144. 
" Lewis" is a monosyllable in 

" King Lewis his satisfaction all appear. " Hen. V. .. 2. 88. 
His is used like "hie" (in the antithesis between "hie . . . ille "). 
" Desire his (this one's) jewels and this other's house."* 

Macb. iv. 3. 80 ; M. of V. iii. 2. 54-5 ; Sorin. xxix. 5, 6. 
This explains 

" And, at our stamp, here o'er and o'er one falls : 
He murder cries, and help from Athens calls. " 

M. N. D. iii. I. 26 

His, being the old genitive of it, is almost always used for its. 

218. His, her, &c. being the genitives of he, she (she in E. E. 
had, as one form of the nom., " heo," gen. "hire"), &c. may stand 
as the antecedent of a relative. Thus : 

" In his way that comes in triumph over Pompey's blood." 

J. C. i. i. 55. 
i.t. "in the way of him that comes." 

" Love make his heart of flint that you shall love." T. N. i. 5. 305. 

" Unless her prayers whom heaven delights to hear." A. W. iii. 4. 27. 

" If you had known . . . her worthiness that gave the ring." 

M. of y.\. i. 200. 

" Armies of pestilence, and they shall strike 
Your children yet unborn and unbegot 
That lift your vassal hands against my head." 

Rich. II. iii. 2. 89. 
i. e. ' ' the children of you who lift your hands. " 

' ' Upon their woes whom fortune captivates. " 

$Hen. VI. i. 4. 115. So Lear, v. 3. 2. 
" And turn our impress'd lances in our eyes 
Which do command them. " Lear, v. 3. 50. 

In " Alas, their love may be call'd appetite, 
No motion of the liver, but the palate, 
That suffer surfeit, cloyment and revolt," T. N. ii. 4. 100-2. 

it seems better to take that as the relative to "them," implied in 
" their (of them)," rather than to suppose " suffer" to be the sub 
junctive singular (367), or that to be the relative to "liver" and 
"palate" by confusion. It is true that is not often so far from its 
antecedent, but the second line may be treated as parenthetical. 

* " Condemning some to death, and some to exile ; 

Ransoming him or pitying, threatening the other. " Cartel. L 6. SO 



146 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Thia is perhaps not common in modern poetry, but it sometimes 
occurs: 

" Poor is our sacrifice "whose eyes 

Are lighted from above." NEWMAN. 

219. Your, our, their, &c., are often used in their old signi 
fication, as genitives, where we should use " of you," &c. 

" We render you (Coriolanus) the tenth to be ta'en forth 

At ... your only choice. " Coriol. i. 9. 36. 
i.e. "at the choice of you alone." 

" To all our lamentation. " Coriol. iv. 6. 34. 
ifc "to the lamentation of us all." 

" Have I not all their letters to meet me in arms ?" 

I Hen. IV. ii. 3. 2o. 
i.e. " letters from them all." 

220. Me, thee, him, &c. are often used, in virtue of their 
representing the old dative, where we should use for me, by me, &c. 
Thus (but? does "him to" mean " the man to"?) : 

" I am appointed (by) him to murder you." W. T. i. 2. 412. 
"John lays you plots." K. J. iii. 4. 145. 
This is especially common with me. 
Me is indirect object in 

" But hear me this." T: N. v. i. 123. 
" What thou hast promis'd which is not yet perform 'd ir.s. ' 

Tempest, i. 2. 241. 

We say "do me a favour," but not "to do me business "- 
Tempest, i. 2. 255. 

" Give me your present to one Master Bassanio." 

M. of V. ii. 2. 115. 

"Who does me this?" Hamlet, ii. 2. 601. 
"Sayest thou me so?" 2 Hen. VI. ii. r. 109. 
Mt seems to mean "from me" in 

" You'll bear me a bang for that" J. C. iii. 2. 20. 
"with me" in 

"And hold me pace in deep experiment" I Hen. IV. iii. i. 48 
Me means " to my injury" in 

" See how this river comes me cranking in, 
And cuts me, from the best of all my land, 
A huge half-moon." I Hen. IV. iii. i. 100. 
" at my cost" and "for my benefit" in 
" The sack that thou hast drunk me could have bought ms light- 



PRONOUNS. 147 

as good cheap at the dearest chandler's in Europe." I Hen. IV. 
iii. 3. 50. 

Me in narrative stands on a somewhat different footing : 
" He pluck'd me ope his doublet." J. C. i. 2. 270. 
"He steps me to her trencher." T. G. of V. iv. 4. 9. 
" The skilful shepherd peel'd me certain wands." 

M.ofV. i. 3.85. 

" He presently, as greatness knows itself, 
Steps me a little higher than his vow. " I Hen. IV. iv. 3. 75 

Falstaff, when particularly desirous of securing the attention ol 
the Prince ("Dost thou hear me, Hal?"), indulges twice in this 
use of me. 

" I made me no more ado, ... I followed me close." 

i Hen. IV. ii. 4. 233, 241. 

Here, however, the verbs are perhaps used reflexively, though 
this would seem to be caused by the speaker's intense desire to call 
attention to himself. So in 

" Observe me judicially, sweet sir ; they had planted me three 
demi-culverins," B. J. E. in &*c. iii. 2. 

the me seems to appropriate the narrative of the action to the 
speaker, and to be equivalent to "mark me," "/tell you." In 
such phrases as 

" Knock me here," T.ofSh. i. 2. 8. 

the action, and not merely the narrative of the action, is appro 
priated. 

You is similarly used for " look you :" 

" And 'a would manage you his piece thus, and come you in 
and come you out." 2 Hen, IV. iii. 2. 304. 

In " Study me how to please the eye indeed 

By fixing it upon a fairer eye," L. L. L. i. I. 80. 
me probably means "for me," " by my advice," i.e. "/would have 
you study thus." Less probably, "study" may be an active veil. 
of which the passive is found in Macb. i. 4. 9. 

There is a redundant him in 

"The king, by this, is set him down to sleep. "-3 Hen, VI. iv. 3. 2. 
where there is, perhaps, a confusion between ' ' has set him(self 
down" and "is set down." 

Her seems used for " of her," " at her hands," in 
"I took her leave at court" A. W "v 3 79. 

i.e. "I bade her farewell." 

L 2 



148 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

Us probably is used for " to us" in 

" She looks us like 
A thing made more of malice than of duty." Cymb. Hi. 5. 32 

But possibly as "look" in Hen. V. iv. 7. 76, A. and C. iii. 10. 53, 
is used for " look for," so it may mean " look at." So 

"Twa brooks in which I look myself." B. J. Sad Sh. ii. I. 
i.e. " I view myself. " 

Us seems equivalent to "for us" in 

" We have not spoke us yet of torch-bearers." 

M. of V. ii. 4. 5. 
i.e. "spoken for ourselves about torch-bearers." 

221. Your, like "me" above (Latin, iste), is used to appropriate 
an object to a person addressed. Lepidus says to Antony : 

" Your serpent of Egypt is lord now of your mud by the operation 
of your sun : so is your crocodile." A. and C. ii. 7. 29. 

Though in this instance the your may seem literally justified, the 
repetition of it indicates a colloquial vulgarity which suits the 
character of Lepidus. So Hamlet, affecting madness : 

" Your worm is your only emperor for diet ; your fat king and 
your lean beggar is but variable service." Hamlet, iv. 3. 24. 

Compare 

" But he could read and had your languages." B. J. Fox, ii. i. 
i.e. " the languages which you know are considered important" 

So: "I would teach these nineteen the special rules, as your 
punto, your reverse, your stoccata, your imbroccato, your passada, 
your montanto. " Bobadil, in B. J. E. in &*c. iv. 5. 

Hence the apparent rudeness of Hamlet is explained when he 
says to the player : 

" But if you mouth it as many of your players do." Ham. iii. 2. 3. 
i.e. "the players whom you and everybody know." 

222. Our is used, like "my," vocatively: 

" Our very loving sister, well be-met." Lear, v. I. 20. 
" Tongue-tied our queen, speak thou." W. T. i. 2. 27. 
" Our old and faithful friend, we are glad to see you." 

M. for M. v. I. 2. 

In all these cases our is used in the royal style, for ' ' my, " by a 
single speaker referring merely to himself. 



PRONOUNS. 149 

223. Him, her, me, them, &c. are often used in Elizabethan, 
and still more often in Early English, for himself, herself, &c. 

" How she opposes her (sets herself) against my will. " 

T.G.ofV. iii. 2. 26. 

" My heart hath one poor string to stay it by." K. J. v. 7. 55. 
" And so I say I'll cut the causes off 
Flattering me with impossibilities." 3 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 143. 

224. He and she are used for "man" and "woman.'' 

" And that he 
Who casts to write a living line must sweat. " 

B. J. on Shakespeare, 
" I'll bring mine action on the proudest he 

That stops my way in Padua." T. of Sh. iii. 2. 236. 
" Lady, you are the cruellest she alive." T. N. i. 5. 259. 

" I think my love as rare 

As any she belied with false compare." Sonn. 130. 
" That she belov'd knows nought that knows not this." 

Tr. and Cr. i. 2. 314. 
" With his princess, she 

The fairest I have yet beheld." W. T. \. I. 86. 
" Betwixt two such shes." Cymb. i. 6. 40 ; ib. i. 3. 29.* 

This makes more natural the use of "he that," with the third 
person of the verb, in 

" Are not you he 

That frights the maidens? " M. N. D. ii. I. 34. 
So A. Y. L. iii. 2. 411. 

225. Pronoun for pronominal adjective. The pronominal 

adjectives his, their, being originally possessive inflections of he, 
they, &c., were generally used in E. E. possessively or subjectively, 
i.e. " his wrongs " would naturally mean then " the wrongs done by 
him," not "to him." Hence, for objective genitives, "of" was 
frequently introduced, a usage which sometimes extended to sub 
jective genitives. Hence 

" The kindred of him hath been flesh'd upon us." Hen. V. ii. 4. 50. 
"Tell thou the lamentable tale of me." Rich. II. v. I. 44. 
" The native mightiness and Tate of him." Hen. V. ii. 4. 64 
" Against the face of them." Psalm xxi. 12. 
* Hence a " laAy-s/te," W. T, i. 2. 44, means" a well-born woman." 



150 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

It is used, perhaps, for antithesis in 

" Let her be made 
As miserable by the death of him 
As I am made by my poor lord and thee." 

Rich. HI. I 2. 21 

" world, thou wast the forest to this heart, 
And this indeed, O world, the heart of 'thee :" 

y. C. iii. I. 208, 

226. It is sometimes used indefinitely, as the object of a verb, 
without referring to anything previously mentioned, and seems to 
indicate a pre-existing object in the mind of the person spoken o 

"Courage, father, fight it out." 3 Hen. VI. i. 4. 10. 
i.e. " the battle." 

" Bcr. She never saw it 
King. Thou speak'st # falsely."^. W. v. 3. 113. 

i.e. " what thou sayest" 

" Dangerous peer, 
That smooth'st it so with king and commonweal. " 

2. Hen. VI. ii. i. 22. 
where it = " matters." 

"To revel it with him and his new bride." (So C. of E. iv. 4. 66. ) 
3 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 225. 

i.e. " to take part in the intended bridal revels." 

"I cannot daub it further." Lear, iv. I. 54. 
i.e. " continue my former dissembling." 

But it is often added to nouns or words that are not generally 
used as verbs, in order to give them the force of verbs. 

"Foot it." Tempest, i. 2. 380. 

"To queen it." Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 37. 

"To prince it." Cymb. iii. 3. 85. 

"Lord Angelo dukes it well" M. for M. iii. 2. 100. 

And, later, 

" Whether the charmer sinner it or saint it, 
If folly grow romantic, I must paint it. " 

POPE, Moral Essays, ii 15. 

The use of it with verbs is now only found in slang phrases. 



PRONOUNS. 151 

227. It is sometimes more emphatically used than with us. We 
have come to use it so often superfluously before verbs that the 
emphatic use of it for " that" before "which" is lost. 

" There was it 
For which my sinews shall be stretched upon him. " 

Coriol. v. 6. 44 
" That's it that always makes a good voyage of nothing." 

T. N. ii. 4. 80. 

" An if it please me which thou speak'st." T. A. v. i. 59. 
" It holds current that I told you of." I Hen. IV. ii. I. 59. 

So Isaiah (A. V.) Ii. 9 : "Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab?" 

Perhaps we must explain it as the antecedent of " what" (and not 
as in 226) in 

" Deign it, Goddess, from my hand 
To receive whatever this land 
From her fertile womb doth send." B. and F. Fair Sh. i. I. 

228. Its was not used originally in the Authorized Version of the 
Bible, and is said to have been rarely used in Shakespeare's time. 
It is, however, very common in Florio's Montaigne. His still 
represented the genitive of It as -well as of He. Its is found, how 
ever, in M. for M. i. 2. 4, where it is emphatic ; in W. T. i. 2 (three 
times, 151, 152,. 266) ; Hen. VIII. i. 1. 18 ; Lear, iv. 2. 32, and else 
where. Occasionally it, an early provincial form of the old genitive, 
is found for its, especially when a child is mentioned, or when any 
one is contemptuously spoken of as a child. Ben Jonson (6V/. Wem. 
ii. 3) uses both forms 

" Your knighthood shall come on its knees." 
And then, a few lines lower down 

" It knighthood shall fight all it friends. " 
Comp. W. T. iii. 2. 109 : 

" The innocent milk in it most innocent mouth." 
> " The hedge-sparrow fed the cuckoo so long, 

That it's had it head bit off by it young." Lear, i. 4. 235 

But also of an unknown person : 

" The corse they follow did with desperate hand 

Fordo it own life. " (Folio.) Hamlet, v. I. 246. 
" Woman it pretty sel" (Folio.) Cymb. iii. 4. 160. 



1 52 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

And of the ghost : 

" It lifted up it head." (Folio.) Hamlet, \. 2. 216. 

Perhaps the dislike of its, even in the eighteenth century, aided 
the adoption of the French idiom " lever la tete." 

"Where London's column, pointing at the skies, 
Like a tall bully lifts the head and lies. " 

POPE, Moral Essays, iii. 340. 

" //-selfe " is found referring to " who." (See 264.) 

" The world who of //-selfe is peised well." K. J. ii. I. 575. 

229. Her is very often applied by Shakespeare to the mind and 
soul. 

" Whose soul is that which takes her heavy leave ?" 

3 Hen. VI. ii. 6. 42. 
" Since my dear soul was mistress of her choice." 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 68. 
So Rich. HI. iii. 5. 28 ; Hamlet, ii. 2. 580. 

" Our mind partakes 
Her private actions to your secrecy. " P. of T. i. I. 153. 

So Montaigne, 117. 

The former passage from Hamlet shows the reason of this. The 
soul, when personified, is regarded as feminine, like Psyche. The 
body of a woman is also thus personified in 

' ' And made thy body bare 
Of her two branches, those sweet ornaments." T. A. ii. 4. 18. 

Milton occasionally uses its ; often her for its ; seldom, if ever, 
his for its. 

" His form had not yet lost 
All her original brightness. " MILTON, P. L. i. 592. 

In this, and some other passages, but not in all, Milton may have 
been influenced by the Latin use of the feminine gender. ' ' Form " 
represents "forma," a feminine Latin noun. 
Personification will explain 

"That Tiber trembled underneath her banks." 

J. C. \. i. 50. 

230. Ungrammatical remnants of ancient usage. In 

Chaucer and earlier writers, preference is expressed, not by our 
modern "I had, or would, rather (i.e. soonei)," but by "(To) me 



PRONOUNS. j S3 

(it) were lever (German lieber}" i.e. "more pleasant." These two 
id : oms are confused in the following example : 

" Me rather had my heart might feel your love. " 

Rich. II. iii. 3. 192 

In the earliest writers "woe !" is found joined with the dative 
inflection of the pronoun, " woe is (to) us," "woe is (to) me." 

" Wa worthe (betide) than monne (the man, dat.)." 

LAYAMON, i. 142. 

As early as Chaucer, and probably earlier, the sense of the 
inflection was weakened, and "woe" was used as a predicate : "I 
am woe," " we are woe," &c. Hence Shakespeare uses " sorrow " 
thus. Similarly our " I am well " is, perhaps, an ungrammatical 
modification of " well is me," Ps. cxxviii. 2 (Prayer-book). In 
Early English both constructions are found. In Anglo-Saxon, 
Matzner "has only met with the dative construction." 

" I am sorrow for thee." Cymb. v. 5. 297. 

"lam woe for't, sir." Tump. v. i. 139. 

" Woe is my heart." Cymb. v. 5. 2. 

" Woe, woe are we, sir." A. and C. iv. 14. 133. 
On the other hand, 

" Woe is me." Hamlet, iii. i. 168. 

" Woe me."M. for M. 1.4. 26. 

Similarly, the old "(to) me (it) were better," being misunderstood, 
was sometimes replaced by " I were better." 

" I were tetter to be eaten to death." 2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 245. 

" I were best to leave him." I Hen. VI. v. 3. 82. 

"Poor lady, she were better love a dream." T. N. i. 2. 27. 

" Thou'rt best." Tempest, i. 2. 366. 

And when the old idiom is retained, it is generally in instances like 
the following : 

" Answer truly, you were best." y. C. iii. 3. 15. 

" Madam, yotSre best consider. " Cymb. iii. 2. 79. 
where you may represent either nominative or dative, but was 
almost certainly used by Shakespeare as nominative. See also 352. 

231. Thou and YOU.* Thou in Shakespeare's time was, verj 
much like "du" now among the Germans, the pronoun of (i) 

* The Elizabethan distinction between thou and you is remarkably illustrated 
by the usage in E. E., as detailed by Mr. Skeat in William o/Palerttt, Preface, 
p. xli. 



'54 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

affecvion towards friencfc (2) good-humoured superiority to servants, 
and (3) contempt or anger to strangers. It had, however, already 
fallen somewhat into disuse, and, being regarded as archaic, was 
naturally adopted (4) in the higher poetic style and in the language 
of solemn prayer. 

(i) This is so common as to need no examples. It should be 
remarked, however, that this use is modified sometimes by euphony 
(the ponderous thou, art, and terminations in at being avoided) and 
sometimes by fluctuations of feeling. Thus in the T. G. of V. 
Valentine and Proteus in the first twenty lines of earnest dialogue 
use^nothing but thou. But as soon as they begin to jest, "thou 
art" is found too seriously ponderous, and we have (L i. 25) "you 
are over boots in love," while the lighter thee is not discarded 
in (i. i. 28) "it boots thee not." So in the word-fencing of lines 
36-40, you and your are preferred, but an affectionate farewell brings 
them back again to thou. The last line presents an apparent 
difficulty : 

" Pteteus. All happiness bechance to thee in Milan ! 
Valentine. As much io you at home, and so farewell." 

T. G. of V. i. i. 61-2. 

But while thee applies to the single traveller, you is better suited 
to Proteus and his friends at home. It may be added, that when the 
friends meet after their long parting, there is a certain coldness in 
the frequent you. (7\ G. of V. ii. 5. 120.) 

Fathers almost always address their sons with thou; sons their 
fathers with you. Thus in the dialogue between Henry IV. and the 
Prince (i Hen. IV. iii. 2), line 118, "What say you!" is perhaps 
the only exception to the rule. So in the dialogue between 
Talbot and his son (i Hen. VI. iv. 5) before the battle. In the ex- 
citement of the battle (i Hen. VI. iv. 6. 6-9) the son addresses his 
father as thou: but such instances are very rare. (A. Y. L. ii. ". 69 
is a rhyming passage, and impassioned also.) A wife may vary 
between thou and you when addressing her husband. Lady Percy 
addresses Hotspur almost always in dialogue with you : but in the 
higher style of earnest appeal in i Hen. IV. ii. 3. 43-67, and in the 
familiar "I'll break thy little finger, Harry," ib. 90, she uses thou 
throughout. 

In the high Roman style, Brutus and Portia use you. 
Hotspur generally uses thou to his wife, but, when he becomes 
serious, rises to you, dropping again to thou. 



PRONOUN'S. SS 

" Hotsfur. Come, wilt thou srr me ride? 
And when I am o' horse-back, I will swear 

I love thee infinitely But hark you, Kate ; 

I must not have you henceforth question me : 
This evening must I leave you, gentle Kate. 
I know you wise ; but yet no further wise 
Than Harry Percy's wife : constant you are, 
But yet a woman : and for secrecy 

No lady closer For I well believe 

Thou wilt not utter what thou dost not know , 
And so far will I trust thee, gentle Kate." 

I Hen. IV. ii. 3. 103-115. 

Mark the change of pronoun as Bassanio assumes the part of a 
friendly lecturer : 

"Gra. I have a suit to you. 

g ass You have obtain d it. 

Gra. You must not deny me ; I must go with you to Belmont. 

Bass Why, thenj0 must. But hear thee, Gratiano ; 
Thou art too wild, too rude and bold of voice " &c. __ ^ ^ ^ 

232 TllOU is generally used by a master to a servant, but not 
always! "Being the appropriate address to a servant, it is used in 
confidential and good-humoured utterances, but a master finding 
fault often resorts to the unfamiliar you (much as Caesar cut his 
soldiers to the heart by giving them the respectful title of Quirites). 
Thus Valentine uses you- to Speed in T. G. of V. ii. I. 1-17, and 
fhou, Ib. 47-69. Compare 

" Val. Go to, sir: tell me, do you know madam Silvia ?"//$. 1 4. 

with 

" Val. But tell me: dost thou know my lady Silvia? Jo. 44. 

Similarly to the newly-engaged servant Julia, who says "I'll do 
what I can," Proteus blandly replies : 

"I hope thou wilt. [To Launce.] How now, you whore 
son peasant, 
Where have you been these two days loitering t 

T. G. of V. iv. 4. 48. 

When the appellative " sir" is used, even in anger, thou generally 
gives place to you. 

" And what wilt thou do ? Beg, when that is spent? 
Well, sir, get you in." A. Y. L. i. I. 79. 80. 



156 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Ay, ay, thou wouldst begone to join with Richmond : 
I will not trust you, sir." Rich. III. iv. 4. 492. 

Compare "Speak, what trade art thou?" J. C.\. \. 6. 
with "You, sir, what trade are you?" Ib. 9. 

This explains the change from thou to you in Tempest, i. 2. 448. 
Throughout the scene Prospero, addressing Ferdinand as an im 
postor, "speaks ungently" with thou. In Tempest, v. i. 75-79^ 
Prospero, who has addressed the worthy Gonzalo in the friendly 
thou, and the repentant Alonso in the impassioned thou, turning to 
his unnatural brother says, 

" Flesh and blood 
You brother mine" 
but, on pronouncing his forgiveness immediately afterwards, he says, 

"I do forgive thee, 
Unnatural though thou art." 

So "For you, most wicked sir, whom to call brother 
Would even infect my mouth, I do forgive 
Thy rankest fault." Tempest, v. I. 230-2. 
" Worthy sir, thou bleed'st." Coriol. i. 5. 15. 
is easily explained by the admiring epithet "worthy." Compare 
Ib. 24 : " Bold gentleman, prosperity be thy page." 

The difference between t/iou and you is well illustrated by the 
farewell addressed by Brutus to his schoolfellow Volumnius, and his 
servant Strato : 

" Farewell to you ; and you; and you, Volumnius; 
Farewell to thee, too, Strato." J. C. v. 5. 33. 

Compare also the farewell between the noble Gloucester and Edgar 
" dressed like a peasant :" 

" Edg. Now fare you well, good sir." Lear, iv. 6. 3'2. 

" Clone. Now, fellow, fare thee well. " Ib. 41. 
It may seem an exception that in sc. iv. I, Edgar uses thou to 
Gloucester, but this is only because he is in the height of his assumed 
madness, and cannot be supposed to distinguish persons. After 
wards, in sc. vi. , he invariably uses you a change which, together 
with other changes in his language, makes Gloucester say : 

" Thou speak'st 
In better phrase and manner than thou didst. " Lear, iv. 6. 8. 

It may be partly this increased respect for Edgar, and partly 
euphony, which makes Gloucester use you in //. 10 and 24. 



PRONOUNS. 157 

Thus Clarence to the Second Murderer : 

" Clar. Where art thou, keeper? Give mt a cup of wine. 
Sec. Murd. You shall have wine enough, my lord, anon. 
Clar. In God's name, what art thou ? 
Sec. Murd. A man, as you arc. 

Clar. How darkly and how deadly dost thou speak! 
Your eyes do menace me : why look you pale ? 
Who sent you hither ? Wherefore do you come ? " 

Rich. III. i. 4. 167-176. 

The last two lines seem discrepant : but they are not. Clarence 
is addressing both murderers, and both reply : 
"Both. To, to, to 
Clar. To murder me ? 

Both. Ay, ay." 

Afterwards, when the murderers reproach Clarence with his faults, 
they address him as thou. 

233. Thou towards strangers who were not inferiors was an 
insult. " If thou thouest him some thrice, it shall not be amiss," 
(T. N. iii. 2. 48,) is the advice given to Sir Andrew Aguecheek 
when on the point of writing a challenge. 

In addressing Angelo, whose seat he occupies, the Duke in the 
following passage begins with ironical politeness, but passes into 
open contempt : 

" Duke (to Escalus}. What you have spoke I pardon ; sit you down ; 
We'll borrow place of him. (To Angela.} Sir, by your leave, 
Hast thou or word or wit or impudence, 
That now can do thee office 1"M. for M. v. I. 368. 

Thou is also used in a contemptuous " aside." 

" Hastings. 'Tis like enough for I stay dinner there. 

Buckingham (aside). And supper too, although thou know'st 

it not. 
Come, will^go?" Rich. III. iii. 2. 122. 

And, where there is no contempt, Cassius passes into thou when he 
addresses Brutus absent, whereas in his presence he restricts him 
self to you (J. C. i. 2. 312). The former is the rhetorical, the 
latter the conversational pronoun. So 

" Be thou my witness, 
You know that I held Epicurus strong." jf. C. v. I. 74-7. 

This explains the apparent liberty in 

" O wise young judge, how I do honour thee! " 

M.o/V.iv.i. 224. 



158 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

234. ThOU is often used in statements and requests, while you 
is used in conditional and other sentences where there is no direct 
appeal to the person addressed. Similarly the somewhat archaic 
ye is distinguished by Shakespeare from you by being used in 
rhetorical appeals. (See Ye, 236. ) 

Come thou on my side, and entreat for me 
As you would beg, were you in my distress." 

Rich. HI. i. 4. 273. 
" But tell me now 

My drown'd queen's name, as in the rest you said 
Thou hast been god-like perfect. "P. of T. v. I. 208. 
" I go, and if you plead as well to them 
As I can say nay to thee for myself." Rich. III. iii. 7. 52. 

" Give me thy hand, Messala; 
Be thou my witness that against my will, &c. 
You know that I held Epicurus strong." J. C. v. I. 74-7. 

235. Thou. Apparent exceptions. 

" If he be leaden, icy-cold, unwilling, 
Be thou so too, and so break off your talk." 

Rich. III. iil i. 177. 

Here "your talk" means the talk between "thee and him." 

In Hamlet, i. 2. 41-49, the King, as he rises in his profession of 

affection to Laertes, passes from you to thou, subsequently returning 

to you. 

In the following instance a kiss induces the speaker to pass from 

your to thou : 

" Goneril. Decline your head. {Kisses Edmund. ) This kiss, 

if it durst speak, 
Would raise thy spirits up into the air. " Lear, IY. 2. 23. 

The most difficult passage is : 

"If thou beest not immortal, look about you." J. C. ii. 3. 8, 9. 

In this short scene Caesar is six times addressed by the soothsayer 
in the solemn and prophetic thou and thee, but once, as above, you. 
I can only suggest that "look about you" may mean "look about 
you and your friends." 

In almost all cases where thou and you appear at first sight 
indiscriminately used, further considerations show some change 
of thought, or some influence of euphony sufficient to account for 
the change of pronoun. 



PROATOUNS. 159 

The French Herald addresses Henry V. as t/iou, not for dis 
courtesy (Hen. V. iv. 7. 74), but in the "high style" appropriate 
between heralds and monarchs. Few subjects would address their 
lords as thou. Only a Caliban addressing his Stephano would in 
the ordinary language say : 

" Good my lord, give me thy favour still." Temp. iv. i. 204. 
Caliban almost always thods unless he is cursing ( Temp. i. 2. 363), 
or when he is addressing more than one person. 

236. Ye. In the original form of the language >v is nominative, 
you accusative. This distinction, however, though observed in our 
version of the Bible, was disregarded by Elizabethan authors, and 
ye seems to be generally used in questions, entreaties, and rhetorical 
appeals. Ben Jonson says : " The second person plural is for reve 
rence sake to some singular thing. " He quotes 

" O good father dear, 

Why makej*? this heavy cheer?" GOWER. 
Compare : 

" I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard." J. C. iii. I. 167. 
"You taught me how to know the face of right, 
And come ye now to tell me John hath made 
His peace with Rome ?" K. J. v. 2. 91. 
"The more shame for ye; holy men I thought ye" 

Hen. VIII. iii. i. 102. 
" Therein, ye gods, you make the weak most strong." 

J. C. i. 3. 91 
" "I' the name of truth, 
Are ye fantastical ? . . . My noble partner 
You greet with present grace." Macbeth, i. 3. 53-55. 

Ye and your seem used indiscriminately in Temp. v. i. 33-8, " Ye 
elves . . . and ye that . . . you demi-puppets . . . and you whose 
pastime is, &<x " 

The confusion between you and ye is illustrated by the irregularity 
of the following : 

"What mean_y<?# . . . do ye not know? ... If, therefore, at the 
first sight ye doe give them to understand that you are come hither 
. . . do you not think? Therefore, if you looke . . ." N. P. 170. 

Sometimes ye seems put for you when an unaccented syllable is 
wanted and (7*. S., Ind. ii. 87) to prevent repetition of "you" : 

" I never loved you much ; but I ha' prais'd_j/<?." 

A. and C. ii. 6. 78. 



i6o SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

and perhaps in 

" Ye shall, my lord," Rich. III. iv. 2. 86. 

the "shall" being emphatic, and ye unemphatic, but the Folio 
varies here, as frequently in this play. 

237. Mine, my. Thine, thy. The two forms, which are inter- 
changeable in E. E. both before vowels and consonants, are both 
used by Shakespeare with little distinction before vowels. 

Though there are probably many exceptions, yet the rule appears 
to be that mine and thine are used where the possessive adjective is 
to be unemphatic, my and thy in other cases. 

Mine is thus used before words to which it is so frequently pre 
fixed as to become almost a part of them, as "mine host " (M. W. 
of W. i. 3. 1), but my in the less common 

" Unto my hostess of the tavern." i Hen. IV. i. 2. 53. 
So we have almost always " mine honour," the emphatic 

" By my honour 
He shall depart untouched," J. C. iii. i. 141. 

being an exception. Mine is almost always found before " eye," 
"ear," &c. where no emphasis is intended. But where there is 
antithesis we have my, thy: 

"My ear should catch your voice, my eye your eye." 

M. N. D. i. i. 188. 
and also in the emphatic 

" To follow me and praise my eyes and face." M. N. D. iii. 2. 223. 

Euphony would dictate this distinction. The pause which we are 
obliged to make between my, thy, and a following vowel, serves for 
a kind of emphasis. On the other hand, mine, pronounced " min," 
glides easily and unemphatically on to the following vowel 

238. Mine, hers, theirs, are used as pronominal adjectives 
before their nouns. That mine should be thus used is not remarkable, 
as in E. E. it was interchangeable with my, and is often used by 
Shakespeare where we should use my. 

" Mine and my father's death come not upon thee." 

Hamlet, v. z. 341. 

" The body is dead upon mine and my master's false accusation." 
M. Ado, v. i. 249. So P. of T. i. 2. 92 ; Cymb. v. 5. 230. 



PRONOUNS. 161 

In the following, mine is only separated by an adjective from its 
noun : "And his and mine lov'd darling." Tempest, Hi. 3. 93. 
More remarkable are 

" What to come \syours and my discharge." Temp. ii. i. 258. 
" By hers and mine adultery." Cymb. v. 5. 186. 
' Even in theirs and in the commons' ears." Coriol. v. 6. 4. 

It is felt that the ear cannot wait till the end of the sentence 
while so slight a word as her or their remains with nothing to depend 
on. The same explanation applies to mine, which, though unem- 
phatic immediately before its noun, is emphatic when separated 
from its noun. 

239. This Of yours is now, as in E. E., generally applied to 
one out of a class, whether the class exist or be imaginary. We 
could say "this coat of yours," but not (except colloquially) "this 
head of yours." It is, however, commonly used by Shakespeare 
where even the conception of a class is impossible. 

" Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow." Othello, v. 2. 4. 
" Will not a calf-skin stop that mouth*/ thine?" K. J. iii. 1. 299. 

"This of hers, thine," &c. seem used as an adjective, like the 
Latin "iste." "This mouth of you" was felt to be harsh, the 
"you" being too weak to stand in such a position. "This your 
mouth" requiring a forced and unnatural pause after "this," was 
somewhat more objectionable to Shakespeare,* than to the Latin 
style of Milton and Addison. Hence " this of you" was used but 
modified. It is rare that we find such a transposition as 

' O then advance of yours that phraseless hand." L. C. 225. 

240. Pronouns transposed. A feeling of the unemphatic 
nature of the nominatives we and they prevents us from saying 
" all we." 

' ' Into the madness wherein now he raves 
And all -we mourn for." Hamlet, ii. 2. 151. 

So "all we " in the A. V. of the Bible, and "all they," Mark xii. 44. 
"Find out" is treated as a single word in 

" Cass. Cinna, where haste you so? 
Cinna. To find-out you." J. C. i. 3. 134. 

* See, however " How many ages hence 

Shall this our lofty scene be acted over I " .7. C. ii. i. 1 IS. 

II 



[02 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So "To belch-up you." Tempest, iii. 3. 56. 

" And &wz/<?-0^ thee." Rich. III. i. 3. 216. 

"Both they (i.e. both of them) 
Match not the high perfection of my loss. " Ib. iv. 4. 05. 

No modern poet would be allowed to write, for the sake of rhyme, 

" All days are nights to see till I see thee, 
And nights bright days when dreams do show thee me." 

Sonn. 43. 

We could only say "give him me," when we meant "give him, 
not to so-and-so, but to me" emphatically, which is not the meaning 
here. 

241. Omission Of Thou. (See also 399, 402.) After a verb 
ending with the second person singular inflection, the thou is some 
times omitted in questions, as : 

"Didst not mark that?" Othello, ii. I. 260. 

" How dost that pleasant plague infest ? " DANIEL. 

" Wilt dine with me, Apemantus?" T. of A. i. I. 206. 

Thou is often omitted after " wouldst," or perhaps merged, in the 
form "woo't," as "wilt thou" becomes "wilta." 

" Noblest of men, woo't die?" A. and C. iv. 15. 59. 

"Woo't weep? Woo't fight?. . . I'll do it." Hamlet, v. I. 299. 
Sometimes thou is inserted : 

" Woo't thou fight well?" A. and C. iv. 2. 7. 

242. Insertion Of Pronoun. When a proper name is sepa 
rated by an intervening clause from its verb, then for clearness (see 
248) the redundant pronoun is often inserted. 

" Sueno, albeit he was of nature verie cruell, yet qualified he his 

displeasure. " HOLINSHED, Duncane. 
" Demeratus when on the bench he was long silent . . . one 

asking him . . . ^answered." B. J. Disc. 744. 
" For the nobility, though they continued loyal unto him, yet 

did they not co-operate with him." B. E. 

243. Insertion Of Pronoun. Even where there is no inter 
vening conjunctional clause, the pronoun is frequently inserted after a 
proper name as the subject. More rarely, the subject is a common 
aoun. Still more rarely, fhe pronoun is inserted after the object. 



PRONOUNS, 163 

The subject or object stands first, like the title of a book, to call 
the attention of the reader to what may be said about it. In some 
passages the transition may be perceived from the exclamatory use 

" O thy vile lady ! 
She has robbed me of my sword," A. and C. iv. 14. 22. 

(o the semi-exclamation : 

"For God he knows. "Rich. III. iii. 7. 236; I. 10; i. 26. 

" Where Heaven he knows how we shall answer him." 

K. J. v. 7. 59. 
(So T. G. of V. iv. 4. 112, and 

"God, I pray him." Rich. III. \. 3. 212. 
The object (as in the last example) precedes in 

" My sons, God knows what has bechanced them.'" 

3 Hen. VI. \. 4. 

" Senseless trees they cannot hear thee, 
Ruthless beasts they will not cheer thee." P. P. 393.) 

and hence to passages of simple statement : 

" The skipping king he ambled up and down." 

I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 60 
" Of six preceding ancestors that gem 
Conferr'cl by testament to the sequent issue 
Hath it been owed and worn." A. W. v. 3. 198. 
"But this same Cassio, though he speak of comfort 
Touching the Turkish loss, yet he looks sadly. " 

Othello, ii. I. 31. 

But many such passages of simple statement may be regarded as 
abridgments of the construction with "for," "of," or some other 
preposition : 

" For your intent . . . it is most retrograde to our desires." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 112. 

" For my voice, I have lost it with halloing and singing of 
anthems." 2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 213. 

So "For (as regards) your brother, he shall go with me," might 
become 

" Your brother he shall go along with me." 

A. W. iii. 6. 117 ; Rich. II. ii. 2.80; I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 4 12. 
So " Of Salisbury, who can report of him?" 2 Hen. VI. v. 3. 1 



M 2 



164 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

244. Omission Of the Relative. The relative is frequently 
omitted, especially where the antecedent clause is emphatic and 
evidently incomplete. This omission of the relative may in part 
have been suggested by the identity of the demonstrative that and 
the relative that : 

"We speak that (dem.) that (rel.) we do know,' 
may naturally be contracted into 

" We speak that we do know." 

Thus 

' ' And that (that) most deeply to consider is 
The beauty of his daughter." Temp. iii. 2. 106. 

"Thy honourable metal may be wrought 
From that (to which) it is disposed." J. C. i. 2. 314. 
"Now follows that (that) you know, young Fortinbras," &c, 

Hamlet, i. 2. 17. 
"And that (tJiat) is worse the Lords of Ross are fled." 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 52. 

i.e. "which is worse." So often in the A. V. of the Bible, " that 
is, being interpreted," means "which is" (as the Greek shows), 
though a modern reader would suppose that to be the demonstrative. 
In many cases the antecedent immediately precedes the verb to 
which the relative would be the subject. 

" I have a brother (zv/w) is condemned to die." 

M.forM. ii. 2. 33; C. of E. v. I. 283. 
" I have a mind (which) presages." M. of V. i. I. 175. 
" The hate of those (who) love not the king. " 

Rich. II, ii. 2. 128. 
" In war was never lion (that) raged more fierce." 

Ib. ii. i. 173. 
" And sue a friend (who) 'came debtor for my sake." 

Sonn. 139. 

" What wreck discern you in me (that) 
Deserves your pity T'Cymb. i. 6. 84 ; W. T. iv. 4. 378, 512 

" You are one of those (who) 
Would have him wed again." IV. T. v. I. 23. 
41 I'll show you those (who) in troubles reign, 
Losing a mite, a mountain gain. " P. of T. ii. Gower, 8. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 165 

" Of all (who have) 'say'd (tried) yet, may'st thou prove pros 
perous." P. ofT. i. r. 59. 

" And they are envious (that} term thee parasite." B. J. Fox, i. I. 
" For once (when) we stood up about the corn, he himself stuck 
not to call us the many-headed multitude." 

Coriol. ii. 3. Itj. 
r e. " On one occasion (on which} we stood up," &c. Compare 

" Was it not yesterday (on which} we spoke together?" 

Macbeth, iii. i. 74. 
"Off with his head, 
And rear it in the place (in which} your father's stands." 

3 Hen. VI. ii. 6. 86. 
" Declare the cause 

(for which} My father, Earl of Cambridge, lost his head. " 

i Hen. VI. ii. 5. 55. 

" O that forc'd thunder (that} from his breath did fly ! 
O that sad breath (that} his spongy lungs bestow'd ! " 

Z. C. 46. 
"And being frank she lends to these (who] are free." 

Sonn. 4. 
So explain : 

"To me (whom} you cannot reach you play the spaniel." 

Hen. VIII. v. 2. 126. 
"That's to you sworn (that} to none was ever said." 

;Z. C. 25. SoM./orM. iii. 2. 165. 

Most of these examples (except those in which -when and why are 
omitted) omit the nominative. Modern usage confines the omission 
mostly to the objective. " A man (whom} I saw yesterday told 
me," &c. We must either explain thus : 

"Myself and Toby 

Set this device against Malvolio here (which device}, 
Upon some stubborn and discourteous parts, 
We had conceiv'd against him," T. N. v. I. 370. 
oj suppose (more probably), that there is some confusion between 
' conceiving enmity" and " disliking parts." 
In ' ' To her own worth 

She shall be prized : but that you say ' Be 't so,' 
I'll speak it in my spirit and honour ' No. ' " 

Tr. and Cr. iv. 4. 136. 
that probably means " as to that which." 
Other instances are : 

"My sister ... a lady, sir (who}, though it was said she much 
resembled me, was yet of many accounted beautiful" T. JV.ii.1. 27. 



166 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" What should I do (that) I do not?" A. and C. i. 3. 8. 
" Of every virtue (that) gives renown to men." P. of T.'\. i 13 
Either a relative or a nominative (see 399) is omitted in 

' ' These are my mates that make their wills their law 
( Who) have some unhappy passenger in chace. " 

T. G. ofV. v. 4. 15. 

In "And curse that justice did it," Coriol. i. I. 179. 
either the relative is omitted aftei "justice," or "that" is used for 
"because" (284). 

So, after disobeying King Cymbeline by allowing Posthumus to 
speak to the King's daughter, the Queen, while purposing to betray 
Posthumus, says aside : 

"Yet I'll move him (the king) 

To walk this way : I never do him (the king) wrong 
But he (who, like Posthumus) does buy my injuries to be friends, 
Pays dear for my offences. " Cymb. i. I. 105. 

The relative adverb where is omitted in 

" From that place (where) the morn is broke 
To that place (where) day doth unyoke." B. and F. F. Sh. \. i. 

That, meaning "when," is omitted after "now." (See 284.) 

245. The Relative is omitted (as well as the verb "is," "are," 
&c. ) between a pronominal antecedent and a prepositional phrase, 
especially when locality is predicated. 

" And they in France of the best rank and station." 

Hamlet, i. 3. 73. 

"He made them of Greece (i.e. the Grecians) to begin warre." 
-N. P. 175. 

So " What is he at the gate ?" T. N. i. 5. 125. 

So in Early English and Anglo-Saxon. We make the same 
omission, but only after nouns : "The babes in the wood." 

246. The Relative is omitted in the following example, and Il,e 
antecedent is attracted into the case which the relative, if present, 
would have : 

" Him (he whom) I accuse, 
By this, the city ports hath enter'd." Coriol. v. 6. 6. 

Apparently there is an ellipsis of "thai (relative) is" before participles 
in the following : 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 167 

" Not that devour'd, but that which doth devour, 
Is worthy blame," R. of L. 451. 

A'here " that devour'd" seems used for " that that is devour'd." 

" Why have you not proclaim'd Northumberland, 
And all the rest (that are) revolted, faction-traitors ? " 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 57. 
And in 

"I hate the murderer, love him murdered," 

Rich. II. v. 5. 40. 

the meaning seems to be, not " I love the fact that he is murdered," 
but "I love him (who is) murdered." Compare the harsh con 
strue Lion in 

" But you must know your father lost a father, 
That father (who was) lost, lost his. " Hamlet, \. 2. 90. 

" A little riper and more lusty red 
Than that (which is) mixed in his cheek." 

A. y. L. iii. 5. 222. 

The relative is attracted to a subsequent implied object in the 
following : 

" Thou shalt not lack 

The leaf of eglantine, whom not to slander, 
Outsweetened not thy breath. " Cymb. iv. 2. 223. 

i.e. "the leaf which, not to slander it, would not outsweeten," &c. 

247. The Relative (perhaps because it does not signify by 
inflection any agreement in number or person with its antecedent) 
frequently (i) takes a singular verb, though the antecedent bt 
plural, and (2) the verb is often in the third person, though the 
antecedent be in the second or first. 

(i) " All things that belongs " (so Folio ; Globe, belong). T. ofSk. 
ii. i. 357. 

" Whose wraths to guard you from, 
Which here in this most desolate isle else falls 
Upon your head. " Temp. iii. 2. 80. 
"Contagious r ogs which falling on our land 

Hath every pelting river made so proud." M: M D. ii. I. 91. 
This, however, might be explained by 337. 

" 'Tis not the many oaths that makes the truth." 

A. W. iv. 2. 21 ; K. J. ii. i. 216. 
" With sighs of love that costs the fresh blood dear." 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 97 



t68 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" My observations 

Which with experimental seal doth warrant 
The tenour of my book." M. Ado, iv. I. 168. 
" 'Tis your graces that charms." Cymb. i. 6. 117. 
" So, so, so : they laugh that wins" (Globe, win). 

Othello, iv. I. 125. 

" So are those crisped snaky golden locks 
Which makes." M. of V. iii. 2. 92. 

"Those springs 

In chalic'd flowers that lies." Cymb. ii. 3. 24. 
" Each substance of a grief hath twenty shadows 

Which shows like grief itself." Rich. II. ii. 2. 15. 
"It is not words, that shakes me thus." Othello, iv. I. 43. 

" But most miserable 
Is the desires that's glorious. " (Globe, "desire.") 

Cymb. i. 6. 6. 
" 'Tis such fools as you 
That makes the world full of ill-favour'd children." 

A. Y. L. iii. 5. 53. 
"(The swords) That makes such waste in brief mortality." 

Hen. V. i. 2. 28 
" There are some shrewd contents in yon same paper 

That steals the colour from your cheeks." M. of V. iii. 2. 246. 
" Is kindling coals that fires all my breast." 3 Hen. VI. ii. i. 83. 
" With such things else of quality and respect 

As doth import you." Othello, i. 3. 283. 

" Such commendations as becomes a maid." i Hen. VI. v. 3. ] 77. 
1 ' Such thanks as fits a king's remembrance. " Hamlet, ii. 2. 26. 
" Like monarch's hands that lets not bounty fall." 

L. C. 41 (Globe, Id). 
" If it be you (you gods) that stirs these daughters' hearts. " 

Lear, ii. 4. 275 (Globe, stir). 
" To be forbod the sweets that seems so good. " 

L. C. 164 (Globe, seem). 

The distance of the relative from the antecedent sometimes makes 
a difference, as in 

" I that please some, try all, both joy and terror 
Of good and bad, that makes and unfolds error. " 

W. T. iv. i. 2. 

This construction is found as late as 1671 : 
" If it be true that monstrous births presage 
The following mischiefs that afflicts the age." 

The Rehearsal, Epilogue. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 169 

(2) " Antiochus, I thank thee who hath taught." P. of T. i. I. 41 
" Casca, you are the first that rears your hand. " J. C, iii. I 30 
" Rears his" or "rear your" would be right. 

"To make me proud that jests." L. L. L. v. 2. 66. 
" For it is you that puts us to our shifts." 71 A. iv. 2. 176. 
So Temp. v. I. 79. 

" Lord, that lends me life !" 2 lien. VI. i. i. 19. 
" They do but greatly chide thee -who confounds." SOHX, 8. 
The last two examples may also be explained (see 340) by the 
northern inflection of s for st : and the examples in ( I ) might come 
under the cases of plural nominative with apparently singular in 
flection considered in 333. But taking all the examples of (i) and 
(2) we are, I think, justified in saying that the relative was often 
regarded like a noun by nature third person singular, and, therefore, 
uninfluenced by the antecedent. 

On the other hand, the verb is irregularly attracted into the 
second person in 

" That would I learn of you 
As one that are best acquainted with her person." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 2(58. 

248. Relative with Supplementary Pronoun. With the 

( iermans it is still customary, when the antecedent is a pronoun of 
the first or second person, to repeat the pronoun for the sake of 
defining the person, because the relative is regarded as being in the 
third person. Thus "Thou who thou hearest," &c. The same 
repetition was common in Anglo-Saxon (and in Hebrew) for all 
persons. " That (rel.) through him " = " through whom," "a tribe 
that they can produce" = "a tribe who can produce," &c. 
Hence in Chaucer, Prol. 43-45 : 

" A knight ther was, and that a worthy man, 
That, from the tyme that he first began 
To ryden out, he lovede chyvalrye ; " 

and in the sameauthor " that his" '=" whose," "that him" =" whom," 
&c. 

In the same way in Elizabethan authors, when the interrogative 
who (251) had partially supplanted that as a relative, we find who 
his for whose, whom him for whom, which it for which, &c. 

The following is probably not a case of the supplementary 
pronoun : 



1 70 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Bardolph and Nym had ten times more valour than this roaring 
devil i' the old play, that every one may pare his nails with a wooden 
dagger." Henry V. iv. 4. 76. 

That . . . his is not elsewhere used in Shakespeare, that I know 
of. The above probably means " than this (fellow, who is^ a mere 
devil-in-the-play, so that every one may beat him." 

249. The Supplementary Pronoun is generally connned to 
cases (as above, 242) where the relative is separated from its verb by 
an intervening clause, and where on this account clearness requires 
the supplementary pronoun. 

' ' Who, when he lived, his breath and beauty set 

Gloss on the rose, smell on the violet." V. and A. 
' ' Which, though it alter not love's sole effect, 
Yet doth it steal sweet hours from love's delight. " 

Sonn. 36. 

" And who, though all were wanting to reward, 
Yet to himself he would not wanting be." B. J. Cy. 's Rev. 

" Whom, 

Though bearing misery, I desire my life 
Once more to look on ntm. n W. T. v. i. 138. 
" (The queen) -whom Heavens in justice both on her and hers 

Have laid most heavy hand." Cynib. v. 5. 464. 
1 lere the construction is further changed by the addition of "both 
. . . and hers. " 

" You are three men of sin whom Destiny 
(That hath to instrument this lower world, 
And what is in't) the never-surfeited sea 
Hath caused to belch up you." Temp. iii. 2. 53. 
In the following passage the which may almost with better right 
be regarded as supplementary than the noun which follows : 

" Our natural goodness 
Imparts this ; which if you or stupified 
Or seeming so in skill, cannot or will not 
Relish a truth like us, inform yourselves 
We need no more of your advice." W. T. ii. i. 165. 
Here which means "as regards which," and in this and in othei 
places it approximates to that vulgar idiom which is well known to 
readers of " Martin Chuzzlewit." (See 272.) 

The following seems at first as though it could be explained thus , 
but "who" is put for "whom " (see 274), and "exact the penaky"is 
regarded as a transitive verb : 



RELATIVE. PRONOUNS. 171 

" Who, if he break, thou may'st with better face 
Exact the penalty." M. of V. i. 3. 137. 

Or this may be an imitation of the Latin idiom which puts the 
relative before the conjunction, thus : 

" Who, when tliey were in health, I tell thee, herald, 
I thought upon one pair of English legs 
Did walk three Frenchmen." Hen. V. iii. 6. 157. 

250. Which that. 

" Spite of his spite which that in vain 
Doth seek to force my fantasy." INGELEND (A. D. 1560). 

This use of which that consecutively is common in Chaucer, but 
not in Elizabethan authors. When it is remembered that which 
was originally an interrogative, it is easier to understand how thai 
may have been added to give a relative force to which. 

251. Who and what, In Early English who was the masc. or 
fern, and what the neut. interrogative (or used as the indefinite 
relative who-so, what-so), that being both the demonstrative and 
relative, except in the oblique cases. 

The transition of the interrogative to the relative can easily b<< 
explained. Thus, the sentence 

" O now who will behold 
The royal captain of this ruin'd band ? 
Let him cry ' Praise and glory on his head,'" 

Hen. V. iv. Prologue. 

may easily become "now let him who will behold," &c. 

We can now only use who-ever in this sense, but the Germans 
still use their interrogative (wer) thus. In such cases the who mostly 
retains a trace of its interrogative meaning by preceding the ante 
cedent clause : 

" Who steals my purse (he) steals trash," Othello, iii. 3. 157. 
>ir.d hence referring to a definite past : 

" Who was the thane (he) lives yet." Macbeth, i. 3. 109. 
in this and other examples (as in Greek) the antecedent pronoun 
is often omitted owing to the emphatic position of the relative. 

' ' Whom we raise we will make fast. " 2 Hen. VI. i. 4. 25. 
" Is proclamation made that who finds Edward 
Shall have a high reward?" 3 Hen. VI. v. 5. 9. 



17* SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Fixing our eyes on whom our care was fixed." 

C. ofE. i. I. 35. 

"We are going to whom it must be done." J. C. ii. I. 331. 
252. What, being simply the neuter of the interrogative who, 
ought consistently to be similarly used. As, therefore, who is used 
relatively, we may expect what to be used so likewise. And so it 
is ; but, inasmuch as the adjective which very early took the force 
of the relative pronoun, what was supplanted by which, and is 
rarely used relatively. Even when it is thus used, it generally stands 
before its antecedent (like the transitional use of who above), thereby 
indicating its interrogative force, though the position of the verb is 
altered to suit a statement instead of a question. 
" What cur contempt doth often hurl from us 
We wisA it ours again." A. and C. i. 2. 127. So Rich. II. i. 1. 87. 
" What you have spoke it may be so perchance." 

Macbeth, iv. 3. 11. 
" Look, what I speak, my life shall prove it true." 

Rich. II. i. r. 87. 
" It is true that what is settled by custom, though it be not 

good, yet at least it is fit." B. E. 99 
An unemphatic antecedent precedes what in 
" And I do fearfully believe 'tis done 

What we so feared he had a charge to do." K. J. iv. 2. 75. 
I cannot remember any instance where what has for its antecedent 
a noun, as in the modern vulgarism, ' ' The man what said. " In 
" And let us once again assail your ears, 
That are so fortified against our story, 
What we have two nights seen." Hamlet, i. 1 . 33. 
What depends on a verb of speech, implied either hi "assail your 
ears" or in "story," i.e. "let us tell you what we have seen," or 
" our story describing what we have seen." 
The antecedent was mostly omitted : 

" What is done (that) cannot be undone." Macb. v. I. 74. 
This use is common now, but we could not say 
" To have his pomp and all what (that which) state compounds." 

T. of A. iv. 2. 35. 
The following is a curious use of what : 

' ' That Julius Caesar was a famous man : 
With what his valour did enrich his wit 
He did set down to make his valour live." 

Rich. III. iii. I. 86 : i.e. " (that) with which" 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 173 

253. What s used for " for what," " why " (quid), as in 

" 'Vkat (why) shall I don this robe and trouble you?" 

Cymb. iii. 4 34 
" What need we any spur but our own cause?" 

J. C. ii. I. 123. 

" What shall I need to draw my sword?" T. A. i. i. 189 
" What should I stay?" A. and C. v. 2. 317. 

and in some other passages where the context shows this to be 

the meaning : 

" Falstaff. This apoplexy is, as I take it, a kind of lethargy. 
Justue. Wlmt tell you me of it ? be it as it is. " 

2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 130 

The following use of what for "in what state," i.e. "how fai 
advanced," should be noticed : 

' ' M. What is the night ? 

Lady M. Almost at odds with morning, which is which." 

Macbeth, iii. 4. 126. 
These adverbial uses of what are illustrated by 

" His equal mind I copy "what I can 
And, as I love, would imitate the man. " 

POPE, Imit. Hor. ii. 131. 

254. What = "whatever." 

" l'//iat will hap more to-night, safe scape the king," 

Lear, iii. 6. 121. 

where the construction may be "Happen what will," a comma 
being placed after "will," or "Whatever is about to happen." 
Probably the former is correct and "will" is emphatic, "hap" 
being optative. 

What = " whoever." 

" There's my exchange. What in the world he is 
That names me traitor, villain-like he lies." Lear, v. 3. 97. 

What is often used apparently with little sense of "of what kind 
or quality " where we should use who, especially in the phrase 
"what is he? " 

' ' Chief Justice. What's he that goes there ? 
Servant. Falstaff, an't please your lordship." 

2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 66. 

" What's he that wishes so ? My cousin Westmoreland?" 

Hen. V. iv. 3. 18. 



,74 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Ros. What is he that shall buy his flock and pasture ? 
Cor. That young swain. " A. Y. L. ii. 4. 8S-9. 
" Captain. He did see the love of fair Olivia ! 
Vio. What's she ? 
Captain. A virtuous maid, the daughter of a count." 

T. A r . i. 2. 35 ; ib. i. 5. 124. 
So TMT, v. 3. 125 ; Macbeth, v. 7. 2; Rich. II. v. 5. 69. 

But in the Elizabethan and earlier periods, when the distinction 
between ranks was much more marked than now, it may have 
seemed natural to ask, as the first question about anyone, " of what 
condition or rank is he ?" In that case the difference is one of 
thought, not of grammar. 

255. What hence in elliptical expressions assumes the meaning 
"any." 

" I love thee not a jar of the clock behind 

What lady-she (224) her lord." W. T. i. 2. 44. 

t.f. " less than any lady whatsoever loves her lord. " So 

" With promise of his sister and what else." 

3 Hen. VI. iii. I. 51 ; Tempest, iii. i. 72. 

i.e. "whatever else may be conceived," or " everything else." 
' ' What not " is still used In this sense, as 

" He that dares approach 
On him, on you, who not ? I will maintain 
Mine honour firmly." Lear, v. 3. 100: i.e. " on everybody. " 

Like the Latin "qua qua," so "what what" is used for 
"partly partly," mostly joined to "with." In this collocation 
perhaps the alliteration of the two w's has had some influence : for 
what is not thus used except before "with." 

" And such a flood of greatness fell on you 

Wliat with our help, -what with the absent king, 
What with the injuries of a wanton time. " 

i Hen. IV. \. i. 50. 
So Tr. and Cr. v. i. 103. 

Originally this may have been "considering what accrued from 
our help, what from the king's absence," &c. but "what" is used 
by Spenser in the sense of "part," "her little what." (See p. 5.) 

256. What is sometimes used before a noun without the ap 
pended indefinite article in exclamations. (See Article, 86. ) It is 
also used without a noun in this sense : 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 175 

* O father Abram, -what these Christians are ! " 

M. of V. \. j. 162 

" WJiat mortality is !" Cymb. iv. I. 16. 
i.e. ''what a thing mortality is !" 

257. Who for any one ; 

"The cloudy messenger turns me his back 
And hums as who shmild say, ' You'll rue the time 
That clogs me with this answer. ' " Macbeth, iii. 6. 42. 
" He doth nothing but frown, as ivl a should say, 'If you will 
not have me, choose.' " M. of V. i. 2. 45. 

Comp. M. of V. i. I. 93, Rich. II. v. 4. 8. In these passages it is 
possible to understand an antecedent to 'who,' "as, or like (one) 
who should say." But in the passages 

" Timon surnamed Misantropos (as ivlio should say I.oup 

garou, or the man-hater)." N. P. 171. 
" She hath been in such wise daunted 
That they were, as -who saith, enchanted." 

GOWER, C. A. I. (quoted by Clarke and Wright). 

it is impossible to give this explanation. And in Early Eng. 
(Morris, Specimens, p. xxxii.) "als who, say " was used for "as any 
one may say." Comp. the Latin quis after si, num, &c. Possibly 
on //"is implied after the as by the use of the subjunctive. (See 107. j 
Littre explains " comme qui dirait " by supplying " celui." " 11 
portait sur sa teste comme qui dirait un turban ; c'est-a-dire, il portait, 
comme dirait celui qui dirait un turban." But this explanation 
seems unsatisfactory, in making a likeness to exist between " carry 
ing" and "saying." But whatever may be the true explanation if 
the original idiom, Shakespeare seems to have understood -who as 
the relative, for the antecedent can be supplied in all passages where 
he uses it, as J. C. i. 2. 120, "As who goes farthest." 

258. That, Which, Who, difference between. Whatever rule 
may be laid down for the Elizabethan use of the three relative forrr. r 
will be found to have many exceptions. Originally that was the 
only relative ; and if WicklifTe's version of the New Teslament be 
compared with the versions of the sixteenth century and with that 
of 1611, that will be found in the former replaced by which and 
who in the latter, -who being especially common in the latest, our 
Authorized Version. Even in Shakespeare's time, however, theie 
Is great diversity of usage. Fletcher, in the Faithful Shepherdtu 



1 76 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

(with the exception of a few lines containing the plot, and probably 
written by Beaumont), scarcely uses any relative but the smooth 
that throughout the play (in the first act which is only used once) ; 
and during the latter half of the seventeenth century, when the lan 
guage threw off much of its old roughness and vigour, the fashion 
of Wickliffe was revived. That came into favour not because, as 
in Wickliffe's time, it was the old-established relative, but because 
it was the smoothest form : the convenience of three relative forms, 
and the distinctions between their different shades of meaning, were 
ignored, and that was re-established in its ancient supremacy. 
Addison, in his " Humble Petition of Who and Which," allows the 
petitioners to say: "We are descended of ancient families, and 
kept up our dignity and honour many years, till the jack-sprat 
That supplanted us. " But the supplanting was a restoration of an 
incapable but legitimate monarch, rather than a usurpation. Since 
the time of Addison a reaction has taken place ; the convenience of 
the three distinct forms has been recognized, and we have returned 
somewhat to the Elizabethan usage. 

259. As regards the Shakespearian use, the following rules will 
generally hold good : 

(1) That is used as a relative (a) after a noun preceded by the 
article, (b) after nouns used vocatively, in order to complete the 
description of the antecedent by adding some essential characteristic 
of it. 

(2) Who is used (a) as the relative to introduce &fact about the 
antecedent. It may often be replaced by "and he," "for he," 
"though he," &c. (b} It is especially used after antecedents that 
are lifeless or irrational, when personification is employed, but not 
necessarily after personal pronouns. 

(3) Which is used (a) in cases where the relative clause vanes 
between an essential characteristic and an accidental fact, especially 
where the antecedent is preceded by that j (b) where the antecedent 
is repeated in the relative clause; (c) in the form "the which,"' 
where the antecedent is repeated, or where attention is expressly 
called to the antecedent, mostly in cases where there is more than 
one possible antecedent and care is required to distinguish the real 
one; (d) where "which" means "a circumstance which," the cir 
cumstance being gathered from the crevious sentence. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 177 

260. That. () Since that introduces an essential characteristic 
without which the description is not complete, it follows that, even 
where this distinction is not marked, that comes generally nearer to 
the antecedent than who or which. 

" To think of the teen that I have turn'd you to 
Which is from my. remembrance !" Temp. i. 2. 65. 
I to the world am like a drop of water 
That in the ocean seeks another drop, 
IVho falling there to seek his fellow forth, 
Unseen, inquisitive, confounds himself." C.ofE. i. 2. 37. 

" You have oft enquired 
After the shepherd that complain d of love, 
Who you saw sitting by me on the turf." A. Y. L. Hi. 4. 52. 

" And here's a prophet that I brought with me 
From forth the streets of Pomfret, -whom I found 
With many hundreds treading on his heels. " K.J. iv. 2. 148. 

The same order is preserved in A. Y. L. iii. 5. 13 ; 2 Hen. IV. 

\. 3. 59 ; Lear, iii. 4. 134-139 ; 2 Hen. VI. iv. I. 3 ; Lear, iv. 2. 

51-53 (where we find that, who, that, consecutively) ; Lear, iii. 7. 

89, 90 ; i Hen. IV. ii. I. 80 (that, the which, that]; Tempest, iv. I. 76 

The distinction between that and which is preserved in 

"It is an heretic that (by nature, of necessity) makes the fire, 
Not she which (as an accidental fact) burns in it. " 

W. T. ii. 3. 115. 

" And he doth sin that doth belie the dead, 
Not he which (as you do) says the dead is not alive." 

2 Hen. IV. i. I. 99. 

In the latter passage "he that" = " who-so," and refers to a class, 
"he which" to the single person addressed. Thus Wickliffe 
(Matt, xxiii. 21 ) has "he that sweareth," whereas the other versions 
have "whoso" or "whosoever sweareth." 

That is generally used after he, all, aught, &c. where a class is 
denoted. This is so common as not to require examples, and it is 
found even where that is objective. 

"He that a fool doth very wisely hit." A. Y. L. ii. 7. 53. 
In " The great globe itself, 

Yea, all which it inherit," Temp. iv. I. 154. 
euphony perhaps will not allow " that it." (See Which, 265.) 
The following is not an exception : 

" It was the swift celerity of his death, 
Which I did think with slower foot came on, 
That brain'd my purpose. "M. for M. v. I. 400. 



T 73 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

for here wkkh is used parentheticaUy (see 271). So Rich. II. W 

4, 50. 

In " He that no more must say is listen d more : 

Than they whom youth and ease have ^ u | ht / } i f j. 9, 



sented by the inflected -whom. 

261, That. (*) After nouns used vocatively. 

'"Hail, many-coloured messenger ! that ne'er 



Diffasest honey-drops, 

- 



Would here have kill'd 
therefore less independent, than the *"""J rse we may 



other reason. 

"Sometimes like apes that mow and chatter at me, 

SStpSy^siMs 

Lie tumbling in my bare-foot way. - 
262. That is sometimes, but seldom, separated from the antecc- 
dent, like who. (866263.) 

,: As if it were Cain's jawbone that did the 



repeated i 

" Cain's jawbone, (him) that did, &c. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 179 

Less commonly as in 

" They know the corn 

Was not our recompense, resting well assured 
That ne'er did service for it." Coriol. iii. I. 122. 
The use of that for who = " and they " is archaic. Acts xiit. 43- 
"They sueden Paul and Barnabas that spakun and counceileden 
hym." Tyndale, Cranmer, and Geneva have which; Rheiras and 
A. V. who. 

263. Who (a) for "and he," "for he," &c. 

"Now presently I'll give her father notice 
Of their disguising and pretended flight ; 
Who (and he), all enraged, will banish Valentine." 

T. G. of V. ii. 6. 38. 

" My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, 
Who (and I) hither come engaged by my oath 
Against the duke of Hereford that (because he) appeals 

me." Rich. II. i. 3. 17. 

" Caius Ligarius doth bear Caesar hard 

Wlw (since he) rated him for speaking well of Pompey." 

J. C. ii. i. 216. 
Hence who is often at some distance from the antecedent. 

"Archbishop. It was young Hotspur's case at Shrewsbury. 
Lord Bardolph. It was, my lord : who (for he) lined himself 

with hope." 2 Hen. IV. i. 3. 27. 
"To send the old and miserable king 
To some retention and appointed guard, 
Wliose (for his) age has charms in it." Lear, v. 3. 48. 
" I leave him to your gracious acceptance ; whose (for his) trial 
shall better publish his commendation." M. of V. iv. I. 165. 
" In Ephesus I am but two hours old, 
As strange unto your town as to your talk, 
WJio (and I), every word by all my wit being scann'd, 
Want wit, in all, one word to understand." 

C. ofE. ii. 2. 163. 
So Temp. iii. i. 93 ; A. and C. i. 3. 29 ; Hen. V. i. Prologue, 83. 

264. Who personifies irrational antecedents. () Who 

is often used of animals, particularly in similes where they are 
compared to men. 

" I am the cygnet to this pale faint swan, 

Who chants a doleful hymn to his own death. " K. jf. v. J. 22. 
" Or as a bear encompass'd round with dogs, 
IVho having pinch'd a few and made them cry." 

3 Hen. VI. ii. i. 16. 



i8o SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So \ Hen. IV. v. 2. 10 ; 2 Hen. VI. iii. r. 254, v i. 153; 
but also in other cases where action is attributed to them, e.g. 

"A lion who glared." J. C. i. 3. 21. 

" A lioness who quickly fell before him." A. Y. L. iv. 2. 13. 

Who is also used of inanimate objects regarded as persons. 

"The winds 
Who take the ruffian billows by the tops."- 2 Hen. IV. iii. I. 22. 

So R. andj. i. I. 119 ; i. 4. 100 : " The winds . . . who" 
"Rotten opinion, -who hath writ me down 

After my seeming." 2 Hen. IV. v. 2. 128. 
"Night . . . who." Hen. V. iv. Prol. 21. 

" Your anchors, who 
Do their best office if they can but stay you. " W. T. iv. 4. 581. 

"A queen 

Over her passion, -who most rebel-like 
Sought to be queen o'er her." Lear, iv. 2. 16. 

So probably in 

"Your eye 
Who hath cause to wet the grief on 't." Tempest, ii. I. 127. 

i.e. "your eye which has cause to give tearful expression to the 
sorrow for your folly." 

"My arm'd knee 
Who bow'd but in my stirrups." Coriol. iii. 2. 119. 

But is who the antecedent here to "me" implied in " my?" (See 
218.) 

"The heart 
W7io great and puff 'd up with this retinue. " 

2 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 120. 

So V. and A. 191 and 1043, "her heart . . . who ;" T. A. iii 
2. 9, "my breast . . . who" 

The slightest active force, or personal feeling, attributed to the 
antecedent, suffices to justify who. Thus : 

" The dispers'd air who answer' d." R. of L. 1805. 

"Applause 

Who like an arch reverberates." Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 120. 
" Therefore I tell my sorrows to the stones 

Who though they cannot answer" &c. T. A. iii. I 38. 

' ' Bushes, 
As fearful of him, part, through whom he rushes." 

V. and A. 630. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 181 

So "her body . . . -who" R. of L. 1740 ; "the hairs -who wave," 
V. and A. 306; "lips -who . . . still blush," /". and J. iii. 3. 38 ; 
"sighs who" R. andj. iii. 5. 136 ; "mouths who" P. of T. i. 4. 
33 ; " palates who" P. of T. i. 4. 39 ; "her eyelids "who like sluices 
stopped," V. and A. Sometimes -who is used where there is no 
notion of personality : 

" The world, who of itself is peised well," K. J. ii. i. 575. 
where perhaps who is used because of the pause after "world," in 
the sense "though it." (See 263.) If there had been no comma be 
tween "world" and the relative, we should have had that or which. 

Perhaps in this way we may distinguish in 

" The first, of gold, who this inscription bears ; 
The second, silver, which this promise carries." 

M. of V. ii. 7. 4. 

i.e. "the first of gold, and it bears this inscription; the second, 
(silver,) which carries," &c. In the first the material, in the second 
I\\Q promise, is regarded as the essential quality. [Or does euphony 
prefer which in the accented, who in the unaccented syllables ?] 

In almost all cases where who is thus used, an action is implied, 
so that who is the subject. 
Whom is rare. 

" The elements 
Of whom your swords are temper'd." Temp. iii. 2. 62. 

265. Which (E. E. adj. hw-ilc, " wh(a)-like") is used inter 
changeably With Who and That. It is interchanged with who 
in 

" Then Warwick disannuls great John of Gaunt, 
Which did subdue the greatest part of Spain ; 



And, after that wise prince, Henry the Fifth, 
Wfio by his power conquered all France. " 

3 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 87. 
1 .ike who (263), which implies a cause in 

" Deposing thee before thou wert possess'tl, 
Which (for thou) art possess'd now to depose thyself." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 108. 

It is often used for that (see 261), where the personal antecedei;' 
is vocatively used or preceded by the article : 

*' Tlie mistress which I serve." Temp. iii. i. 6. 
So M, for M. v. i 305 ; W. T. i. 2. 455, v. 2. 60. 



*82 SHAKESPEARFAK GRAMMAR 

" Abhorred slave, 

Which any point of gcodness will not take." Temp. \ 2. 352 
" And thou, great goddess Nature, -which hast made it." 

W. T. ii. 3. 104. 
So in our version of the Lord's Prayer. 

266. Which, like that, is less definite than who. Who indicates 
an individual, which a "kind of person ;" -who is "qui," which 
" qnalis." 

"I have known those which (qnalis) have walked in their sleep 
a ho (and yet they, 263) have died holily in their beds." Macb. 
v. i. 66. 

" For then I pity those I do not know 

Which (unknown persons) a dismiss'd offence would after gall. " 

M.forM. ii. 2. 102. 

' ' They have as who have not, that their great stars 
Throned and set high ? servants, who seem no less, 
Which are to France the spies and speculations 
Intelligent of our state." Lear, iii. I. 24. 

Here "who seem no less" is parenthetical, and for who might be 
vritten "they." Which means "of such a kind that" Where 
'so dear," "such," &c. is implied in the antecedent, we may ex 
pect the corresponding -which (278) in the relative : 

" Antonio, I am married to a wife 
Which is as dear to me as life itself." M. of V. iv. I. 283. 

When the antecedent is personal and plural, which is generally 
preferred to who. Which, like that (260), often precedes who. 

' ' I am Prospero, and that very duke 
Which was thrust from Milan, who" &c. Tempest, v. I. 160. 

267. The . . . that; that . . . which. In A.-S. ")>e" (the) 

was the relative and "se" the article. When the form "J>e" (the) 
became the article, "that " became the relative. In the same way it 
perhaps arises that when that was applied to the antecedent, the 
relative form preferred by Shakespeare was which. " The man thai 
says" = "whoever says," and the indefinite that is sufficient ; but 
"that man," being more definite, requires a more definite relative. 
After a proper name, who would answer the purpose ; but after 
" that man," that being an adjective, " which man" was the natural 
expression, which being originally also an adjec.tive. Hence the 
marked '-hanire in 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 183 

" If he sees aught in you that makes him like 

That anything he sees which moves his liking." K. J.\\. I. 512 
' ' When living blood doth in these temples beat 

Which owe the crown that thou o'er-masterest. " Ib. ii. I. 109. 

Possibly "that" is a demonstrative, and "he" is used for "man" 
in the following, which will account for the use of ivhich; but more 
probably which is here used for that, and there is a confusion of 
constructions. 

" Rather proclaim it, Westmoreland, through our host, 
That he which hath no stomach to this fight, 
Let him depart." Hen. V. iv. 3. 34.* 

268. Which more definite than That. Generally it will be 

found that which is more definite than that. Which follows a name, 
that a pronoun : 

" Here's the Lord Say which sold the towns in France ; he that 
made us pay one-and-twenty fifteens." 7. Hen. VI. iv. 7. 23. 

Sometimes which is used in this sense to denote an individual 
or a defined class, while that denotes a hypothetical person or an 
indefinite class. Hence 

" And such other gambol faculties a' has, that show a weak mind 
and an able body, for the which the Prince admits him. " 2 Hen. 
IV. ii. 4. 74. 

And compare 

' ' She that was ever fair and never proud, &c. 

She was a wight, if ever such wight were." Othello, ii. I. 149. 
with " I find that she which late 

Was in my nobler thoughts most base, is now 
The praised of the king : who (263), so ennobled, 
Is as 'twere born so." A. W. ii. 3. 179. 
" It is a chance which does redeem all sorrows 

That I have ever felt." Lear, v. 3. 266. 
Which states a fact, that a probability, in 

' ' Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, 
Which art my near'st and dearest enemy ? 
Thou that art like enough." i Hen. IV. iii. 2. 124. 
fn " Cut off the heads of too fast growing sprays 
That look too lofty in our commonwealth : 
You thus employ'd, I will go root away 
The noisome weeds which, without profit, suck 
The soil's fertility from wholesome flowers." Rich. II. in 4.8} 

* See 415 and compare T. A. iii. i. 151 ; Lear, ii. i. 68. 



184 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

We must explain " all the heads that may happen to look too lofty, 
and the weeds which, as a fact, suck the fertility," &c. 

So that introduces an essential, and which an accidental, or at all 
events a less essential quality, in the two following passages : 

"(Thou) commit'st thy anointed body to the cure 
Of those physicians that first wounded thee." 

Rich. II. i;. i. 96. 
" Now for our Irish wars. 

We must supplant those rough, rug-headed kerns, 
Which live like venom where no venom else, 
But only they, have privilege to live." Ib. 157. 
That may state a fact with a notion of purpose : 

" Now, sir, the sound that tells (i.e. to tell) what hour it is 
Are clamorous groans which strike upon my heart, 
Which is the bell." Rick. II. v. 5. 57. 

269. Which with repeated antecedent. Which being an 

adjective frequently accompanies the repeated antecedent, where 
definiteness is desired, or where care must be taken to select the 
right antecedent. 

' ' Salisbury. What other harm have I, good lady, done 
But spoke the harm that is by others done ? 

Constance. Which harm within itself so heinous is ' 

K. J. iii. i. 39. 
' ' And, if she did play false, the fault was hers, 

Which fault lies," &c. K. J. L I. 119 ; Rich. II. i. i. 104. 
This may sometimes explain why which is used instead of that, 
and why that is preferred after pronouns : 

" Let my revenge on her that injured thee 
Make less a fault which I intended not" F. Sh. v. I. 

An antecedent noun ("fault") can be repeated, and therefore 
can be represented by the relative which ; an antecedent pronoun 
"her" cannot. 

Sometimes a noun of similar meaning supplants the antecedent : 

" Might'st bespice a cup 
To give mine enemy a lasting wink, 
Which draught to me were cordial." W. T.'\.z. 318 

270. The Which. The above repetition is, perhaps, more 
common with the definite " the which" : 

"The better part of valour is discretion ; in the which better part 
J haw saved my life." I Hen. IV. v. 4. 125. 



RELAJIVE PRONOUNS. iU$ 

Sometimes the noun qualified by -which is not repeated, and only 
tl'ghtly implied in the previous sentence : 

;< Under an oak . . . to the -which place. " A. Y. L. ii. i. 33. 
" Let gentleness my strong enforcement be, 
In the -which hope I blush." Ib. ii. 7. 119. 

The question may arise why " the" is attached to -which and not 
to who. (The instance 

" Your mistress from the -whom I see 
There's no disjunction," IV. T. iv. 4. 539. 

is, perhaps, unique in Shakespeare. ) The answer is, that -who is 
considered definite already, and stands for a noun, while -which 
is considered as an indefinite adjective ; just as in French we have 
"A-quel," but not "/<?qui." "The -which" is generally used either 
as above, where the antecedent, or some word like the antecedent, 
is repeated, or else where such a repetition could be made if 
desired. In almost all cases there are two or more possible antece 
dents from which selection must be made. (The use of "/i?quel" 
is similar. ) 

"To make a monster uf the multitude, of the which (multitude) 
we being members should bring ourselves to be monstrous members. " 
Coriol. ii. 3. 10. 

" Lest yovx justice 

Prove violence, in the which (violence) three great ones suffer. " 

W. T. ii. I. 128. 
"Eight hundred nobles 

In name of lendings for your highness' soldiers, 
The which (nobles) he hath detain'd for lewd employments. " 

Rich. II. i. i. 90. 

" The which " is also naturally used after a previous " which." 

"The present business 

Which now's upon us : without the which this story 
Were most impertinent." Temp. i. I. 138. 

' ' The chain 

Which God he knows I. saw not, for the which 
He did arrest me." C. of E. v. I. 230. 

271. Which for " which thing," often parenthetically 

"Camillo, 

As you are certainly a gentleman, thereto 
Clerk-like experienced, which no less adorns 
Our gentry, than our parents' noble names. " W. T. i. 2 Sift 



1 86 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Very often the " thing" must be gathered not from what precedes 
but from what follows, as in 

" And, -which became him like a prince indeed, 
He made a blushing 'cital of himself." i Hen. IV. v. 2. 02. 

"And, -which was strange, the one so like the other 
As could not be distinguished." C. of E. i. i. 53. 

That is rarely thus used by Shakespeare : 

" And, that is worse, 

The Lord Northumberland, his son young Henry Percy, 
With all their powerful friends, are fled to him." 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 65. 

Often, however, in our A. V. that in "that is, being interpreted," 
is the relative, though a modern reader would not perceive it. 

' ' I was never so berhymed since Pythagoras' time that ( when) I 
was an Irish cat, which I can hardly remember." A. F.Z.iii.2.188. 

" I'll resolve you, 

Which to you shall seem probable, of every 
These happen'd accidents." Temp, v. i. 249. 

'. e. "I will explain to you (and the explanation shall seem probable) 

every one of these accidents." 

"My honour's at the stake, -which (danger) to defeat 
I must produce my power." A. W. ii. 3. 156. 

" Even as I have tried in many other occurrences, which Caesar 
affirmed (ce que dit Cesar), that often," &c. MONTAIGNE, 36. 

272. Which for "as to which." Hence which and "the 
which" are loosely used adverbially for "as to which." So in 
1 .atm, " quod" in " quod si." 

" Showers of blood, 

The which how far off from the mind of Bolingbroke 
It is such crimson tempest should bedew," &c. 

Rich. II. iii. 3. 45. 

" With unrestrained loose companions 
Even such, they say, as stand in narrow lanes, 
And beat our watch, and rob our passengers ; 
Which he, young, wanton, and effeminate boy, 
Takes on the point of honour, to support 
So dissolute a crew." Rich. II. v. 3. 10. 

" But God be thanked for prevention : 
Which I in sufferance heartily will rejoice." 

Hen. y. u. . 159 



RELATIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS. 187 

273. Which. It is hard to explain the following : 

"A mote will turn the balance which Pyramus which Thlsbe is 
the better." M. N. D. v. I. 325. 
unless which is used for the kindred " whether." 

In " My virtue or my plague, be it either which" 

Hamlet^ iv. 7. 13. 

there is perhaps a confusion between "be it either" and "be it 
whichever of the two. " Perhaps, however, " either" may be taken 
in its original sense of "one of the two," so that "either which " is 
" which-one-so-ever of the two." 

274. Who for whom. The inflection of who is frequently neg 
lected. 

" Who I myself struck down." Macbeth, iii. I. 123. 

" Who does the wolf love? The lamb." Coriol. ii. i. 8. 
Compare W. T. iv. 4. 636, v. I. 109. 

Apparently it is not so common to omit the m when the whom 
is governed by a preposition whose contiguity demands the inflection: 

' ' There is a mystery with whom relation 
Durst never meddle." Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 201. 

Compare especially, 

" Consider who the king your father sends, 
To whom he sends." L. L. L. ii. i. 2. 

The interrogative is found without the inflection even after a pre 
position : 

" C. Yield thee, thief. 

Gut. To who?"Cymb. iv. 2. 75 ; Othello, i. 2. 62, 

"W\\hwho?"OtMlo, iv. 2. 99. 
And in a dependent question : 

"The dead man's knell 
Is there scarce asked for who." Macbeth, iv. 3. 171. 

In the following, who is not the object of the preposition : 

" This is a creature . . . might make proselytes 
Of who she but bid follow." JK T. v. I. 109. 



RELATIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS. 

275. So as. Bearing in mind that as is simply a contraction 
for "ail-so" ("alse," "als," "as"), we shall not be surprised a! 
some interchanging of so and as. 



1 88 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

We still retain "as ... so ": "As I had expected so it happened," 
but seldom use "so . . . as," preferring "as . . . as;" except where so 
(as in the above phrase) requires special emphasis. The Elizabethans 
frequently used so before as. 

" So well thy words become thee as thy wounds." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 43 

" Look I so pale, Lord Dorset, as the rest ?" 

Rich. III. ii. i. 83. 

" And with a look so piteous in purport 
As if he had been loosed out of hell." Hamlet, ii. I. 82. 

" Thou art so full of fear' 
As one with treasure laden." V. and A. 

" Fair and fair and twice so fair 
As any shepherd may be." PEELE. 

" All so soon as. " R. and J. i. I. 140. 

This is not very common in Shakespeare. Nor is it common to 
find so for as where the clause containing the second as is implied 
but not expressed. 

" Make us partakers of a little gain, 
That now our loss might be ten times so much." 

i Hen. VI. ii. I. 53. 

If the relatival as precedes, so, not as, must follow as the demon 
strative. The exception below is explicable as being a repetition of 
a previous as used demonstratively : 

" As little joy, my lord, as you suppose 
You should enjoy, were you this country's king, 
As little joy may you suppose in me 
That I enjoy." Rick. III. i. 3. 153. 

" That " is the relative. 

Ben Jonson (p. 789) writes as follows on so and as: " When the 
comparison is in quantity, then so goeth before and as followetn. 

' Men wist in thilk time none 
So fair a wight as she was one.' GOWER, lib. i. 

Hut if the comparison be in quality, then it is contrary. 

' For, as the fish, if it be dry, 
Mote, in default of water dye : 
Right so without air or live, 
No man ne beast might thrive.' GOWER.'' 
So as is frequently used for so that. (See 109.) 



RELATIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS. 189 

This construction is generally found with the past and future 
indicative, but we sometimes find "so as he may see," for "so that 
he may see." " So as " is followed by the subjunctive in 
" And lead these testy rivals so astray 

As one come not within another's way." M. N. D. iii. 2. 359. 
Compare the use of &s with the subjunctive in Greek. There 
is no more reason for saying, ' ' I come so that (i. e. in which way) 
I may see," than for saying, " I come so as (i.e. in which way) I 
may see. " We sometimes find so as that for so as in this sense. 
The so is omitted after as in the adjurations 

"As ever thou wilt deserve well at my hands, (so) help me to a 
candle," T. N. iv. 2. 86. 

where as means "in which degree," and so "in that degree." Hence 
as approximates to " if." 

It would seem that " as . . .so" are both to be implied from the 
previous verse in 

" Had you been as wise as bold, 
(As) young in limbs, (so) in judgment old." 

M. of V. ii. 7. 71 

276. As as. The first As is sometimes omitted : 
" A mighty and a fearful head they are 

As ever offered foul play in a state." I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 168. 
" He pants and looks (as) pale as if a bear were at his heels." 

T. N. iii. 4. 323 ; Tempest, v. i. 289. 

In the expression "old as I am," &c. we almost always omit the 
first as. Shakespeare often inserts it : 

"As near the dawning, provost, as it is." M. for M. iv. 2. 97. 
"But I believe, as cold a night as 'tis, he could wish himself in 
Thames up to the neck. " Hen. V. iv. I. 118. 

The expression is elliptical : "(be it) as cold as it is." 

277. That . . . that, that . . . (as) to. That is still used 

provincially for such and so: e.g. "He is that foolish that he 
understands nothing." So 

" From me whose love was of that dignity 
That it went hand in hand even with the vow 
I made to her in marriage." Hamlet, i. 5. 48. 
That is more precise than " of that kind" or "such." 
That, meaning "such," is used before the infinitive where we use 
the less emphatic "the." 



iqo SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

1 ' Had you that craft to reave her 
Of what should stead her most?" A. W. v. 3. 86. 

So T. N.\. I. 33 ; Rich. III. i. 4. 257 ; and Macbeth, iv. 3. 74 : 

"There cannot be 
That vulture in you to devour so many." 

This omission of "as" after that meaning "so," is illustrated by 
the omission of "as" after "so " (281). 

278. Such Which. Such (in Early English, "swulc," "suilc," 
"suilch," "sich") was by derivation the natural antecedent to 
which; such meaning* "so-like," "so-in-kind;" which meaning 
"what-like," " what-in-kind ? " Hence 

"Such sin 

For which the pardoner himself is in." M. for M. iv. 2. 111. 
"There rooted between them such an affection which cannot 
choose but branch now." W. T. i. I. 26. 

So W. T. iv. 4. 783 ; Coriol. iii. 2. 105. 

Compare ' ' Duty so great which wit so poor as mine 

May make seem bare. " Sonn. 26. 
Similarly which is irregularly used after "too :" 
"And salt too little which may season give 

To her foul-tainted flesh." M. Ado, iv. i. 144. 
Whom follows such in 

"Such I will have whom I am sure he knows not." 

A. W. iii. 6. 24. 

279. Such that; so ... that (rel.); such where. 

Hence such is used with other relatival words : 

" Such allowed infirmities that honesty 
Is never free of." W. T. i. 2. 263. 

' ' To such a man 

That is no fleering tell-tale. "-J. C. i. 3. 116. 
" For who so firm that cannot be seduced." J. C. i. 2. 316 
" His mother was a witch, and one so strong 

That could control the moon." Temp v. I. 270; ib. 315 
" But no perfection is so absolute 
That some impunity doth not pollute." R. of L. 

" Who's so gross 
That seeth not this palpable device ?" Rich, III. iii. 6. 11 

" Such things were 
That were most precious to me." Macbeth, iv. 3. 222. 

* Hence " such-\\ks" (Temp. hi. 3. 59) is a pleotssm. 



RELATIVAT. CONSTRUCTION'S. 191 

" For no man well of such a salve can speak 
That heals the wound and cures not the disgrace. " 

Sonn. 34. 

Coriol. iii. 2. 55 ; T. G. of V. iv. 4. 70 ; A. W. \. 3. 221 ; Lear, 
ii. 2. 127 ; Othello, iii. 3. 417. 

Hence it seems probable that that is the relative, having for ib 
antecedent the previous sentence, in the following passages from 
Spenser : 

" Whose loftie trees yclad with summer's pride 

Did spred so broad that heaven's light did hide." F. Q.\. I. 7. 
" (He) Shook him so hard that forced him to speak." IbA'L 

Similarly ' ' And the search so slow 

Which could not trace them." Cymb. i. I. 65. 

The licence in the use of these words is illustrated by 
" In me thou seest the twilight of such day 
As, after sunset, fadeth in the west, 
Which by and by black night doth take away. 
In me thou seest the glowing of such fire 
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie 
As on the death-bed." Sonn. 73. 

In the first case such as is used, because which follows ; in tlw 
second, such that, because as follows. So Hamlet, iii. 4. 41-46 : 
' ' Such an act that .... such a deed as. " 

Such, so, where : 

" Soch a schoole where the Latin tonge were properly and 
perfitlie spoken." ASCH. 45. 

" In no place so unsanctified 

Where such as thou mayest find him." Macbeth, iv. 2. 81. 
" So narrow where one but goes abreast." 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 155. 

280. That as. We now use only such with as, and only thai 
with -which. Since, however, such was frequently used with which, 
naturally that was also used with as (in which way) used for which, 
Thus as approaches the meaning of a relative pronoun, 

" I have not from your eyes that gentleness 

As I was wont to have. " jf. C. i. 2. 33. 
" Under these hard conditions as this time 

Is like to lay upon us." 16. 174. 



192 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

" Tliose arts they have as I could put into them." 

Cymb. v. 5. 338 

" Methinks the realms of England, France, and Ireland 
Bear that proportion to my flesh and blood 
As did the fatal brand Althea burned 
Unto the prince's heart at Calydon." 2 Hen. VI. L I. 233. 
"With that ceremonious affection as you were wont." 

Lear, i. 4. 63. 
So after this : 

" I beseech you do me this courteous office as to know what my 
oifence is." T, N. iii. 4. 278. 
Similarly 

" With hate in those where I expect most love." 

Rich. III. ii. i. 33. 

Either (i) the nominative is omitted (see 399), or (2) as is put for 
who, the relative to an implied antecedent, in : 

"Two goodly sons, 

And, which was strange, the one so like the other 
As could not be distinguish'd but by names. " 

C. ofE. i. i. 52. 

i.e. (i) "so like that (they) could not be," as being used for that 
(see 109) ; or (2) " the one so like the other," &c. is loosely used for 
" the two so like each other as could not be distinguished." 

Similarly as is used as a relative after an antecedent implied, but 
not expressed, by so with an adjective : 

"I cannot but be sad, so heavy-sad 

As . . . makes me faint." Rich. II. ii. 2. 31. 
i.e. " I feel such sadness as." 

281 So (as). Under the Relative we have seen that sometime* 
the antecedent, sometimes the relative, is omitted, without injury to 
the sense. Similarly in relatival constructions, e.g. so . . . as, 
to . . . that, &c. one of the two can be omitted. 

The as is sometimes omitted : 

' ' I wonder he is so fond 
(as) To trust the mockery of unjust slumbers." 

Rich. III. ii. 3. 26. 

"50 fond [i.e. foolish] (as) to come abroad." 

M. of V. iii. 3. 10. 

"No woman's heart 
So big (as) to hold so much " T. N. ii. 4. 99. 



RELATIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS. 193 

" Shall I so much dishonour my fair stars 
(as) On equal terms to give him chastisement ? " 

Rich. II. iv. I. 21. 

K. and J. 11. 3. 91 ; Macbeth, ii. 3. 55 ; Rich. II. iii. 3. 12. 
As or who is omitted in : 

"And while it is so, none so dry or thirsty 

Will deign to sip or touch one drop of it." T.ofSh. v. 2. 144. 
i.f. "None is so thirsty (who) will deign" where we should say "as 
to deign." Less probably, "none (be he how) so (ever) dry." 
So and as are both omitted in : 

"Be not (so) fond 
(As) To think that Caesar bears such rebel blood. "J. C. iii. i. 40. 

282. So (that). The that is sometimes omitted. 

" I am so much a fool (that) it would be my disgrace." 

Macb. iv. 2. 27 

283. (So) that. So before that is very frequently omitted : 
"Ross. The victory fell onus. Dune. Great happiness! 

Ross, (So) that now Sueno, the Norway's king, craves composi 
tion." Macbeth, i. 2. 59. 

Compare Macb. i. 7. 8, ii, 2. 7, ii. 2. 24 ; J. C. i. I. 50. 

In all these omissions the missing word can be so easily supplied 
from its correspondent that the desire of brevity is a sufficient 
explanation of the omission. 

"A sheet of paper 

Writ o' both sides the leaf, margent and all, 
That he was fain to seal on Cupid's name." Z. Z. Z. v. 2. 9. 

284. That, for because, when. Since that represents different 
cases of the relative, it may mean "in that," " for that" " because " 
(" quod "), " or at which time " (" quum "). 

In, or for that 

" Unsafe the while that we must lave our honours, " &c. 

Macbeth, iii. 2. 39. 

" O, spirit of love ! How quick and fresh art thou 
That (in that), . . . nought enters there but," &c. 

T. N. i. I. 10. 
" Like silly beggars 

Who sitting in the stocks refuge t.heir shame, 
That (because) many have and others must sit there, 
And in this thought they find a kind of ease." 

Rich. II. v. 5. 27. 
o 



19* SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

At which time ; -when : 

"In the day that thou eatest thereof." Gen. ii. 17. 
1 ' Now it is the time of night 
That the graves all gaping wide, 
Every one lets forth his sprite."^/". N. D. v. I. 387. 
11 So wept Duessa until eventyde, 
TJiat shynyng lamps in Jove's high course were lit." 

SPENS. F. Q. L 5. 19. 
"Is not this the day 
That Hermia should give answer of her choice ? " 

M. N. D. iv. I. 133 

" So, till the judgment that yourself arise, 
You live in this and dwell in lovers' eyes." Sonn. 55. 

Compare " Then that" apparently " then when." (2 Hen. IV. iv. 
i. 117.) 

These uses of that are now superseded by the old interrogatives 
why and when, just as, even in Shakespeare's time, many of the uses 
of that had been transferred to the interrogatives who and which. 

" Albeit I will confess thy father's wealth 
Was the first motive that I wooed thee, Anne." 

M. W. of W. iii. 4- 14. 

i.e. "for which, or why, I wooed thee." 

The use of that for when is still not uncommon, especially in the 
phrase " now that I know," &c. It is omitted after "now" in 
"But now (that) I am return' d, and that war thoughts 
Have left their places vacant, in their rooms 
Come thronging soft and delicate desires."^/. Ado, \. I. 303. 
So Rick. III. i. 2. 170 ; M. N. D. iv. i. 67, 109. 
That = "in which" in 
"Sweet Hero, now thy image doth appear 
In the sweet semblance that I loved it first." M. Ado, v. I. 260 

285. That omitted and then inserted. The purely conjunctional 
use of that is illustrated by the Elizabethan habit of omitting it at the 
beginning of a sentence, where the construction is obvious, and then 
inserting it to connect a more distant clause with the conjunction on 
which the clause depends. In most cases the subjects of the clauses 
we different 

"Though my soul be guilty and that I think," &c. 

B. J. Cy.'s Rev. iii. 2. 



RELATIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS 195 

"\l ere it not thy sour leisure gave sweet leave, 
And that thou teachest. " Sonn. 39. 

"If this law 

Of nature be corrupted through affection, 
And that great minds, of partial indulgence 
To their benumbed wills, resist the same." 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 2. 179. 

This may explain (without reference to "but that," 122) : 
"If frosts and fasts, hard lodging and thin weeds 
Nip not the gaudy blossoms of your love, 
But that it bear this trial." L. L. L. v. 2. 813. 

For " if that," see 287. 

" Think I am dead, and that even here thou takest, 
As from my death-bed, my last living leave. " 

Rich. II. v. i. 38 

So T. N. v. I. 125 ; W. T. i. 2. 84 ; A. and C. iii. 4. 31 ; P. 
ofT. i. Gower, 11. 

"I love and hate her, for she's fair and royal, 
And that she hath all worthy parts more exquisite. " 

Cymb. iii. 5. 71. 
i.e. " for that" or "because." 

" She says I am not fair, that I lack manners ; 
She calls me proud, and that she could not love me." 

A. Y. L. iv. 2. 16. 

In the above example the that depends upon a verb of speech 
implied in "calls." This construction is still more remarkable in 

"But here's a villain that would face me down 
He met me on the mart, and that I beat him." C. of E. iii. I. 7. 

Compare the French use of "que" instead of repeating ''si," 
"quand," &c. 

286. Whatsoever that. In the following there is probably an 
ellipsis : 

" This and what needful else (there be) 

That calls upon us." Macbeth, v. 8. 72. 
"Till -whatsoever star (it be) that guides my moving 

Points on me graciously with fair aspect." Sonn. 26. 
"As if that whatsoever god (it be) who leads him 

Were slily crept into his human powers." Coriol. ii. I. 235. 

In the latter, that is probably the demonstrative. It might, how 
ever, be the conjunctional that. See " if that" 287, 
u 2 



196 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

287. That as a conjunctional affix. Just as so and as arc affixed 
to who (whoso), when (vvhenso), where (whereas, whereso), in order 
to give a relative meaning to words that were originally interrogative, 
in the same way that was frequently affixed.* 

" When that the poor have cried." 

y. C. iii. 2. 96 ; T. N. v. I. 388. 
" Why that." Hen. V. v. 2. 34. 
*' You may imagine him upon Blackheath, 
Where that his lords desire him to have borne 
His bruised helmet and his bended sword 
Before him through the city." Hen. V. v. Prologue, 17. 
So A. Y. L. ii. 7. 75 ; ii. 3. 117. This, with the above, explains 
" Edmund. When by no means he could. 
Gloucester. Pursue him, ho ! go after. By no means what ? 
Edmund. Persuade me to the murder of your lordship, 
But that I told him," &c. Lear, ii. I. 47. 

Gradually, as the interrogatives were recognized as relatives, the 
force of that, so, as, in "when that," "whenjw," "when as," 
seems to have teudeci to n>ake the relative more general and in 
definite ; "who so" being now nearly (and once quite) as indefi 
nite as "whosoever." The "ever" was added when the "so" had 
begun to lose its force. In this sense, by analogy, that was attached 
to other words, such as "if," " though," "why," &c. 
" If that the youth of my new interest here 

Have power to bid you welcome. " M. of V. iii. 2. 224. 
Compare 

" If that rebellion 
Came like itself, in base and abject routs." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. I. 32 ; T. N. i. 5. 324, v. I. 375. 
So Lear, v. 3. 262 ; Rich. III. ii. 2. 7. 

The fuller form is found, CHAUC. Pard. Tale, 375 : " If so were 
that I might;" and Lodge writes, "If so I mourn." Similarly, "If 
so be thou darest." Coriol. v. 14. 98. 
Compare : 

" While that." Hen. V. v. 2. 46. 
" Though that.'" 

Coriol. i. I. 144 ; Lear, iv. 6. 219 ; T. N. L 3 48. 
" Lest that." Hen. V. ii. 4-142; T. N. iii. 4. 384. 
" Whether that." \ Hen. VI. iv. I. 28. 

"* St. Mark ii\ . Where our Version has " Whosoever shall do th will of my 
Father," Wickliffe has "Who that doth." 



RELATIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS. I97 

" So as that" frequently found. 

" Xnce that."Macb. iv. 3-106; Rich. HI. v. 3. 202. 
" How that" is also frequent. We also find that frequently affixed to 
prepositions for the purpose of giving them a conjunctival meaning : 
"For that" (Afacb. iv. 3. 185); "in that;" " after that, " &c. 
The Folio has 

" Your vertue is my priuiledge : for that 
It is not night when I doe see your face. 
Therefore I thinke I am not in the night." 

M. N. D. ii. i. 220. 

The Globe omits the full stop after "face," making "for that" 
(because) answer to "therefore." Others remove the stop after 
"privilege " and place it after " for that." 
Hence we find " but that" where we should certainly omit that 
" The breath no sooner left his father's body 
But that his wildness, mortified in him, 
Seem'd to die too." Hen. V.\.\. 26. 

288. That, Origin Of. Is that, when used as above, demonstrative 
or relative ? The passage quoted above from Chaucer,* "^"so were 
that," renders it probable that a similar ellipsis must be supplied 
with the other conjunctions : " Though (it be) that," "Since (it is) 
that" &c. With prepositions the case is different, e.g. "for that," 
' ' in that, " " after that. " For this use of that can be traced to A. -S*. , 
where we find "for ]>am ]>e," i.e. "for this purpose that," "after 
\>am >e," &c. Here "Jam" is more emphatic than "J>e," and 
evidently gave rise to the English that. But " j>am " was the A. -S. 
demonstrative. It follows that the that is (by derivative use, at all 
events) demonstrative in "for that," or, perhaps we should say, 
stands as an abridgment for " that (demonst.) that (rel.)." In fact, 
we can trace the A.-S. "after \>am J>e" to the E. E. "after that 
that," and so to the later "after that." Hence we must explain 

"The rather 

For that I saw the tyrant's power afoot. "Macb. iv. 3. 185. 
as " for that (that), i.e. for that, because, I saw." It would be wrong, 
however, to say that that in " since that" is, by derivative use, demon- 
strative. On the contrary, "since "in itself (sij>->an) contains the 
demonstrative, and " since that" corresponds to "si>-Jnm \>at" where 
that(\>a.t\ is relative. And similarly "though that" corresponds to 
the A.-S. "J>eah J>e," where that (J>e) is the relative. The that in 
* Compare " If so be that" 



i<j8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"after that," " before that" invites comparison with the " quam k 
in "postquam" and "antequam," though in the Latin it is the 
antecedent, not the relative, that is suppressed. The tendency of 
the relative to assume a conjunctional meaning is illustrated by the 
post-classical phrase, "dico quod (or quia) verum est," in the place 
of the classical "dico id verum esse." Many of the above Eliza 
bethan phrases, which are now disused, may be illustrated from 
French: "Since that," "puisque;" " though that" " quoi que;" 
" before that" "avant que," &c. Instead of "for that," we find in 
French the full form, " par ce que," i.e. " by that (dem. ) that (rel. ). " 
It is probable that Chaucer and Mandeville, if not earlier writers, 
were influenced in their use of the conjunctional that by French 
usage. Even in the phrase " I say that it is true," that may be ex 
plained as having a relatival force (like STI, " quod," and the French 
"que "), meaning, "I say in what way, how that, it is true." In the 
phrase, "I come th at (in the -way in which; 'ut,' &s, 'afin que') 
I may see," the relatival force of that is still more evident 

289. As is used in the same way as a conjunctional affix. Thus 
"while as:" 

" Pirates . . . still revelling like lords till all be gone 
While as the silly owner of the goods 
Weeps over them." 2 Hen VI. i. I. 225. 

" When as : " 

" When as the enemy hath been ten to one." 3 Hen VI. i. z. 75. 
" When as the noble Duke of York was slain." Ib. ii. I. 46. 
So Ib. v. 7. 34. 

" Where as " is used by us metaphorically. But Shakespeare has 

" Unto St. Alban's, 
Where as the king and queen do mean to hawk." 

2 Hen VI. i. 2. 57. 

"They back retourned to the princely Place, 
Whereas an errant knight . . . they new arrived find." 

SPENS. F. Q. i. 4. 38. 

So " there as" is used in earlier English. " There that" is also 
found in Chaucer in a local sense. 

Of course the " so " in " whertw," " wherejv? " &c., is nearly the 
same in meaning, just as it is the same in derivation, with the as 
in " whenoj," &c. 



FERBS, FORMS OF. 199 

VERBS, FORMS OF. 

290. Verbs, Transitive (formation of). The termination en 
(the infinitive inflection) is sufficient to change an English monosyl 
labic noun or adjective into a verb. Thus "heart" becomes "hearts*;" 
"light," "lights*;" "glad," "gladd?," &c. The licence with 
which adjectives could be converted into verbs is illustrated by 

" Eche that enhauncith hym schal be lound, and he that mekith 
hymself shall be highid." WICKLIFFE, St. Luke xiv. II. 

In the general destruction of inflections which prevailed during 
the Elizabethan period, en was particularly discarded. It was 
therefore dropped in the conversion of nouns and adjectives into 
verbs, except in some cases where it was peculiarly necessary to 
distinguish a noun or adjective from a verb. (So strong was the 
discarding tendency that even the e in "owen," "to possess," was 
dropped, and Shakespeare continually uses "owe" for "owen" 
or " own " * ( T. N. i. 5. 329 ; Rich. II. iv. I. 185). The n has now 
been restored.) But though the infinitive inflection was generally 
dropped, the converting power was retained, undiminished by the 
absence of the (condition. Hence it may be said that any noun 
or adjective could be converted into a verb by the Elizabethan 
authors, generally in an active signification, as 

' ' Which happies (makes happy) those that pay the willing lover. " 

Sonn. II. 

"Time will unfair (deface) that (which) fairly doth excel." Ib. 5. 
So: 

Balnfd (healed). Lear, iii. 6. 105. 
Barn. "Barns a harvest." R. of L. 
Bench (sit). Lear, iii. 6. 40. 

Bold (embolden)." Not bolds the king." Lear, v. i. 26. 
Brain. " Such stuff as madmen 

Tongue and brain not." Cymb. v. 4. 147. 
i.e. "such stuff as madmen use their tongues in, but not their 

brains. " 
Child. " Childing autumn." M. N. D. ii. I. 112: i.e. "autumn 

producing fruits as it were children." 

Climate." Climates (neut.) [lives] here." W. T. v. I. 170. 
Cowardeil. " That hath so cowarded and chased your blood. " Hen. 
V. ii. 2. 75. 

* Compare "* The gates are oje," Coriol. i. 4. 43. 



200 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Coy (to be COY). "Nay, if he coy 1 d." Coriol. v. I. 6. 

Disaster (make disastrous -looking). " The holes where eyes should 
be which pitifully disaster the cheeks." A. and C. ii. 7. 18. 

False. "Has/a/jfl/ his faith." SPENS. F. Q. i. 19. 46. 

Fame. ' ' Fames his wit." Sonn. 84. 

Fault." Cannot fault (neut.) twice." N. P. Pref.; B. J. Alch.\\\. i 

Feeble. " And feebling such as stand not in their liking." 

Coriol. i. I. 199. 

Fever (give a fever to). " The white hand of a lady fever thee, 
Shake thou to look on't." A. and C. iii. 13. 138. 

Fond. " My master loves her truly, 

And I, poor monster, fond as much on him. " T. N. ii. 2. 36. 

Fool (stultify). '" Why, that's the way 

To fool their preparations." A. and C. v. 2. 225. 

This explains 

"Why old men ./fo/ and children calculate." J. C. i. 3. 65. 
Foot. "Foots" (kicks). Cymb. iii. 5. 148. On the other hand, in 
"A power already/cwzto/ " {Lear, iii. 2. 14), it means "set on 
foot ;" and in " the traitors late footed in the kingdom" (Ib. 
iii. 7. 45), it means "that have obtained a footing." 
Force (to urge forcibly). " ^N\\y force you this?" Coriol. iii. 2. 51- 
Also (to attach force to, regard) : 

" But ah ! who ever shunn'd by precedent 
The destin'd ills she must herself assay, 
Or forced examples 'gainst her own content, 
To put the by-past perils in liei way?" L. C. 157. 

i.e. "whoever regarded examples. " So L. L. L. v. 2. 440. 
Furnace. " Furnaces sighs. " Cymb.\. 6. 66. 
Gentle. "This day shall gentle his condition." Hen. V. iv. 3. 63. 
God. "He god Jed me." Coriol. v. 3. 11. 
Honest. " Honests (honours) a lodging." B. J. Sil. Worn. i. I. 

Inherit (make an inheritor). ' ' That can inherit us 

So much as of a thought of ill in him." Rich. II. ii. I. 86. 

Knee (kneel). " Knee the way." Coriol. v. I. 5. 

Lesson (teach). "Lesson me." T. G. ofV.\\. 7. 5; Rich. III. L 4. 246. 

Linger (make to linger). " Life 

Which false hope lingers in extremity. " 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 72 M. N. D. i. I. 4. 



VERBS, FORMS OF. 201 

Mad. "Mads" (makes angry). Rich. II. v. 5. 61. 
Mellow (ripen, trans.). T. N. i. 3. 43. 

Mist (cover with mist). "If that her breath will mist or stain the 
stone." Lear, v. 3. 262. 

Malice. " Malices" (bears malice to). N. P. 

Pale (make pale). "And 'gins to pale his ^ineffectual fire." 

Hamlet, L 5. 90. 

Panging (paining). " 'Tis a sufferance panging 

As soul and body's severing." Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 15. 

Path (walk). " For if .thou path (neuter), thy native semblance 
on." y. C. ii. I. 83. 

Plain (make plain). " What's dumb in show I'll //#?' in speech." 

P. ofT. iii. Gower, 14. 

Property (treat as a tool). "They have here propertied me." 

T. N. iv. 2. 100 ; K. J. v. 2. 79. 

Rag'd (enraged). There is no corruption (though the passage is 
marked as corrupt in the Globe) in 

" For young colts being rag'd do rage the more." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 70. 

Safe. " And that which most with you should safe my going, 
Fulvia is dead." A. and C. i. 3. 55. 

i.e. "make my departure unsuspected by you of dangerous con 
sequences. " 

Scale (weigh, put in the scale). "Scaling his present bearing with 
his past." Coriol. ii. 3. 257. 

Stage (exhibit). " I do not like to stage me to their eyes." 

M.for M. i. I. 69. 
Stock (put in the stocks). " Stocking his messenger." 

Lear, ii. 2. 139 

Stream (unfurl). " Streaming the ensign." Rich, II. iv. I. 94. 
Toil (give labour to). Probably in 

" Why this same strict and most observant watch 

So nightly toils the subject of the land." Hamlet, i. I. 72. 
So "toil'd," passive. Rich. II. iv. I. 96. 
Tongue. " How might she tongue me?" M. for M. iv. 4. 28. 
i.e. " speak of, or accuse, me." " Tongue " mean? " speak " in 

" Such stuff as madmen 
Tongue, and brain not." Cymb. v. 4. 14 



2 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Trifle. " Trifles (renders trifling) former knowing." Macb. ii. 4. 4 
Undeaf. " My death's sad tale may yet undeaf his ear." 

/ Rich. It. ii. I. 6. 

Verse (expressing in verse). " Versing love. " M. N. D. ii. I. 67. 

Violent (act violently). "And violenteth in a sense as strong." 

Tr. and Cr. iv. 4. 4. 
Wage (pay : so E. E.). " He -waged me." Coriol. v. 6. 40. 

Womb (enclose). "The close earth wombs or the profound sea hides." 

W. T. iv. 4. 501. 
Worthied (ennobled). "That worthied him." Lear, ii. 2. 128. 

The dropping of the prefix be was also a common licence. We 
have recurred to " Switch " and " Mate," but Shakespeare wrote 

" And witch the world with noble horsemanship." 

i Hen. IV. iv. i. 110 
"Now spurs the lated traveller apace." Macbeth, iii. 3. 6. 

"Disorder, that hath spoil'd us, friend us now." 

Hen. V. iv. 5. 17. 

291. Sometimes an intransitive verb is converted into 
a transitive verb. 

Cease. " Heaven cease this idle humour in your honour ! " 

T. ofSh. Ind. 2. 13. So Cymb. v. 5. 255. 
Expire. Time "expires a term." R. and J. i. 4. 109. 
Fall. An executioner "falls an axe." A. Y. L. iii 5.5and pro 
bably (though fall may be the subjunctive) in 
"Think on me, and fall thy edgeless axe." Rich. III. v. 3. 135. 
Peer. "Peers (causes to peer) his chin." R. of L. 

Perish. "Thy flinty heart . . . might perish (destroy) Margaret." 

2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 100. 

Quail (make to quail). "But when he meant to quail and shake 
the orb." A. and C. v. ii. 85. 

Relish. "Relishes (makes acceptable) his nimble notes to pleasing 
ears." R. of L. 

Remember (remind : so Fr.). "Every stride I take 

Will but remember me what," &c.Rick. II. i. 3. 269. 
Retire (so Fr. ). " That he might have retired his power " 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 46. 

Shine. "Goddoth not shine honour upon all men equally." B.-ZT.45. 
Squint. " Squints the eye and makes the harelip." Lear,\\\.A,. 122 
i.e. "makes the eye squint." 



VERBS, FORMS OP. 203 

Feat- This word is not in point. It had the signification of 
'* frighten " in A. -S. and E. E. Hence, 

" Thou seest what's past : go fear thy king withal." 

3 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 226. 

" This aspect of mine hathy^zrW the valiant." 

M. of V. ii. I. 9. 
So in Spenser, " Words fearen babes." 

The same remark applies to " learn," which meant " teach." 

"The red plague rid you 
For learning me your language. " Tempest, \. 2. 365. 

292. The licence in the formation of verbs arose partly 

from the unfixed nature of the language, partly from the desire of 
brevity and force. Had it continued, it would have added many 
useful and expressive words to the language. In vigorous colloquy 
we still occasionally use such expressions as 

"Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncles." Rich. II. ii. 3. 87. 

" Thank me no thankings, nor/r0#</me no prouds." 

R. and J. iii. 5. 153. 

As it is, we can occasionally use the termination -fy, as in 
"stultify," and sometimes the suffix -en or the prefix be-. But for 
the most part we are driven to a periphrasis. 

293. Transitive verbs are rarely used intransitively. 

Eye (appear). " But, sir, forgive me 

Since my becomings kill me, when they do not 
Eye well to you. A. and C. i. 3. 97. 

Lack (to be needed). ' ' And what so poor a man as Hamlet is 
May do to express his love and friending to you, 
God willing, shall not lack." Hamlet, i. 5. 186. So E. E. 

Need (to be needed). "These ceremonies need not." 

B. J. E. in &>{. iii. z. 

This is perhaps a remnant of the ancient love for impersonal 
verbs. Such verbs would be appropriate to express "need." Hence 
in Matt. xix. 20, Mark x. 21, Wickliffe has "faileth to me" and (1 to 
thee," where the A. V. has "what do I lack " and " thou lackest." 
Similarly, Milton (AreopagitLu) uses "what -wants there?" foi 
"what is needed?" and this use still exists in conversation. So 
often Shakespeare, e.g. 

"There wanteth now our brother Gloucester here." 

Rich. III. ii. \. <ta 



204 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Show (like our " look : " compare German " schauen "). 

" Each substance of a grief hath twenty shadows 
Which shows like grief itself. "Rich. II. ii. 2. 15. 

294. Verbs Passive (formation of). Hence arose a curious 
use of passive verbs, mostly found in the participle. Thus 
" famous" d for fights" (Sonn. 25) means " made famous ;" but in 
"Who, young and simple, would not be so lover 1 d?" L. C. 
lover 1 d means "gifted with a lover." And this is the general rule. 
A participle formed from an adjective means " made (the adjective)," 
and derived from a noun means "endowed with (the noun)." On 
the other hand, stranger' d below means, not " gifted with a stranger," 
but "made a stranger." This use will be best illustrated by the 
following examples : 

Childed (provided with children). " He childed as I father 'd." 

Lear, iii. 6. 117 

/^zV/^V (believed). "Make thy words faith'd." Ib. ii. I. 72. 
Fathered (provided with a father). See above, I^ear, iii. 6. 117. 
Feebled (enfeebled). K. J. v. 2. 146. 

Fielded (encamped in the field). "Our fielded friends." 

Coriol. i. 4. 12. 

Grav'd (entomb'd). " Graved in the hollow ground." 

Rich. II. iii. 2. 140. 

#?</ (deceitful). " A ^//fe/ shore." M. of V. iii. 2. 97. 

Compare: " Beguiled (i.e. made plausible) 

With outward honesty, but yet defiled 
With inward vice." R. of L. 

Inhabited (made to inhabit). " O, knowledge ill-inhabited, worse 
than Jove in a thatch'd house." A. Y. L. iii. 3. 10. 

Kingd (ruled). " King'd of our fears, until our fears, resolv'd, 

Be by some certain king purged and deposed." K. J. ii. i. 371. 

i.e. " ruled by our fears." 

LooKd (looking). " Lean-/<?0/V prophets." Rich. II. ii. 4. 11. 
Lorded (made a lord). " He being thus lorded." Temptst, i. 2. 97. 

Contrast this with "king'd" above, which means not "made * 
king," but " ruled as by a king." 

Wcfred. " When half to half the world opposed, 

He being the meered question." A. and C. iii. 13. 10 



VERBS, FORMS OF. 205 

The word "meered" is marked as corrupt by the Globe : but 
perhaps it is the verb from the adj. " meere " or " mere," which in 
Elizabethan English means "entire." Hence, " he being the entin 
question," i.e. " Antony, being the sole cause of the battle, ought 
not to have fled. " 

Milliorid. " The ?*//> V accidents of time." Sonn. 115 
Mouthed. ' ' Mouthed graves. " Ib. 77. 

Necessited. " I bade her, if her fortunes ever stood 
Necessited to help, that by this token 
I would relieve her. " A. W. v. 3. 85. 

/. e. ' ' made necessitous. " 

Nighted (benighted). "His nighted life." Lear, iv. 5. 13; "Thv 
nightcd colour." Hamlet, i. 2. 68 : i.e. " thy night-like colour. 

Paled. " Paled cheeks. " Z. C. 28. 

Pensived. Ib. 31. 

Pined. "His//ft/ cheek." Ib. 5. 

Practised (plotted against). "The death-practised 'duke." 

Lear, -iv. 6. 284. 
Servanted (made subservient). Coriol. v. 2. 89. 

Sloufd (retarded). " I would I knew not why it should be slow'd." 

P.. andj. iv. I. 16. 

Stranger* 'd (made a stranger). " Dower'd with our curse, and 
stranger'd with our oath. " Lear,-\. i. 207. 

Toiled. " I have been so toil'd." B. J. E. out &>c. Hi. i. 
Traded.' 1 Traded pilots." TV. and Cr. ii. 2. 64. 

Unlock' d (unlocked for). Rich. III. i. 3. 214: compare look (seek). 

Hen. V. iv. 7. 76. 

Unsured (unassured). "Thy now unsured assurance to the crown." 

K. J. ii. i. 471. 

Vouchsafed (?). " To your most pregnant and vouchsafed ear." 

T. N. iii. i. 190. 

i. e. capable of conceiving and graciously bestowed. 
IVindow'd (placed in a window). 

" Wouldest thou be window 1 d in great Rome." 

A. and C. iv. 14. 72. 
Wbman'd (accompanied by a woman). 

"To have him see me woman' d." Othello, iiL 4. 195. 
Year'J. " Year 1 'd but to thirty." B. J. Sejan. i. I. 



zo6 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

In many cases a participle seems preferred where an adjective 
would be admissible, as "million'd." So in Tempest,-?. I. 43, " the 
azured vault. " 

295. Verbs Passive. With some few intransitive verbs, mostly 
of motion, both be and have are still used. "He is gone," "he 
has gone. " The is expresses the present state, the has the activity 
necessary to cause the present state. The is is evidently quite as 
justifiable as has (perhaps more so), but it has been found more con 
venient to make a division of labour, and assign distinct tasks to 
is and has. Consequently is has been almost superseded by has in 
all but the passive forms of transitive verbs. In Shakespearian 
English, however, there is a much more common use of is with 
intransitive verbs. 

" My life is run his compass." J. C. v. 3. 25. 

"Whether he be scaped." 3 Hen. VI. ii. i. 2. 

" Being sat." L. C. st. x. 

" Being deep stept in age." ASCH. 189. 

" An enter' J tide." Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 159. 

" I am arrived for fruitful Lombardy." T. of Sh. \. I. 3. 

' ' Pucelle is altered into Orleans. " 

I Hen. VI. i. 5. 36 ; Cymb. v. 4. 120. 

" Five hundred horse . . . are marched up." 

2 Hen. IV. ii. i. 186. 

" The king himself is rode to view their battle." 

Hen. V. iv. 3. 1. 

" His lordship is walk'd forth." 2 Hen. IV. i. I. 3. 
"The noble Brutus is ascended."^ C. iii. 2. 11. 

" You now are mounted 
Where powers are your retainers." Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 112. 

" I am descended of a gentler blood." I Hen. VI. v. 4. 8. 

" Through his lips do throng 
Weak words, so thick come (particip. ) in his poor heart's aid. " 

R. of L. 1784. 
Compare our "welcome." 

" How now, Sir Proteus, are you crept before us?" 

T. G. of V. iv. i. 18. 
So Rich. III. i. 2. 259. 

" Prince John is this morning secretly stolen away." 

M. Ado, iv. 2. 63. 



VERBS, FORMS OF. 207 

This idiom is common with words of "happening :" 

" And bring us word . . . how everything is chanced." 

y. C. v. 4. 32; 2 Hen. IV. i. I. 87. 
" Things since then befallen." 3 Hen. VI. ii. I. 106. 
" Of every one these happerid accidents." Temp. v. i. 249. 
" Sad stories chanced in the days of old." T. A. iii. 2. 33. 
Hence a participial use like " departed " in 

"The treachery of the two fled hence." W. T. ii. I. 195. 
In some verbs that are both transitive and intransitive this idiom 
is natural : 

"You were used to say." Coriol. iv. I. 3. 

Perhaps this is sometimes a French idiom. Thus, ' ' I am not 
purposed" (MONTAIGNE, 38), is a translation of "je ne suis pas 
delibere." 

This constant use of "be " with participles of verbs of motion 
may perhaps explain, by analogy, the curious use of " being " with 
the present participle in 

" To whom being going." Cymb. iii. 6. 63. 

As above mentioned, the tendency to invent new active verbs 
increased the number of passive to the diminution of neuter verbs : 
" Poor knave, thou art overwatched." J. C. iv. 3. 241. 
" Be -wreak 'd (i.e. avenged) on him." V. and A. So, N. P. 194. 
" Possess" was sometimes used for to "put in possession," as in 
"Possess us, possess us " (T. N. ii. 3. 149) : i.e. "inform us." So 
M. o/V. iv. I. 35. Hence the play on the word. 

" Deposing thee before thou wert possess' d (of the throne), 
Which art possessed (with a spirit of infatuation) to destroy 

thyself." Rich. II. ii. I. 107-8 ; M. of V. i. 3. 65. 
We still say a man " is well lead." But in Macb. i. 4. 9, there is 
" As one that had been studied in his death." 
" For Clarence is -well-spoken." Rich. III. i. 3. 348. 
"I am declined into the vale of years." Othello, iii. 3. 265. 
" How comes it. -Michael, you are thus forgot?" 

Ib. ii. 3.188. 
i.e. "you have forgotten yourself." 

" If I had been retiembered."Rich. HI. ii. 4. 22. 
We still say "well-behaved," but not 

"How have I been behaved." Othello, iv 2. 108. 



208 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

It was perhaps already considered a vulgarity, for Dogberry says 
(M. Ado, iv. 2. 1) : 

" Is our whole dissembly appear 'd? " 
and in a prose scene (Coriol. iv. 3. <$\ 

" Your favour is well appear d (fol.) by your tongue." 
Perhaps, however, appear was sometimes used as an active verb. 
See Cymb. iv. 2. 47, iii. 4. 148, quoted in 296. 

296. Verbs Reflexive. The predilection for transitive verbs 
was perhaps one among other causes why many verbs which are 
now used intransitively, were used by Shakespeare reflexively. 
'Many of these were derived from the French. 

" Advise you." T. N. iv. 2. 102. 

" Where then, alas ! may I complain myself?" Rich. II. i. 2. 42. 
" Endeavour thyself to sleep." T. N. iv. 2. 104. 
" I do repent me" Rich. II. v. 3. 52. 
" Repose you." Ib. ii. 3. 161. 

" He . ! . retired himself "Rich. II. iv. I. 96 ; Coriol. \. 3. 30, 
which is in accordance with the original meaning of the word. 

It has been shown above that "fear" is used transitively for 
"frighten." Hence, perhaps, as in Greek <f>oj3oufj.ai, 

"Ifearme."2ffen. VI. i. I. 150. 
Appear is perhaps used reflexively in 

" No, no ; we will hold it as a dream till it appear itself." 

M. Ado, i. 2. 22. 
" If you could wear a mind 
Dark as your fortune is, and but disguise 
That which to appear iisel/musi not yet be." Cymb. iii. 4. 148. 

i.e. "that which, as regards showing itself, must not yet have any 
existence." Though these passages might be perhaps explained 
without the reflexive use of appear, yet this interpretation is made 
more probable by 

" Your favour is well appear' d." Coriol. iv. 3. 9. 

297. Verbs Impersonal. An abundance of Impersonal verbs 
is a mart of an early stage in a language, denoting that a speaker has 
not yet arrived so far in development as to trace his own actions and 
feelings to his own agency. There are many more impersonal verbs 
in Early English than in Elizabethan, and many more in Elizabethan 
than in modern English. Thus- 



VERBS, FORMS OF. 209 

" ft yearns me not." Hen. V. iv. 3. 26. 

"//would///!/ any living eye." SPENS. F. Q. i. 6. 43. 
Coir.p. 2 Maccabees iii. 21 : "//would have ///// a man." 

" It dislikes me." Othello, ii. 3. 49. 
So " it //! me," " meseems," " met/ims," &c. 

"Which likes me." Hen. V. iv. 3. 77. 

And therefore like is probably (not merely by derivation, but con 
sciously used as) impersonal in 

"So/z&you, sir." Cymb. ii. 3. 59. 
Want is probably not impersonal but intransitive, " is wanting," in 

" There wants no diligence in seeking him?"* Cymb.'\\.^.^fy. 
The singular verb is quite Shakespearian in 

"Though bride and bridegroom wants (are wanting) 

For to supply the places at the table." T. ofSh. iii. 2. 248. 
So in " Sufficeth my reasons are both good and weighty." Ib.'\. 1.252. 
" Siiffic'eth I am come to keep my word." Ib. iii. 2. 108. 

the comma after " sufficed! " is superfluous; "that I am come to 
keep my word sufficeth. " 

In ' ' And so betide to me 

As well I tender you and all of yours," Rich. III. ii. 4. 71. 

betide may be used impersonally. But perhaps so is loosely used 
as a demonstrative for " such fortune," in the same way in which as 
(280) assumes the force of a relative. If betide be treated as im 
personal, befal in "fair befal you " may be similarly treated, and in 
that case "fair "is an adverb. But see (5). The supposition that 
' ' betide " is impersonal and ' ' fair " an adverb is confirmed by " Well 
be (it) with you, gentlemen." Hamlet, ii. 2. 398. 

The impersonal needs (which must be distinguished from the 
adverbial genitive needs) often drops the s ; partly, perhaps, because 
of the constant use of the noun need. It is often found with "what," 
where it is sometimes hard to say whether "what" is an adverb and 
need a verb, or " what " an adjective and need a noun. 

" What need the bridge much broader than the flood ?" 

M. Ado, \. I. 318. 

either "why need the bridge (be) broader?" or "what nefdis there 
(that) the bridge (be) broader?" (Comp. " How chance" (37). 
* See 293. 
P 



210 SHAKESPEARIAN- GRAMMAR. 

Comp. the old use of " thinketh " (seemeth) : 
" Where it thinks best unto your royal self." Rich. III. iii. i. 63. 
The Folio has thinkst : and perhaps this is the true reading, there 
being a confusion between "it thinks" and "thinkest thou." Com 
pare "thinkst thee" in 
" Doth it not, thinkst thee, stand me now upon?" Hamlet, v. 2. 63. 

The impersonal and personal uses of think were often confused. 
Chapman (Walker) has " methink." S seems to have been added 
to assimilate the termination to that of " methinks " in " methoughtr " 
(W. T. \. 2. 154; Rich. III. i. 4. 9). 

It is not easy, perhaps not possible, to determine whether, in the 
phrase " so please your highness," please is used impersonally or 
not ; for on the one hand we find, " So please him come," 

(J. C. iii. I. 140) ; 
and on the other, 

"If they please." W. T. ii. 3. 142. 

"I do repent: but Heaven hath t>lcased\\. so." Ham. iii. 4. 173. 

VERBS, AUXILIARY. 

298. Be, Beest, &c., was used in A. -S. (beon) generally in a 
future sense. Hence, since the future and subjunctive are closely 
connected in meaning, be assumed an exclusively subjunctive use ; and 
this was so common, that we not merely find "if it be" (which 
might represent the proper inflected subjunctive of be), but also " if 
thou beest," where the indicative is used subjunctively. 

" If, after three days' space, thou here leest found." 

2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 295. 
" Beest thou sad or merry, 

The violence of either thee becomes." A. and C. i. 5- 59. 
And (Matzner, vol. i. p. 367), bee, beest, bee, pi. bee, is stated by 
Wallis to be the regular form of the subjunctive. Hence, from the 
mere force of association, be is often used (after though, if, and other 
words that often take the subjunctive) without having the full force 
of the subjunctive. Indeed any other verb placed in the same 
context would be used in the indicative. Thus : 

" Though T"age be a secure (careless) fool, and stands so firmly on 
his wife's frailty." .#/. IV. of IV. ii. I. 242. 
" If Hamlet from himself be ta'en away 
And, when he's not himself, does zwvw^'Laertes. " Ham. v. 2. 245 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 211 

" If he be a whoremonger and comes before him, 
He were as good go a mile on his errand." M. for M. iii. 2. 38. 

299. Be in questions and dependent sentences. 

So, as a rule, it will be found that be is used with some notion of 
doubt, question, thought, &c. ; for instance, (a) in questions, and 
(l>) after verb.s of thinking. 

(a) " e my horses ready V'Lear, i. 5. 36. 

" Be the players ready?" Hamlet, iii. 2. 111. 
This is especially frequent in questions of appeal : 

" Where be his quiddities ?" Hamlet, v. I. 107. 
" Where be thy brothers ?" A'/V/i. III. iv. 4. 92. 
" Where be the bending knees that flatter'd thee? 
Where be the thronging troops that follow'd thee?" 

Ib. iv. 4. 95-6. 
And in questions implying doubt, e.g. " where can they be ?" 

" Where be these bloody thieves?" Othello, v. I. 64. 
Partly, perhaps, by attraction to the previous be, partly owing tc 
the preceding where, though not used interrogatively, we have 

" Truths would be tales, 

Where now half- tales be truths." A. and C, ii. 2. 137. 
(l>) " I think it be, sir; I deny it not." C. of E. v. r. 379. 

" I think this Talbot be a fiend of hell." I Hen. VI. ii. I. 46. 
" I think he be transformed into a beast." A. V. L. ii. 7. 1. 
" I think it be no other but even so." Ila-mlet, i. I. 108. 
So i Hen. IV. ii. I. 12 ; T. G. of V. ii. 3. 6. 

Be expresses more doubt than is after a verb of thinking. In the 
following, the Prince thinks it certain that it is past midnight, the 
Sheriff thinks it may possibly be two o'clock : 

' ' Prince. I think it is good morrow, is it not ? 
Sheriff. Indeed, my lord, I think it be two o'clock." 

I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 573. 

Very significant is this difference in the speech of the doubtful 
Otlnllo 

" I think my wife be honest, and think she is not," 

Othello, iii. 3. 384. 

where the is is emphatic and the line contains the extra dramatic 
syllable. Be is similarly used by a jealous husband after " hope :" 
" Ford. Well, I hope it be not so." M. W. of W. ii. i. 113 
where the hope is mixed with a great deal of doubt. 
P 2 



2ia SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" I kissed it (the bracelet): 
I hope it be not gone to tell my lord 
That I kiss aught hut he," Cymb. ii. 3. 153. 

where, though the latter part is of course fanciful, there is a real 
fear that the bracelet may be lost. 

Also, in a dependent sentence like the following : 

" Prove true 
That I, dear brother, be now ta'en for you." T. N. iii. 4. 410. 

Be follows "when," as "where" above, especially where when 
alludes to a future possibility. 

" Haply a woman's voice may do some good 

When articles too nicely urged be stood on." Hen. f^v.2.93. 
In " Alas, our frailty is the cause, not we, 

For such as we are made, of such we be," T. N. ii. 2. 33. 

it can scarcely be asserted that "for" is "for that" or "because." 
It is more probable that the scene originally ended there, and that 
Shakespeare used be in order to get the rhyme, which so often termi 
nates a scene. 

300. Be is much more common with the plural than the singular. 
Probably only this fact, and euphony, can account for 

" When blood is nipp'd and ways be fouL" L. L. L, v. 2. 926. 

In "When he sees reason of fears, as we do, his fears out of 
doubt be of the same relish as ours," Hen. V. iv. I. IIS. 

the be may partly be explained as not stating an independent fact, 
but a future event, dependent on the clause "when," &c. Partly, 
perhaps, "out of doubt" is treated like "there is no doubt that," 
and be follows in a kind cf dependent clause. 

Be is also used to refer to a number of persons, considered not 
individually, but as a kind or class. 

"O, there be players that I have seen play, and heard others: 
praise, and that highly, that," &c. Hamlet, iii. 2. 32; ib. 44. 
" There be some sports are painful." Tempest, iii. I. 1. 

But it cannot be denied that the desire of euphony or variety 
seems sometimes the only reason for the use of be or are. 

' ' Where is thy husband now ? Where be thy brothers ? 
Where are thy children?" Rich. III. iv. 4. 92. 

301. Were. What has been said above of be applies to were, 
that it is often used as the subjunctive where any other verb would 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 213 

not be so used, and indeed where the subjunctive is unnecessary 
or wrong, after " if," "though," &c., and in dependent sentences. 

In early authors there seems to have been a tendency to use 
should for shall, and were for be after "that" in subordinate sen 
tences : " Go we fast that we were there." " Let us pray that he 
would." " My will is that it were so." In these sentences a wish 
is implied, and were, perhaps, indicates the desire that the wish 
should be fulfilled, not hereafter, but at once, as a thing of the past 

' ' I am a rogue, if I were not at half-sword with a dozen of them 
two hours together." I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 182. 

"If there were anything in thy pocket but tavern reckonings, 
I am a villain." I Hen. IV. iii. 3. 180. 

" What if we do omit 
This reprobate till he were well inclined ?" M. for M. iv. 3. 78. 

In some of these passages there may be traced, perhaps, a change 
of thought : "I am a rogue (that is, I should be), if it were true 
that I was not," &c. " What if we omit (what if we were to omit) 
chis reprobate till he were well inclined?" 

"Duchess. I pray thee, pretty York, who told thee this ? 
York. Grandam, his nurse. 

Duchess. His nurse ! Why, she was dead ere thou wert born. 
York. If 'twere not she, I cannot tell who told me." 

Rich. III. ii. 4. 34. 
"If ever Bassianus, Caesar's son, 
Were gracious in the eyes of royal Rome, 
Keep then this passage to the Capitol." T. A. i. I. 11. 

Comp. 2 Hen. IV. v. 2. 83 ; A. and C. i. 3. 41. 

"No marvel, then, though he were. ill-affected. " Lear, ii. I. 100. 
where the meaning is : "It is no wonder, then, that he was a traitor," 
and no doubt or future meaning is implied. 

Somewhat similar is an idiom common in good authors even 
now : " It is not strange that he should have succeeded," for the 
shorter and simpler, " It is not strange that he succeeded." 

"Lamachus, . . . whom they sent hither, though he were waxen 
now somewhat old." N. P. 172. 
So, but with a notion of concession, 

"And though (granting that) he were unsatisfied in getting, 
Which was a sin, yet in bestowing, madam, 
He was most princely." Hen. VIII. iv. 2. 65. 



214 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" If it were so it was a grievous fault." J. C. in. 2 34. 
So, beginning with certainty : 

" She that -was ever fair and never proud. " Olhello, ii. I. 149 
and ending with doubt : 

" She was a wight, if ever such wight were. " Ib. ii. I. 159. 
In dependent sentences even after "know," as well as " think :" 

" I would I had thy inches : thou shouldst knffiv 
There were a heart in Egypt." A. and C. \. 3. 41. 

" Which of your friends have I not strove to love, 
Although I kneiv he were mine enemy." Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 31. 

"Imagine 'twere the right Vincentio." T. of Sh. iv. 4. 12. 
" As who should say in Rome no justice were. " T. A. iv. 3. 20. 

' ' But that it eats our victuals, I should think 
Here were a fairy." Cymb. iii. 6. 42. 

" He will lie, sir, with such volubility that you would think truth 
were a fool." A. W. iv. 3. 285.* 

302. Were is used after " while" in 

"If they would yield us but the superfluity -while it were whole 
some." Coriol. i. I. 1 8. 

and, still more remarkably, after " until," referring to the past, in 

" It hath been taught us from the primal state .-; 
That he which is, was wish'd until he were. " 

A. and C. i. 4. 42. 

The following is contrary to our usage, though a natural 
attraction : 

" And they it were that ravished our sister." 7". A. v. 3. 99. 
for "it was they." See 425 at end. 

Can. See May, 37- 

303. Do, Did : original USe In Early as in modern English, 
the present and past indefinite of the indicative were generally repre 
sented by inflected forms, as " He comes, " " He came, " without the aid 
of do or did. Do was then used only in the sense of "to cause," 
" to make," &c. ; and in this sense was followed by an infinitive. 

* Tn this and many other instances the verb in the second clause may bo at- 
Uacted into the subjunctive by the subjunctive in the first clause. 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. H$ 

"They have done her understonde. " GOWER.* 
*'.*. " they have caused her to understand." 

Similarly it is used like the French "faire " or "laisser" with the 
ellipsis of the person who is " caused " to do the action, thus 

" Do stripen me and put me in a sakke, 
And in the nexte river do me drenche." 

CHAUCER, Marchantfs Tale, 10,074. 
i e, "cause (some one) to strip me to drench me." 

In the same way " let " is repeatedly used in Early English : 
" He let make Sir Kay seneschal of England." Morte d' "Arthur. 
where a later author might have written "he dit/make " 

Gradually the force of the infinitive inflection en was weakened 
and forgotten; thus "do stripen" became "do strip," and do was 
used without any notion of causation, t 

Sometimes do is reduplicated, as : 

' ' And thus he did do slen hem alle three. " CHAUCER, C. T. 7624. 
or used with " let," as in 

" He let the feste of his nativitee 
Ztowcrien." CHAUCER, C. T. 10,360. 

The verb was sometimes used transitively with an objective 
noun, as : 

" He fl'/i/thankingys." WICK.LIFFE, St. Matt. xv. 36. 
and so in Shakespeare in 

"Do me some charity." Lear, iii. 4. 61. 

" This fellow afo/the third (daughter) a blessing." 

Lear, i. 4. 115. 
" Do my good-morrow to them." Hen. V. iv. I. 26. 

" To do you salutation from his master." 

y. C. iv. 2. 5 ; Rich. III. v. 3. 210. 

"After the last enchantment you did here." T. N. iii. 1. 123. 
and in the words "to don," i.e. "put on," and "dout," i.e. 
" put out." 

But as a rule do had become a mere auxiliary, so that we even 
find it an auxiliary to itself, as in 

" Who does do you wrong?" T. N. v. I. 143. 



* Quoted from Richardson's Dictionary, 
t The q 



: question may arise why do was prelerred to let as an auxiliary verb. 
Probably the ambiguity of let, which meant both " suffer" and "hinder," waf 
an obstacle to its general use. 



216 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

304. Do, did. How used by Shakespeare? In St. Mutt. 
xv. 37, Wickliffe has "and alle eten;" Tyndal, c., "all dw 
eat." It is probable that one reason for inserting the did here was 
the similarity between the present and past of "eat," and the desire 
to avoid ambiguity. In the following verse, however, Wickliffe has 
"etun," Tyndal "ate," and the res!' ''did eat." This shows how 
variable was the use of did in the sixteenth century, and what slight 
causes determined its use or non-use. The following passage in 
connection with the above would seem to show that did was joined 
to eat to avoid ambiguity, and when it was not joined to other 
verbs : 

' ' And the Peloponnesians did eat it- up while the Byzantines 
<Jiat."N. P. 1 80. 

It can hardly be denied that in such lines as 

"It lifted up it (so Folio) head, and did address 
Itself to motion," Hamlet, i. 2. 216. 

the did is omitted in the first verb and inserted in the second simply 
for the sake of the metre. Did is commonly used in excited 
narrative : 

" Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan, 
And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets. " 

J. C. ii. 2. 23. 
"The sheeted dead 
Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets." 

Hamlet, i. I. 116. 

But in both the above passages the inflection in -ed is also used. 

305. Verbs: "Do" omitted before "Not." in Early 

English the tenses were represented by their inflections, and there 
was no need of the auxiliary "do." As the inflections were dis 
used, "do" came into use, and was frequently employed by Eliza 
bethan authors. They, however, did not always observe the modern 
rule of using the auxiliary whenever not precedes the verb. Thus 

" I not doubt." Temp. ii. I. 121. 

" Whereof the ewe not bites." Ib. v. I. 38. 

" It not belongs to you." 2 Hen. IV. iv. I. 98. 

" It not appears to me." Ib. 107. 

" Hear you bad writers and Though you not see." 

BEAUMONT on B. J. 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 217 

'On me whose all not equals Edward's moiety." 

Rich. III. i. 2. 259. 

" Neat Terence, witty Plautus, now not please." 

B. J. on Shakespeare. 
Less commonly in a subordinate sentence 

" I beseech you . . . that you not delay." Coriol. i. 6. 60. 
Later, a rule was adopted that either the verb, or the auxiliary part 
of it, must precede the negative: "I doubt not," or "I do not 
doubt." Perhaps this may be explained as follows. The old 
English negative was "ne. " It came before the verb, and was 
often supplemented by a negative adverb "nawicht," "nawt," 
"noht" (which arc all different forms of " no whit" or "naught"), 
coming after the verb. 

" His hors was good, but he ne was not gaie. " 

CHAUCER, C. T. 74. 

(Compare in French "ne . . . pas," in Latin, "non (nenu), "*'.*. "ne . . . 
unum.") In the fifteenth century (Matzner) this reduplication began 
to pass out of fashion. In Shakespeare's time it had been forgotten ; 
but, perhaps, we may trace its influence in the double negative 
"nor will not," &c., which is common in his works. 

" Vex not yourself, nor strive not with your breath." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 3. 

Possibly the idiom now under consideration is also a result of the 
Early English idiom. The not, which had ousted the old dual nega 
tive "ne" . . . "not," may have been thought entitled to a place 
either before or after the verb. Latin, moreover, would tend in the 
same direction. It must further be remembered that not is now less 
emphatic than it was, when it retained the meaning of "naught" or 
"no-whit." We can say, "I in-no-way trust you," or, perhaps, 
even " I no-whit trust you," but not is too unemphatic to allow us to 
say "I not trust you." Hence the "do" is now necessary to 
receive a part of the emphasis. 

Not is sometimes found in E. E. and A.-S. between the subject 
and the verb, especially in subordinate sentences where the not, 
"no-whit," is emphatic. 

306. Do, Did, omitted and inserted, in modern English 

prose there is now an established rule for the insertion and omission 
of do and did. They are inserted in negative and interrogative 
sentences, for the ouroose of including the "not" or the subject of 



2i8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

the interrogation between the two parts of the verb, so as to avoid 
ambiguity. Thus: "Do our subjects revolt?" "Do not forbid him." 
They are not inserted except for the purpose of unusual emphasis in 
indicative sentences such as "I remember." In Elizabethan English 
no such rule had yet been established, and we find 

"Revolt our subjects ? "Rich. II. iii. z. 100. 

" Forbid him not" Mark ix. 39. E. V. 
On the other hand 

"I do remember." T. N. iii. 3. 48. 

This licence of omission sometimes adds much to the beauty and 
vigour of expression. 

" Gives not the hawthorn-bush a sweeter shade ? " 

3 Hen. VL ii. 5. 42. 
is far more natural and vigorous than 

" Does not the hawthorn -bush give sweeter shade ?" 

307. Can, May, Might. May originally meant "to be able" 
(E. E. "mag;" A.-S. "magan;" German "mbgen"). A trace 
of this meaning exists in the noun "might," which still means 
"ability." Thus we find 

" I am so hungry that I may (can) not slepe. " 

CHAUCER, Monkeys Tale, 14,744. 
" Now help me, lady, sith ye may and can. " 

KnightJs Tale, 2,314. 

In the last passage may means "can," and "ye can" means "ye 
have knowledge or skill." This, the original meaning of "can," is 
found, though very rarely, in Shakespeare : 

"I've seen myself and served against the French, 
And they can well on horseback. " Hamlet, iv. 7. 86. 

Le. " they are well skilled." 

" And the priest in surplice white 
That defunctive music can." Phcemx and Turtle, 14. 

And perhaps in 

" The sum of all I can, I have disclosed ; 
Why or for what these nobles were committed 
Is all unknown to me, my gracious lady. " 

Rich. III. ii. 4. Id 
" The strong'st suggestion 
Our worset geuiusfaw." Tempest, iv I 27. 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 2lg 

A trace of this emphatic use of can is found in 

"What can man's wisdom 

In the restoring his bereaved sense?" Lear, iv. 4. 8. 
But, as " can " (which even in A.-S. meant " I know how to" and 
therefore "I am able") gradually began to encroach on may, and to 
assume the meaning "to be able," may was compelled to migrate 
from " ability " to " possibility " and " lawfulness." Thus " mb'gen" 
signifies moral, "kb'nnen" physical, possibility. In the following 
passage : 

"From hence it comes that this babe's bloody hand 

May not be cleansed with water of this well," F. Q. ii. lo. 
it is not easy at once to determine whether May means "can" or 
"is destined," "must," "ought." Hence we are prepared for the 
transition which is illustrated thus by Bacon :* 

' ' For what he may do is of two kinds, what he may do as just 
and what he may do zs possible." 

308. May in " I may come " is therefore ambiguous, since it 
may signify either "lawfulness," as in "I may come if I like," or 
" possibility," as in "I may come, but don't wait for me." In the 
latter sentence the "possibility" is transposed so as to include the 
whole sentence "it is possible that I may come," just as 

" He needs not our mistrust," Macb. iii. 3. 2. 
means "it is not necessary that we should mistrust him." 

309. May is used with various shades of the meaning of "per 
mission," "possibility," &c. : 

" He shall know you better, sir, if I may live to report you. " 

M. for M. iii. 2. 172. 
i.e. " if I ZXA permitted by heaven to live long enough." 

It is a modest way of stating what ought to be well known, in 

" If you may please to think I love the king." W. T. iv. 4. 532. 

" A score of ewes may be worth ten pounds." 2 Hen. IV. iii. 2.57. 
i.e. "is possibly worth ten pounds." "May be" is often thus used 
almost adverbially for possibly. 

In ' ' Season your admiration for awhile 

Till I may deliver," Hamlet, i. 2. 19->. 

may means " can," " have time to." 

" May (can) it be possible ?" Hen. V. ii. 2. 100. 
" Quoted from Todd's " Johnson.'' 



220 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

310. May With a Negative. Thus far Elizabethan and 
modern English agree ; but when a negative is introduced, a diver 
gence appears. 

In " I may not-come " may would with us mean "possibility," and 
the "not " would be connected with " come " instead of may ; " my 
not-coming is a possibility." On the other hand, the Elizabethans 
frequently connect the "not" with may,* and thus with them "I 
may-not come" might mean "I can-not or must-not come." Thus 
may is parallel to " must " in the following passage : 

"Yet I must not, 

For certain friends that are both his and mine, 
Whose loves I may not drop." Macb. iii. I. 122. 

Probably this disuse of may in "may not" (in the sense of 
"must not") may be explained by the fact that "may not" 
implies compulsion, and may has therefore been supplanted in this 
sense by the more compulsory " must." 

311. May used for the old subjunctive in the sense of 
purpose. 

If we compare Wickliffe's with the sixteenth-century Versions 
of the New Testament, it appears that, in the interval, the sub 
junctive had lost much of its force, and consequently the use of 
auxiliary verbs to supply the place of the subjunctive had largely 
increased. 

In I Cor. iv. 8, Wickliffe has, " And I wold that ye regne, 
that also we regnen with you," where the later Versions, "And 
I would to God that ye did reign, that we also might reign." So 
also Col. i. 28: "Techynge eche man in al wisdom; that we 
offre eche man perfight," where the rest have "that we may offer'' 
or " to offer." So ib. 2$, " that \fille the word of God" for " that I 
may fulfil." But may is found very early used with its modal force 

The subjunctive of purpose is found in 

" Go bid thy mistress . . . she strike upon the bell." Macb. ii. I. 31. 
" Sir, give me this water that I thirst not" St. John iv. 15. 
*' He wills you, in the name of God Almighty, 
That you divest yourself." Hen. V. ii. 4. 78. 
But it was not easy to distinguish the subjunctive representing an 

* So in ante-Elizabethan English, and in Spenser, we find " nill," "not," for 
"will not," "wot not," " nam " for " am not," &C. "Cannot" is also a trace 
of the close connection between the verb and the accompanying negative. 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 221 

object, from the indicative representing a fact, since both were used 
after " that," and there was nothing but their inflections (which 
are similar in the plural) to distinguish the two. The following is 
an instance of the indicative following " that :" 

"But freshly looks and over-bears attaint 
With cheerful semblance and sweet majesty, 
That every wretch pining and pale before, 
Beholding him, plucks comfort from his looks." 

licit. V. iv. Prologue, 39. 

Hence arose the necessity, as the subjunctive inflections lost their 
force, of inserting some word denoting "possibility" or "futurity" 
to mark the subjunctive of purpose. " Will " is apparently used in 
this sense as follows : 

' ' Therefore in fierce tempest is he coming, 
In thunder and in earthquake like a Jove, 
That, if requiring fail, he mill compel." Hen. V. ii. 4. 101. 

But, as a rule, may was used for the present subjunctive and might 
for the past, according to present usage. "That" is omitted in 
" Direct mine arms I may embrace his neck." I Hen. VI. ii. 5. 37. 
i.e. "that I may embrace." 

In " Lord marshal, command our officers at arms 

Be ready to direct these home alarms," Rich. II. i. I. 204-5. 

it is doubtful whether "be" is the subjunctive or the infinitive with 
"to" omitted (349). I prefer the former hypothesis, supplying 
"that "after "command." Compare 

" Some one take order Buckingham be brought 
To Salisbury." Rich. III. iv. 4. 539. 

So "that" is omitted before "shall :" 

" The queen hath heartily consented he shall espouse Elizabeth." 

Rich. III. iv. 5. 18. 

312. Might, the past tense of may, was originally used in the 
sense of "was able " or " could." 

" He was of grete elde and might not travaile." R. BRUNNE. 
So "That moughtViQt be distinguish'd." 3 Hen. VI. v. 2. 45. 

" So loving to my mother, 
That he might not beteem the winds of heaven 
Visit her face too roughly." Hamlet, i. 2. 141. 

ie. "cou/dnot bring himself to allow the winds," &c. 



M2 SHAKESPEAKfAN GRAMMAR. 

ft answers to " can" in the following : 

" Aug. Look, what I will not that I cannot do. 
Isab. But might you do't, and do the world no wrong ? " 

M. for M. ii. 2. 52 
' Might you not know she would do as she has done ?" 

A. W. iii. 4. 2. 
i.e. " Could you not know." 

" I might not this believe 
Without the sensible and true avouch 
Of mine own eyes." Hamlet, i. I. 56. 

" But I might see young Cupid's fiery shaft quench'd in the chaste 
beams of the wat'ry moon." M. N. D. ii. i. 161. 

" In that day's feats, 

When he might act the woman in the scene, 
He proved best man i' the field." Coriol, ii. 2. 100. 

i.e. "when he was young enough to be able to play the part of n 
woman on the stage." 

Might naturally followed may through the above-mentioned 
changes. Care must be taken to distinguish between the indicative 
and the conditional use of might. "How might that be?" (indica 
tive) would mean "How was it possible for that to take place?" 
On the other hand, " How might that be ?" (subjunctive) would mean 
" How would it be possible hereafter that this should take place? " 
The same ambiguity still attends "could." Thus "How could 
I thus forget myself yesterday !" but " How could I atone to-morrow 
for my forgetfulness yesterday ? " 

313. May, Might, like other verbs in Elizabethan English, are 
frequently used optatively. We still use may thus, as in "May he 
prosper ! " but seldom or never might. But it is clear that 

' ' Would I might 
But ever see that man," Temp. i. 2. 168. 

naturally passes into " Might I but see that man," Thus we have 
" Lord worshipped might he be." M. of V. ii. 2. 98. 

314. Must (E. E. moste) is the past tense of the E. E. present 
tense mot, which means "he is able," "he is obliged." From 
meaning "he had power to do it," or "might have done it," the 
word came to mean "ought, "and it is by us generally used with 
a notion of compulsion. But it is sometimes used by Shakespeare to 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 223 

mean no more than definite futurity, 'ike our "is to" in "Me 
is to be here to-morrow. " 

" He must fight singly to-morrow with Hector, and is so pro 
phetically proud of an heroical cudgelling that he raves in saying 
nothing/' Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 247. 

So, or nearly so, probably in 

' ' Descend, for you must be my sword-bearer. " 

M.ofV. ii..6. 40. 

And somewhat similar, without the notion of compulsion, is the use 
in M. of V. iv. i. 182 ; M. N. D. ii. I. 72. 
It seems to mean " is, or was, destined " in 

"And I tmtst be from thence." Macbeth, iv. 3. 212. 

So "A life which must not yield 

To one of woman born." Ib, v. 8. 12. 

315. Shall. Shall for will. Shall meaning "to owe" is con 
nected with "ought," "must,"* "it is destined." 

Thus, 

' ' If then we shall shake off our slavish yoke, 
Imp out our drooping country's broken wing, 
Away with me." Rich. II. ii. 2. 291. 

i.e. " if we are to, ought to." 

"Fair Jessica shall be my torch-bearer." M. of V. ii. 4. 40. 
i.e. "is to be." 

Hence shall was used by the Elizabethan authors with all three 
persons to denote inevitable futurity without reference to "will" 
(desire). 

"If much you note him, 
You shall offend him and extend his passion." Macb, iii. 4. 57. 

i.e. " you are sure to offend him." 

So probably, 

"Nay, it will please him well, Kate, it shall(\s sure to) please him." 

Hen. V. v. 2. 269. 
" My country 
Shall have more vices than it had before."- Macb. iv. 3. 47. 

" And, if I die, no man shall pity me." Rich. III. v. 3. 20L 
ie. "it is certain that no man will pity me." 
* " Thou shall not," &c 



22 4 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

There is no notion of compulsion on the part of the person 
speaking in 

" They shall (are sure to) be apprehended by and by." 

Hen. V. ii. 2. 2 
" If they do this (conquer), 
As, if please God, they shall (are destined to do). " 

Hen. V. iv. 3. 120. 
The notion of necessity, must, seems to be conveyed in 

" He that parts us shall bring a brand from heaven, 
And fire us hence like foxes." Lear, v. 3. 22. 

In " He shall wear his crown," J. C. i. 3. 87. 
shall means " is to. " So in 

" Your grace shall understand." M. of V. iv. I. 149. 

" What is he that shall (is to) buy ? " A. Y. L. ii. 4. 88. 

" Men shall deal unadvisedly sometimes." 

Rich. ///. iv. 4. 292. 

i.e. "men cannot help making mistakes." 

" He that escapes me without some broken limb shall (must, will 
have to), acquit him well." A. Y. L. i. I. 134. 

" K. Desire them all to my pavilion. 
Glost. We shall, my lord." Hen. V. iv. I. 27. 

In the last passage, "I shall" has a trace of its old meaning, " I 
ought:" or perhaps there is a mixture of " I am bound to" and 
" I am sure to." Hence it is often used in the replies of inferiors to 
superiors. 

" King Henry. Collect them all together at my tent : 
I'll be before thee. 

Erpingham. I shall do't, my lord." Hen. V. iv. I. 305. 
"Fear not, my lord, your servant shall do so." 

M. N. D. ii. i. 263. 

So A. W. v. 3. 27 ; A. and C. iii. 12. 36, iv. 6. 3, v. I. 3 ; 
Hen. V. iv. 3. 126 ; M. for M. iv. 4. 21 ; A. and C. v. I. 68. 

" You shall see, find," &c. , was especially common in the mean 
ing "you may," "you will," applied to that which is of common 
occurrence, or so evident that it cannot but be seen. 

" You shall mark 

Many a duteous and knee-crooking slave, 
That, doting on his own obsequious bondage, 
Wears out his time. Whip me such honest knaves." 

Othello, i. i. 440. 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 225 

Shall is sometimes colloquially or provincially abbreviated into 
te, s: 

" Thou'* hear our counsel. "R. and J. i. 3. 9. 
" Vse try." Lear, iv. 6. 246. (See 461.) 

316. Will. YOU Will. He will. Later, a reluctance to apply 
a word meaning necessity and implying compulsion* to a person 
addressed (second person), or spoken of (third person), caused post- 
Elizabethan writers to substitute will for shall with respect to the 
second and third persons, even where no will at all, i.e. no purpose, 
is expressed, but only futurity. Thus will has to do duty both as 
will proper, implying purpose, and also as will improper, implying 
merely futurity. Owing to this unfortunate imposition of double 
work upon will, it is sometimes impossible to determine, except 
from emphasis or from the context, whether will signifies purpose 
or mere futurity. Thus ( I ) " He will come, I cannot prevent 
him," means " He wills (or is determined) to come ;" but (2) " He 
will come, though unwillingly," means " His coming is certain." 

Will is seldom used without another verb : 

" I will no reconcilement." Hamlet, v. 2. 258. 
So in "I will none of it." (See 321.) 

317. Shall. YOU Shall. He Shall. On the other hand shall, 
being deprived by will of its meaning of futurity, gradually took up 
the meaning of compulsory necessity imposed by the first person on 
the second or third. Thus: "You shall not go," or even "You 
shall find I am truly grateful." (Not "you will find," but "1 
will so act that you shall perforce find," &c.) 

The prophetic shall ( " it shall come to pass ") which is so common 
in the Authorized Version of the Bible, probably conveyed to the ori 
ginal translators little or nothing more than the meaning of futurity. 
But now with us the prophetic shall implies that the prophet iden 
tifies himself with the necessity which he enunciates. Thus the 
Druid prophesying the fall of Rome to Boadicea says 

"Rome shall perish." COWPER. 

* Coriol. iii. i. 90, "Mark you his absolute 'shall.'" A similar feeling sug 
gested the different methods of expressing an imperative in Latin and Greek 
and the substitution of the optative with UP for the future in Greek. 



* 2 6 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

318. Shall. I shall. When a person speaks of his own future 
actions as inevitable, he often regards them as inevitable only 
because fixed by himself. Hence " I shall not forgive you " means 
simply, "/ have fixed not to forgive you;" but "I shall be 
drowned," "My drowning is fixed." (866315.) 

319. Will. "I will." Some passages which are quoted to prove 
that Shakespeare used will with the first person without implying 
wish, desire, &c., do not warrant such an inference. 

In Hamlet, v. 2. 183, "I will win for him, if I can ; if not, I will 
gain nothing but my shame and the odd hits," the will is probably 
used by attraction with a jesting reference to the previous "will :" 
" My purpose is to win if I can, or, if not, to gain shame and the 
odd hits." 

" There is no hope that ever I will stay 
If the first hour I shrink and ran away." I Hen. VI. iv. 5. 30. 

t.e. " There is no hope of my ever being willing to stay." 

"IV/ do well yet." Coriol. iv. i. 21. 
i.e. " I intend to do well yet." 

" I will not reason what is meant hereby, 
Because I will (desire to) be guiltless of the meaning." 

Rich. III. i. 4. 96. 

In "I will sooner have a beard grow in the palm of my hand 
than he shall get one on his cheek," 2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 23. 

there is a slight meaning of purpose, as though it were, ' ' I will 
sooner make a beard grow," derived from the similarity in sound 
of the common phrase " I will sooner die, starve, than, &c." 

In " Good argument, I hope, we will not fly," Hen. V. iv. 3. 113. 
the meaning appears to.be "good argument, I hope, that we have 
no intention of flying." 

There is a difficulty in the expression " perchance I will; " but, 
from its constant recurrence, it would seem to be a regular idiom. 
Compare the following passages : 

"Perchance, lago, I will ne'er go home." Othello, v. 2. 197. 

"Perchance I w///be there as soon as you." C. of E. iv. I. 39. 

"Perhaps I will return immediately." M. of V. ii. 5. 52. 
In all these passages " perchance" precedes, and the meaning seems 
to be in the last example, for instance : " My purpose may, perhaps, 
be fulfilled," and " my purpose is to return immediately," or, iij 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 227 

other woids, " If possible, I intend to return immediately. " in 
all those cases, the "perhaps" stands by itself. It does not qualify 
"will," but the whole of the following sentence. 

In "I -will live to be thankful to thee for't," T. N. iv. 2. 88. 
the will refers, not to live, but to "live-to-be-thankful," and the 
sentence means "I purpose in my future life to prove my thank 
fulness." 

320. Will is sometimes used with the second person (like the 
Greek optative with &v) to signify an imperative. It is somewhat 
ironical, like our "You ivill be kind enough to be quiet." Perhaps 
originally an ellipsis, as in Greek, was consciously understood, 
"You will be quiet (if you are wise)," &c. 

" You'// leave your noise anon, ye rascals." Hen. VIII. v. 4. 1. 

In " Gloucester, thou wilt answer this before the pope," 

I Hen. VI. i. 3. 62. 
there is no imperative, but there is irony. 

On the other hand, "you will" perhaps, means " you are willing 
and prepared" in : 

" Portia. You know I say nothing to him : he hath neither Latin, 
French, nor Italian, and you will come into court and swear that 
I have a poor pennyworth in the English." M. of V. i. 2. 75. 

321. Will, with the third person. Difficult passages. 
The following is a perplexing passage : 

"If it will -not be (i.e. if you will not leave me) I'll leave you." 
M. Ado, ii. I. 208 (comp. Hen. VIII. v. I. 149-50). 

Here the meaning seems to be " if it is not to be otherwise," and 
in Elizabethan English we might expect shall. But probably "it" 
represents fate, and, as in the phrase, "come what will" the future 
is personified : " If fate will not be as I would have it." And this 
explains 

" What shall become of (as the result of) this? What will this 
do?" M. Ado, iv. i. 211. 

The indefinite unknown consequence is not personified, the 
definite project is personified. " What is destined to result from this 
project ? What does this project intend to do for us ?" 

" My eye will scarcely see it," Hen. V. ii. 2. 104. 
means " can scarcely be induced to see it." 
Q 2 



a.?8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" He will" means "he will have it that," "he pretends," in 

" This is a riddling merchant for the nonce ; 
He will be here, and yet he is not here." i Hen. VL ii. 3. 58. 

In " She'// none of me," T. N. \. 3. 113. 

"will" means "desires," "none" "nothing," and "of" "as 
regards" (173), "to do with." 

322. Should. Should is the past tense of shall) and underwent 
the same modifications of meaning as shall. Hence should is not 
now used with the second person to denote mere futurity, since it 
suggests a notion, if not of compulsion, at least of bounden duty. 
But in a conditional phrase, "If you should refuse," there can 
be no suspicion of compulsion. We therefore retain this use of 
should in the conditional clause, but use -would in the consequent 
clause : 

" If you should refuse, you would do wrong." 
On the other hand, Shakespeare used should in botli clauses : 

" You should refuse to perform your father's will if you should 
refuse to accept him." M. of V. i. 2. 100. 

And should is frequently thus used to denote contingent futurity. 

" They told me here, at dead time of the night, 
Ten thousand swelling toads, as many urchins.. 
Would make such fearful and confused cries, 
As any mortal body hearing it 
Should straight fall mad." 7'. A. ii. 3. 102, 104, 

"Would" = "were in the habit." Comp. e$i\ovr. 

" (In that case) Strength should be lord of imbecility, 
And the rude son should strike the father dead ; 
Force should \& right." Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 114. 

323. Should for ought. Should, the past tense, not being so 
imperious as shall, the present, is still retained in the sense of ought, 
applying to all three persons. In the Elizabethan authors, however, 
it was more commonly thus used, often where we should use ought: 

" You should be women ; 
And yet your beards forbid me to interpret 
That you are so. " Macbeth, i. 3. 45. 
" So should \& look that seems to speak things strange." 

Ib. i. 2 46. 

' ' I should report that which I say I saw, 
JJu.' know not how to do it." Ib. v. 5. 31. 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 22J 

" Why 'tis an office of discovery, love, 
And I should be obscured." M..of V. ii. 6. 44. 

. A " A torch-bearer's office reveals (439) the face, and mint ought to 
be hidden." 

324. Should is sometimes used as though it were the past tense 
of a verb " shall," meaning " is to," not quite "ought." Compare 
the German "sollen." 

" About his son that should (was to) have married a shepherd's 
daughter." J-P: T. iv. 4. 795. 

" The Senate heard them and received them curteously, and the 
people the next day should (were to) assemble in counsell to give 
them audience. " N. P. Aldbiades, 170. 

In the following, should is half-way between the meaning of 
"ought" and "was to." The present, shall, or "am to," might 
be expected ; but there is perhaps an implied past tense, ''I (you 
said) -was to knock you. " 

" Petruchio. And rap me well, or I'll knock your knave's pate. 

Grumio. My master is grown quarrelsome : I should knpck you, 
And then I know aftor who comes by the worse." 

T. ofSh. i. I. 131. 

325. Should was hence used in direct questions about the past, 
where shall was used about the future. Thus, "How shall the 
enemy break in?" i.e. "How is the enemy to break in?" became, 
when referred to the past, "How should, i.e. was to?" 

" I was employ'd in passing to and fro 
About relieving of the sentinels. 
Then how or which way should they first break in ?" 

I Hen. VI. ii. I. 71. 

" What should this mean ~l"Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 160. 
i.e. " what was this (destined, likely) to mean?" It seems to In 
crease the emphasis of the interrogation, since a doubt about the 
past (time having been given for investigation) implies more per 
plexity than a doubt about the future. So we still say, "Who could 
it be?" " How old might you be ?" 

" What should 'be in that Caesar?" J. C. i. 2. 142. 
>,.e. " what could there be," "what might there be." "Shall," "may, 1 ' 
and the modern " can," are closely connected in meaning. 

" Where should 'he have this gold?" T. of A. iv. 3. 8i>& 



230 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

In the following instance, should depends upon a verb in the 
present ; but the verb follows the dependent clause, which may, 
therefore, be regarded as practically an independent question. 

" What it should be ... I cannot dream of." Hamlet, ii. 2. 7. 
But also 

" Put not yourself into amazement how should these things be." 

M.forM. iv. 2. 220. 

326. Should was used in a subordinate sentence after a simple 
past tense, where shall was used in the subordinate sentence 
after a simple present, a complete present, or a future. Hence 
we may expect to find should more common in Elizabethan 
writers than with us, in proportion as shall was also more common. 
We say "I will wait till he comes," and very often, also, " I in 
tended to wait till he came." The Elizabethans more correctly, " I 
will wait till he j/foz//come ;" and therefore, also, "I intended to 
wait till he should come." Thus, since it was possible to say " I 
ask that I shall slay him," Wicklifie could write "They axeden of 
Pilate that thei schulden sle hym " (Acts xiii. 28) ; " They aspiden 
hym that thei schulden fynde cause " (Luke vi. 7). In both cases 
we should now say "might." 

So " She replied, 

It should 'be better he became her guest." A. and C. ii. 2. 226. 

" Thou knew'st too well 

My heart was to thy rudder tied by the strings, 
And thou shouldst tow me after." Ib. iii. ii. 58. 

The verb need not be expressed, as in 

" A lioness lay crouching . . . with cat-like watch, 
When that the sleeping man jvfow/*/ stir." A. Y. L. iv. 2. 117. 

" She has a poison which shall kill you," becomes 

" She did confess she had 
For you a mortal mineral, which being took 
Should by the minute feed on life." Cymb. v. 5. 51. 

This perhaps explains 

" Why, 'tis well known that whiles I was protector, 
Pity was all the fault that was in me, 
For I should melt at an offender's tears, 
And lowly words were ransom for their fault" 

2 Hen. VI. iii. i. 126. 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 231 

" All my fault is that I shall melt (am sure to melt)," would be 
come " all my fault was that I should melt ;" " for" meaning " for 
that " or " because. " 

" And (Fol.) if an angel should have come to me, 
And told me Hubert should put out mine eyes, 
I would not have believed him." K. J. iv. I. 68-70. 

Here, since the Elizabethans could say "Hubert shall" they can 
also say " he told me Hubert should." 

So since the Elizabethans could say " To think that deceit shall 
steal such gentle shapes," they could also say, regarding the subor- 
dinate clause as referring to the past, 

" Oh, that deceit should steal such gentle shapes!" 

Rich. III. ii. 2. 27. 

" Good God, (to think that) these nobles should such stomachs 
bear!" r Hen. VI. i. 3. 90. 

327. " Should have " with the second and third persons. 

The use of "should have " with the second and third persons is to be 
noted. It there refers to the past, and the should simply gives a 
conditional force to "have." It is incongruous to use should in con 
nection with the past, and hence we now say " If an angel had come" 
in this sense. When we use " should have," it refers to a question 
about the past which is to be answered in the future. "If he should 
have forgotten the key, how should we get out," i.e "if, when he 
comes, it should turn out that he had forgotten." Compare, on the 
other hand, the Shakespearian usage. 

" Gods, if you 

Should have ta'en vengeance on my faults, I never 
Had lived to put on this." Cymb. v. I. 8. 

In M. Ado, ii. 3. 81, the " should have " is inserted, not in the 
conditional clause, but in a dependent relative clause. " If it had 
been a dog that should have howled thus, they would have killed 
him." 

328. " Should," denoting a statement not made by the 

speaker. (Compare "sollen" in German.) There is no other 
reason for the use of should in j 

" But didst thou hear without wondering how thy name should be 
so hanged and carved about these t'-ees." A. Y. L. iii. 2. 182. 



232 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Should seems to indicate a false story in George Fox's Journal : 
" From this man's words was a slander raised upon us that the 
Quakers should deny Christ," p. 43 (Edition 1765). "The priest 
of that church raised many wicked slanders upon me : ' That I rode 
upon a great black horse, and that I should give a fellow money to 
follow me when I was on my black horse. ' " 

" Why should you think that I should woo in scorn? " 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 122. 

329. Would for will, wish, require. Would, like should, 

could, ought, (Latin* "potui," "debui,") is frequently used con 
ditionally. Hence "I would be great" comes to mean, not "I 
wished to be great," but "I wished (subjunctive)," *>. "I should 
wish." There is, however, very little difference between "thou 
wouldest wish" and "thou wishest," as is seen in the following 
passage : 

" Thou wouldst (wishest to) be great, 
Art not without ambition, but without 
The illness should (that ought to) attend it : what thou 

wouldst highly 

That thou wouldst holily, wouldst not play false, 
And yet wouldst wrongly win." Macbeth, i. 5- 20. 

As will is used for "will have it," "pretends," so would means 
"pretended," " wished to prove." 

"She that would \>e your wife." C. of E. iv. 4. 152. 
i.e. " She that wished to make out that she was your wife." 
So " One that would circumvent God. " Hamlet, v. I. 87. 
Applied to kianimate objects, a " wish " becomes a " requirement :" 

"I have brought 

Golden opinions from all sorts of people, 
Which would (require to) be worn now in their newest gioss. " 

Macbeth, i. 7. 32. 
"Words 
Which would (require to) be howled out in the desert air." 

Ib. iv. 3. 194. 

" And so he goes to heaven, 

And so am I revenged. That would (requires to) be scann'd. " 

Hamlet, iil 3. 75. 

" This would (requires to) be done with a demure abasing o/ 
your cya sometimes." B. E. 92. 

Madvig, 348. . 



VERBS, AUXILIARY. 233 

It is a natural and common mistake to say, " Would is used for 
should, by Elizabethan writers." 

Would is not often used for " desire " with a noun as its object : 
" If, duke of Burgundy, you would the peace." 

Hen. V. v. 2. 68. 

330. Would often means "liked," " was accustomed. " Com 
pare etf>t\fi. 

" A little quiver fellow, and a' would manage his piece thus : 
and a' ivould about and about, and come you in and come you out ; 
rah-tah-tah would a' say, bounce -would a' say : and away again 
would ti go, and again would a' come." 2 Hern IV. Hi. 2. 200. 

"It (conscience) -was wont to hold me only while one would tell 
twenty." Rich. III. i. 4. 122. 

" But still the house affairs would draw her hence." 

Othello, i. 3. 147. 

So, though more rarely, will is used for "is accustomed." 

" Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments 

mine ears." Tempest, iii. 2. 147. 



331. " Would " not Used for " Should." Would seems on a 
superficial view to be used for should, in 

"You amaze me; I would have thought her spirit had been 
invincible against all assaults of affection." M. Ado, ii. 3. 119. 

But it is explained by the following reply : "I would have sworn it 
had," i.e. " I was ready and willing to swear." So, " I was willing 
and prepared to think her spirit invincible. " 

So in " What power is in Agrippa, 

If I would say, ' Agrippa, be it so, ' 
To make this good?" A. and C. ii. 2. 144. 

'If I would say" means "If I wished, were disposed, to say." 

" Alas, and would you take the letter of her ?" A. W. iii. 4. 1. 
i.e. " Were you willing," " Could you bring yourself to." 

To take would for should woiJd take from the sense of the 
following passage : 

" For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane 
If I would time expend with such a snipe, 
But for my sport and profit." Othello, i. 3. 390, 

i.e. "If I were willing to expend." 



234 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Would probably means " wish to " or " should like to," in 

" You could, for a need, study a speech which I would set down 
and insert in't, could you not ?" Hamlet, ii. 2. 567. 

In "Prince. What wouldest thou think of me, if I should weep? 
Poins. I -would think thee a most princely hypocrite. " 

2 Hen. IV. ii. 2. 59. 

the second would is attracted to the first, and there is also a 
notion of determination, and voluntary ' ' making up one's mind " in 
the reply of Poins. 

So "be triumphant" is equivalent to "triumph," in which willing 
ness is expressed, in 

" Think you, but that I know our state secure, 
I would be so triumphant as I am?" Rich. III. iii. 2. 84. 

i.e. " think you I would triumoh as I do ? " 

In " I would be sorry, sir, but the fool should be as oft with your 
master as with my mistress," T. N. m. I. 44. 

it must be confessed there seems little reason for would. Inasmuch, 
however, as the fool is speaking of something that depends upon 
himself, i.e. his presence at the Count's court, it may perhaps be 
explained as "I would not willingly do anything to prevent," &c., 
just as we can say ' ' I would be loth to offend him, " in confusion 
between " I should be loth to offend him " and " I would not 
willingly, or I would rather not, offend him. " 

In " And how unwillingly I left the ring, 

When nought would be accepted but the ring," 

M. of V. v. I. 197. 

there seems, as in our modern " nothing would content him but," 
some confusion between "he would accept nothing" and "nothing 
could make itself acceptable. " 

VERBS, INFLECTIONS OF. 
332. Verbs : Indicative Present, old forms of the Third 

Person Plural. There were three forms of the plural in Early 
English the Northern in es, the Midland in en, the Southern in eth : 
" they hop-cr," "they hop-<?," "they hop-etA." The two former 
forms (the last in the verbs "doth," " hath," and possibly in others) 
are found in Shakespeare. Sometimes they are used for the sake 
of the rhyme ; sometimes that explanation is insufficient : 



VERBS, INFLECTIONS OF. 235 

En. "Where, when men be-en, there's seldom ease." 

Pericles, ii. Cower, 28. 
" O friar, these are faults that are not seen, 

Ours open and of worst example be-en. " B. J. S Sh. i. 2. 
' ' All perish^/ of men of pelf, 

Ne aught escape but himself. " Pericles, ii. Gower, 36. 
" As fresh as bin the flowers in May." PEELE. 
" Words fearen (terrify) babes." SPENS. F. Q. 
" And then the whole quire hold their hips and laugh, 
And waxen in their mirth." M. N. D. ii. I. 56. 

This form is rarely used by Shakespeare, and only archaically. 
As an archaic form it is selected for constant use by Spenser. 

333. Third person plural in -S. This form is extremely 
common in the Folio. It is generally altered by modern editors, so 
that its commonness has not been duly recognized. Fortunately, 
there are some passages where the rhyme or metre has made altera 
tion impossible. In some cases the subject-noun may be con 
sidered as singular in thoug ht, e.g. " manners, " &c. In other cases 
the quasi-singular verb precedes the plural object ; and again, in 
others the verb has for its nominative two singular nouns or an 
antecedent to a plural noun (see 247). But though such instances 
are not of equal value with an instance like "his tears runs down," 
yet they indicate a general predilection for the inflection in -s which 
may well have arisen from the northern E. E. third person plural 
in -s. 

"The venom clamours of a jealous woman 
Poisons more deadly than a mad dog's tooth. " 

C. ofE. v. i. 69. 

" The great man down, you mark his favourites flies, 
The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 214-5. 

Here the Globe reads "favourite;" completely missing, as it seems 
to me, the intention to describe the crowd of favourites scattering in 
flight from the fallen patron. 

"The extreme parts of time extremely forms 

All causes to the purpose of his will. L. L. L. v. 2. 750. 
" Manners " is, perhaps, used as a singuk. in 

"What manners is in this?" R. and J. v. 3. 214. 
"Which very manners urges." Lear, v. 3. 234. 
So " Whose church-like humours fits not for a crown." 

2 Hen. VI. i. i 247. 



236 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Riches" may, perhaps, be considered a singular noun (as it is by 
derivation, " richesse ") hi 

" The riches of the ship is come ashore." Othello, ii. i. 83. 
But not 

" My old bones aches" (Globe, ache}. Tempest, iii. 2. 2. 

" His tears runs down his beard like winter-drops" (Globe, run). 

Ib. v. I. 16. 
" We poor unfledg'd 

Have never wing'd from view o' the nest, nor knows not 
What air's from home" (Globe, know). Cymb. iii. 3. 27. 

" And worthier than himself 
Here tends (Globe and Quarto, lend) the savage strangeness he 

puts on, 
Disguise the holy strength of their command," &c. 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 135. 
" These naughty times 
Puts (Globe, put) bars between the owners and their rights." 

M.ofV. iii. 2. 19. 

" These high wild hills and rough uneven ways 
Draws out our miles, and makes them wearisome." 

Rich. II. ii. 3. 5. 
" Not for all the sun sees, or 
The close earth wombs, or the profound seas hides."" 

(Globe, sea.)W. T. iv. 4. 501. 
" The imperious seas breed's monsters" (Globe, breed). 

Cymb. iv. 2. 35. 

" Untimely storms makes men expect a dearth " (Globe, make). 

Rich. III. ii. 3. 33. 

Numbers, perhaps, sometimes stand on a different footing : 

"Eight yards of uneven ground is three score and ten miles 
afoot with me. " I Hen. IV. ii. 2. 28. 
i.e. "A distance of eight yards;" and compare 

" Three farts of him is ours already." J. C. i. 3. 154. 
" Two of both kinds makes up four." M. N. D. iii. 2. 438. 
But no such explanation avails in 

" She lifts the coffer-lids that close his eyes, 
Where, lo ! two lamps burnt out in darkness lies." 

V. and A. 1128. 

" Whose own hard dealings teaches them suspect 
The deeds of others."^/. ofV. i. 3. 163. 

" Those pretty wrongs that liberty commits 
Thy beauty and thy years full well befits." i.onn. 41. 



VERBS, INFLECTIONS OF. 237 

There is some confusion in 

"Fortune's blows 

When most struck home, being gentle wounded craves 
A noble cunning." Coriol. iv. 4. 8. 

On the whole, it is probable that though Shakespeare intended to 
make "blows " the subject of " craves," he afterwards introduced a 
new subject, "being gentle," and therefore "blows" must be con 
sidered nominative absolute and " when" redundant : " Fortune's blows 
(being) struck home, to be gentle then requires a noble wisdom." 

" Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives," 

Macbeth, ii. I. 61. 
in a rhyming passage. 

It is perhaps intended to be a sign of low breeding and harsh 
writing in the play of Pyramus and Thisbe. 

"Thisbe, the flowers of odours savours sweet." 

M. N. D. iii. I. 84. 

334. Third person plural in -th. 

"Those that through renowne hath ennobled their life." 

MONTAIGNE, 32. 
See, however, Relative, 247. 

" Their encounters, though not personal, hath been royally 
encountered" (Globe, have}. W. T. i. l. 29. 

"Where men enforced doth speak anything." M. ofV. iii. 2. 33. 

"Hath all his ventures fail'd?" (Globe, have.} Ib. iii. 2. 270. 
This, however, is a case when the verb precedes the subject. (See 
below, 335.) 

335. Inflection in -s preceding a plural subject. Passages 

in which the quasi-singular verb precedes the plural subject stand 
on a somewhat different footing. When the subject is as yet future 
and, as it were, unsettled, the third person singular might be regarded 
as the normal inflection. Such passages are very common, parti 
cularly in the case of " There is," as 

" There is no more such masters." Cymb. iv. 2. 371. 
"There wax at the beginning certaine light suspitions and accu 
sations put up against him." N. P. 173. 

" Of enjoin'd penitents there'j four or five." A. W. iii. 5. J>8. 
' ' The spirit upon whose weal depends and rests 
The lives of many. " Hamlet, iii. \. 14. 



=238 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Then what intends these forces thou dost bring?" 

2 Hen. VI. v. i. 80. 

"There is no woman's sides can," &c. T. N. ii. 4. 96. 
"Is there not charms?" Othello, i. I. 172. 
"Is all things well?" 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 11. 
" Is there not wars ? Is there not employment ?" 

2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 85. 

So i Hen. VI. iii. 2. 123 ; R. and J. \. I. 48 ; 2 Hen. IV. iii. 2. 
199 ; i Hen. VI. iii. 2. 9; /fc. v. 2. 4. 1. 

" Here comes the townsmen." 2 Hen. VI. ii. i. 68. 
"Here comes the gardeners" (Globe, come). Rich. II. iii. 4. 24. 
"There awz^r no swaggerers here." 2 Zf. IV. ii. 4. 83. 
This, it is true, comes from Mrs. Quickly, but the following are 
from Posthumus and Valentine : 

"How comes these staggers on me?" Cymb. v. 5. 233. 

" Far behind his worth 
Comes all the praises that I now bestow." T. G. of V. ii. 4. 72. 

And in the Lover's Complaint, where the rhyme makes alteration 
impossible : 

" And to their audit comes 

Their distract parcels in combined sums." L. C. 230. 
" What cares these roarers for the name of king?" Temp. i. 1. 17 
" There grows all herbs fit to cool looser flames." 

B. and F. F. Sh. L I. 
"There was the first gentlemanlike tears that ever we shed." 

W. T. v. 2. 155 

"ffas his daughters brought him to this pass ?" (Globe, have.) 

Lear, iii. 4. 65. 

" What means your graces?" (Globe, mean.) Ib. iii. 7. 30. 

" But most miserable 
Is the desires that'j (247) glorious" (Globe, desire). Cymb. i. 6. 6. 

(" Few" and " more" might, perhaps, be considered nouns in 

" Here'* a few flowers." Cymb. iv. 2. 283. 

" There is no more such masters." Ib. iv. 2. 371. 
A sum of money also can be considered as a singular noun : 

" For thy three thousand ducats here is six." M. of V. iv. I. 84.) 

" There lies 

Two kinsmen (who) digged their graves with weeping eyes. " 

Rich. II. iii. 3. 168. 



VERBS, INFLECTIONS OF. 239 

" Sir, there lies such secrets in this fardell and box. " 

W. T. iv 4, 783, 
"At this hour 
Lies at my mercy all mine enemies" (Globe, lie). 

Tempest, iv. I. 2(14. 

336. Inflection in "s" with two singular nouns as 
subject. 

The inflection in s is of frequent occurrence also when two or 
more singular nouns precede the verb : 

" The heaviness and guilt within my bosom 
Takes off my manhood." Cytnb. v. 2. 2. 
" Faith and troth bids them." TV. and Cr. iv. 5. 170. 
" Plenty and peace breeds cowards." Cymb. iii. 6. 21. 
" For women's fear and love holds quantity." Hamlet, iii. 2. 177. 
"Where death and danger dogs the heels of worth." 

A. W. iii. 4. 15. 

" Scorn and derision never comes (Globe and Quarto, come) in 
tears." M. N. D. iii. 2. 123. 

"Thy weal and woe are both of them extremes, 

Despair and hope makes thee ridiculous." V. and A. 988. 
" My hand and ring is yours." Cymb. ii. 4. 57. 
" O, Cymbeline, heaven and my conscience knows." 

Ib. iii. 3. 99. 

" Hanging and wiving goes by destiny." M. of V. ii. 9. 83. 
" The which my love and some necessity 
Now lays upon you." M. of V. iii. 4. 34. 

337. Apparent cases of the inflection in " s." 

Often, however, a verb preceded by a plural noun (the apparent 
nominative) has for its real nominative, not the noun, but the noun 
clause. 

' ' The combatants being kin 

Half stints their strife before they do begin." Tr. and Cr. iv. $. 98. 

i.e. "The fact that CJie combatants are kin." 

" Whereojihis brains still beating puts him thus 
From fashion of himself." Hamlet, iii. r. 182. 

i.e. " The beating of his brains on this." 

"And our ills told us 
Is as our earing." A. and C. i. 2. 115. ^ 

i,f. "The telling us of our faults is like ploughing us." 



240 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" And great affections wrestling in thy bosom 
Doth make an earthquake of nobility." K. J. v. 2. 42. 

" To know our enemies' minds we 'Id rip their hearts : 
(To rip) Their papers is more lawful." Lear, iv. 6. 266. 

So in "Blest be those, 

How mean soe'er, that have their honest wills, 
Which seasons comfort," Cymb. i. 6. 8. 

"which" has for its antecedent " having one's honest will." 

Conversely, a plural is implied, and hence the verb is in the 
plural, in 

" Men's flesh preserv'd so whole do seldom win." 

2 Hen. VI. iii. I. 301. 
i.e. " when men are too careful about their safety they seldom win.'"' 

" Smile heaven (the gods, or the stars) upon this fair conjunction, 
That long have frowned upon their enmity." Rich. III. v. 5. 21. 

It may be conjectured that this licence, as well as the licence 
of using the -s inflection where the verb precedes, or where the 
noun clause may be considered the nominative, would in all proba 
bility not have been tolerated but for the fact that -s was still 
recognized as a provincial plural inflection. 

The following is simply a case of transposition : 

"Now, sir, the sound that tells what hour it is 
Are clamorous groans." Rich. II. v. 5. 56. 

338. S final misprinted. Though the rhyme and metre 
establish the fact that Shakespeare used the plural verbal inflection 
in s, yet it ought to be stated that-J final in the Folio is often a 
misprint. Being indicated by a mere line at the end of a word in 
MS. , it was often confused with the comma, full stop, dash or hyphen. 
" Comes (,) shall we in ?" T. of A. i. i. 284. 
"At that that I have kil'd my lord, a Flys."T. A. iii. 2. 53. 
" Good man, these joyful tears show thy true hearts." 

Hen. VIII. v. 3. 175. 

Conversely, in one or two places the dash or hyphen has usurped the 
place of the s. 

"Unkle, what newer'i Hen. IV. v. 2. 30. 
" With gobbets of thy Mother-bleeding heart." 

2 Hen. VI. iv. i. 85. 

SoOetimes (even without the possibility of mistake for a comma} 
the -s is inserted : 



VERBS, INFLECTIONS OF. 241 

"Sir Protheus, your Fathers call's for you. " T. G. of V. i. 3. 88. 

"Sawcie Lictors 

Will catch at us like Strumpets, and scald Rimers 
Ballads us out of tune." A. and C. v. 2. 216. 

Yet in many passages the -s is probably correct, though we should 
now omit it, especially at the end of nouns. As we still use 
"riches," "gains," almost as singular nouns, so Shakespeare seems 
to have used "lands," "wars," "stones," "sorrows," " flatteries, :l 
"purposes," "virtues," "glories," "fortunes," "things," "at 
tempts," "graces," "treasons," "succours," "behaviours," 
"duties," "funerals," "proceedings," &c. as collective nouns. 

In other cases there seems at least a method in the error. The -s 
is added to plural adjectives and to adjectives or nouns dependent 
upon nouns inflected in " s," as 

"The letters patents." Rich. II. ii. I. 202 (Folio). 
It is common in E. E. for plural adjectives of Romance origin 
to take the plural inflection. But see 430. The Globe read* 
"patents " in Rich. II. ii. 3. 130. 
The following are selected, without verification, from Walker : 

"Kings Richards throne." Rich. II. i. 3. 

"Smooth and welcomes newes." I Hen. IV. i. i. 

"Lords Staffords death." Ib. v. 3. 

"The Thicks-lips:' Othello, i. i. 

A word already plural sometimes receives an additional plural 
inflection : 

"Vow teethes." J. C. v. I. 

" Others faults." i Hen. IV. v. 2. 

" Men look'd . . . each at others" Coriol. v. 5. 

" Boths" T. A. ii. 4. " On others grounds. " Othello, L I. 

339. Past indicative forms in U are very common in Shake 
speare. Thus, "sang" does not occur, while " sung " is common 
as a past indicative. ' ' Sprang " is less common as a past tense than 
"sprung" (2 Hen. IV. i. I. Ill) "Begun" (Hamlet, iii. 2. 220) 
is not uncommon for " began," which is also used. We also find 
" I drunk him to his bed." A. and C. ii. 5. 21. 

Past indicative tenses in were common in the seventeenth 
century, but the irregularity dates from the regular Early Fnglish 
idiom, 

R. 



242 SHAKESPEARTAN GRAMMAR. 

In A.-S. the second person singular, and the three plural persons 
of some verbs, e.g. " singan," had the same vowel u, while the first 
and third persons singular had a. Hence, though the distinction 
was observed pretty regularly in E. E., yet gradually the u and a 
were used indiscriminately in the past tense without distinction of 
person. 

340. Second Person Singular in -ts. In verbs ending with 

/, -test final in the second person sing, often becomes -ts for euphony. 
Thus: "Thou torments" Rich. II. iv. I. 270 (Folio); "Thou 
requests," Rich. HI. ii. I. 98 (Folio); "revisits" Hamlet, i. 4. 53; 
"splits," M. for M. ii. 2. 115; "exists," Ib. iii. i. 20 (Folio); 
"solicites," Cymb. i. 6. 147 (Folio); " refts," Cymb. iii 3. 103 
(Folio). "Thmi fleets," Sonn. 19 ; this is marked in 
" What art thou call'.rf ... and affright?" 

B. and F. F. Sh. iv. i. 

This termination in -s contains perhaps a trace of the influence of 
the northern inflection in -s for the second pers. sing. 

341. Past Indicative : -t for -ted. In verbs in which the 
infinitive ends in -t, -ed is often omitted in the past indicative for 
euphony. 

" I fast and prayed for their intelligence." Cymb. iv. 2. 347 

" There they hoist us." Tempest, i. 2. 147. 
" Plunged in the foaming brine and quit the vessel." Ib. 211. 
" When service sweat for duty, not for meed." A. KZ.ii.3.58. 

" Stood Dido . . . and waft her love 
To come again to Carthage." M. of V. v. I. 10. 

Compare Hen. VIII. ii. I. 33 ; M. of V. iii. 2. 205. 
We find "bid " for "bided," i.e. "endured," in 

"Endured of (by) her for whom you bid like sorrow." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 304. 

This is, of course, as natural as "chid," "rid," &c., which are 
recognized forms. On the other hand, the termination in -ed is some 
times used for a stronger form : 

"\shaked." Tempest, ii. I. 319. 

342. Participle : -ed omitted after d and t. Some verbs 

ending in -te, -t, and -d, on account of their already resembling parti- 



VERBS, INFLECTIONS OF. 943 

ciples in their terminations, do not add -ed in the participle. The 
same rule, naturally dictated by euphony, is found in E. E. "If the 
root of a verb end in -d or -t doubled or preceded by another con 
sonant, the -de or -te of the past tense, and -d or -t of the past par 
ticiple, are omitted."* Thus 

Acquit. " Well hast thou acquit thee. " Rich. III. v. 5. 3. 
Addict. Mirror for Magistrates (NARKS). 

Articulate. "These things indeed you have articulate." 

i Hen. IV. v. I. 72. 
Betid. Tempest, i. 2. 31. 

Bloat(ed}. "Let the bloat king tempt you. " Hamlet, iii. 4. 182. 
Contract. " He was contract to lady Lucy." Rich. III. iii. 7. 179. 
Degenerate. " They have degenerate." B. . 38. 

Deject. "And I of ladies most deject and wretched." 

Hamlet, iii. i. 163. 
Devote. T. ofSh. i. I. 32. 

Disjoint iot disjointed. Hamlet, i. 2. 20. 

Enshield. " An enshield beauty." M. for M. ii. 4. 80. 

Exhaust. " Their means are less exhaust." B. E. 16. 

Graft. " Her noble stock graft with Ignoble plants." 

Rich. III. iii. 7. 127. 

Compare " An ingraft infirmity." Othello, ii. 3. 144. 
Heat." The iron of itself, though heat red-hot."^ J. iv. I. 61. 

Hoist. "For 'tis the sport to have the enginer 

Hoist with his own petard." Hamlet, iii. 4. 207. 

Infect. " Many are infect." Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 188. 

Quit. "The very rats instinctively have quit it." Temp. i. 2. 147. 

Suffocate. " Degree is suffocate." Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 125. 

Taint. "Unspotted heart never yet taint with love." 

I Hen. VI. v. 3. 188. 
Wed.T. S. i. 2. 263. 

H r aft. " A braver choice of dauntless spirits 

Than now the English bottoms have -waft o'er." K. J. ii. i. 73. 
Wet. Rich. III. i. 2. 216. 

Whist (for "whisted," which is used by Surrey in the indicative), 
"The wild waves whist." Tempest, i. 2. 379. 

* Morris, Specimens of Early English, xxxv. 
R 2 



244 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

i.e. "being ivhisted or made silent." So, in imitation, 

" The winds, with wonder whist, 
Smoothly the waters kist." MILTON, Hymn on the Nativity 

Words like "miscreate," Hen. V. i. 2. 16 ; "create," M. N. D. 
v. i. 412, "consecrate," Ib. 422, being directly derived from Latin 
participles, stand on a different footing, and may themselves be 
regarded as participial adjectives, without the addition of d. 

343. Participles, Formation Of. Owing to the tendency to 
drop the inflection en, the Elizabethan authors frequently used the 
curtailed forms of past participles which are common in Early 
English : "I have spoke, forgot, writ, chid," &c. 

"Have you chose this man ? " Coriol. ii. 3. 163. 
Where, however, the form thus curtailed was in danger of being 
confused with the infinitive, as in " taken," they used the past tense 
for the participle : 

Arose. " And thereupon these errors are arose." C. ofE. v. I. 888. 
Drove for driven. 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 84. 

Eat. "Thou . . . hast eatihy bearer up." 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 165; 

M. Ado, iv. i. 196. 

Froze for frozen. C. of E. v. I. 313 ; 2 Hen. IV. i. I. 199. 
&#." We were . . . holp hither. " Temp. i. 2. 63. 
(In this case, however, the en is merely dropped. ) 
Took. " Where I have took them up." J. C. ii. I. 50. 

Mistook. " Then, Brutus, I have much mistook your passion." 

Ib. i. ?.. 48. 

Rode for ridden. 2 Hen. IV. v. 3. 98; Hen. V. iv. 3. 2. 
Smit for smitten. T. of A. ii. I. 123. 
Smote for smitten. Coriol. iii. I. 319. 
Strove for striven. Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 30. 
Writ. Rich. II. ii. I. 14. 

Wrote for -written. Lear, i. 2. 93; Cymb. iii. 5. 21. 
Or sometimes the form in ed : 

" O, when degree is shaked." Tr. and Cr. L 3. 101. 
So Hen. V. ii. I. 124 ; Temp. ii. I. 39 ; I Hen. IV. iii. I. 17. But 
thook for shaken is also common. 

" The wind- shaked surge." Othello, ii. I. 18. 



VERBS, INFLECTIONS OK 245 

"Ope" in "The gates are ope," Coriol. i. 4. 43, seems to be the 
adjective "open" without the -n, and not a verb. 

344. Irregular participial formations. The following are 

irregular : 

" You have swam. " A. Y. L. iv. I. 38. 
"I have spake." Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 153. 
" Misbecomed." L. L. L. v. 2. 778. 
"Becotned." Cymb. v. 5. 406. 

"Which thou hast perpendicularly^//." Lear, iv. 6. 54. 
"We had droven them home." A. and C. iv. 7. 5. 
"Sawn" for " seen" is found as a rhyme to "drawn," L. C. 91. 

"Slrucken." C. of E. i.n. 46 ; L. L. L. iv. 3. 224 ; J. C. 

iii. i. 209. 
" When they axzfretten with the gusts of heaven." 

M. of V. iv. i. 77. 

" Sweaten." Macbeth, iv. I. 65. (So Quartos.) 
Caught seems to be distinguished as an adjective from the participle 
catch'd in 

" None are so surely caught when they are catch'd 

As wit turned fool. " L. L. L. v. 2. 69. 
The following are unusual : 

"Splitted." C. ofE. i. I. 105, v. i. 308 ; A. and C. v. I. 24. 
" Seated." Sonn. 62. 
The following are archaic : 

" Marcus, unknit that sorrow-wreathen knot." T. A. iii. 2. 4. 
"Foughten." Hen. V. iv. 6. 18. 

345. The participial prefix y- is only two or three times used 
in Shakespeare's plays: "y-clept," "y-clad," "y-slaked." In 
E. E. y- is prefixed to other forms of speech beside participles, like 
the German ge-. But in Elizabethan English the y- was wholly 
disused except as a participial prefix, and even the latter was 
archaic. Hence we must explain as follows : 

" The sum of this 
Brought hither to Pentapolis 

Yravished the regions round. " P. of T. iii. Gower, 36. 

Shakespeare was probably going to write (as in the same speech, 

Hue t, " yslaked hath") "yravished the regions hath," but the 

necessity of the rhyme, and the diminished sense of the grammatical 

force of the participial prefix, made him alter the construction. 



246 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

They- is used by Sackville before a present participle, "^-causing." 
In M. of V. ii. 9. 68, and elsewhere, we find " I wiss " apparently 
for the old " y-wiss." 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 

346. Indicative simple present for complete present 
with adverbs signifying "as yet," &c. 

This is in accordance with the Latin idiom, " jampridem opto," 
&c. , and it is explicable on the ground that, when an action con 
tinued up to the present time is still continuing, the speaker may 
prefer the verb to dwell simply on the fact that the action is present, 
allowing the adverb to express the past continuousness : 

" That's the worst tidings that I hear of yet.'" 

I Hen. IV. iv. I. 127. 
"How does your honour_/0r this many a day?" Hamlet, iii. i. 91. 

347. Simple past for complete present with " since," &c. 

This is in accordance with the Greek use of the aorist, and it is 
as logical as our more modern use. The difference depends upon 
if. difference of thought, the action being regarded simply as past 
without reference to the present or to completion. 

" I saw him not these many years, and yet 

I know 'tis he." Cymb. iv. 2. 66. 

"I saw not better sport these seven years' day." 2 Hen. VI. 
5i i. 3. 

' ' Since death of my dear'st mother 
It did not speak before." Cymb. iv. 2. 190. 
" I didrxti. see him since." A. and C. i. 3. 1. 
" I was not angry since I came to France 
Until this instant." Hen. V. iv. 7. 58. 

"I can tell you strange news that you yet dreamed not of." 
M. Ado, i. 2. 4. 

It will be noticed that the above examples all contain a negative. 
The indefinite tense seems to have peculiar propriety when we are 
Jenying that an action was performed at any time whatever. Hence 
the contrast : 

' ' Judges and senates have been bought with gold, 
Esteem and love were never to be sold. " 

POPE, Essay on Man, iv. 1 87. 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 247 

But we have also, without a negative, 

" And since I saw thee, 
The affliction of my mind amends." Tempest, v. I. 114. 

The simple present is in the following example incorrectly com 
bined with the complete present. But the two verbs are so far 
apart that they may almost be regarded as belonging to different 
leniences, especially as "but" may be regarded as semi-adversative. 
"And never since the middle summer's spring 
Mtt we . . . but . . . thou hast disturbed our sport." 

M. N. D. ii. i. 83-7. 

On the other hand, the complete present is used remarkably in 
" D. Pedro. Runs not this speech like iron through your blood? 
Claud. I have drunk poison whiles he utter'd it. " 

M. Ado, v. I. 253. 

This can oply be explained by a slight change of thought : " I 
have drunk poison (and drunk [339] poison all the) while he spoke." 

348. Future for Subjunctive and Infinitive. The future is 

often used where we should use the infinitive or subjunctive. 

A comparison of Wickliffe with the versions of the sixteenth cen 
tury would show that in many cases the Early English subjunctive 
had been replaced by the Elizabethan ' ' shall. " 

" And I will sing that they shall hear I am not afraid." 

M. N. D. iii. I. 126. 
" That you shall surely find him 

Lead to the Sagittary the raised search." Othello, i. 1. 158. 
"That thou shalt see the difference of our spirits, 

I pardon thee thy life before thou ask it." M. ofV. iv. I. 368. 
"Therefore in fierce tempest is he coming 

That, if requiring fail, herd//// compel." Hen. F". ii. 4. 101. 

Here, however (283), "so" maybe omitted before "that," i.e. "so 
that he purposes compulsion if fair means fail. " 

" Reason with the fellow, 
Lest you shall chance to whip your information. " 

Coriol. iv. 6. 53. 
" If thou refuse and wilt encounter with my wrath." 

W. T. ii. 3. 138. 
" The constable desires thee thou wilt mind 

Thy followers of repentance." Hen. V. iv. 3. 84. 
" Will you permit that I shall stand condemn'd ?" 

/*. II. ii. 3. 119. 



248 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR, 

So with "for" used for "because" (117) in the sense of "in 
order that." 

' ' And, for the time shall not seem tedious, 

111 tell thee what befel me." 3 Hen. VI. iii. I. 10. 
As in Latin, the future is sometimes correctly and logically used 
with reference to future occurrences ; but we find it side by side with 
the incorrect and modern idiom. 

" Farewell till we shall meet again." M. of V. iii. 4. 40. 
" He that outlives this day and comes safe home, . 
He that shall live this day and see old age. " 

Hen. V. iv. 3. 44 

" All France will be replete with mirth and joy, 
When they shall hear how we have play'd the men. " 

I Hen. VI. i. 6. 16. 

" When they shall know." Rich. II. i. 4. 49. . 

" If you shall see Cordelia." Lear, iii. I. 46. 

' ' Till your strong hand shall help to give him strength. " 

K. y. ii. I. 33. 

The future seems used (perhaps with reference to the original 
manning of "shall") to signify necessary and habitual recurrence in 

" Good Lord, what madness rules in brain-sick men 
When for so slight and frivolous a cause 
Such factious emulations shall arise." iHen. VI. iv. 1. 113. 
So " Men shall deal unadvisedly sometimes." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 293. 

349. Infinitive. " To " omitted and inserted, in Early 

English the present infinitive was represented by -en (A. -S. -an), so 
that "to speak" was "spek^w," and "he is able to speak" was 
"he can spek^w," which, though very rare, is found in Pericles, ii. 
Prologue, 12. The -en in time became -e, and the -e in time became 
mute; thus reducing " sing-en " to "sing." When the en dropped 
into disuse, and to was substituted for it, several verbs which we 
call auxiliary, and which are closely and commonly connected with 
other verbs, retained the old licence of omitting to, though the 
infinitival inflection was lost. But naturally, in the Elizabethan 
period, while this distinction between auxiliary and non-auxiliary 
verbs was gradually gaining force, there was some difference of 
opinion as to which verbs did, and which did not, require the 
"to," and in Early English there is much inconsistency in this 



VERBS, MOOisS AND TENSES. 249 

respect. Thus in consecutive lines " ought " is used without, and 
"let" with, "to." 

" And though we awe the fail of Troy requite, 
Yet let revenge thereof from gods to light." 

Mirror for Magistrates (quoted by Dr. GUEST). 

" You ought not walk." J. C. i. i. 3. 
" Suffer him speak no more." B. J. Sejan. iii. i. 
"If the Senate still command me serve." Ib. iii. i. 
"The rest I wish thee gather." i Hen. VI. ii. 5. 96. 
"You were wont be civil." Othello, ii. 3. 190. 
"I list not prophesy." W. T. iv. i. 26. 
" He thought have slaine her." SPENS. F. Q_. i. I. 50. 
"Itforsthimslacke." Ib. 19. 
' Stay " is probably a verb in 

"How long within this wood intend you (to) stay?" 

M. N. D. ii. i. 138. 

" Desire her (to) call her wisdom to her." Lear, iv. 5. 35. 
"As one near death to those that wish him (to) live." 

A. W. ii. i. 134. 
" What might'st thou do that honour would (wished) thee (to) 

do rHen. V. Prologue, 18. 
"That wish'd him in the barren mountains (to) starve." 

i Hen. IV. i. 3. 159. 

SoM. for M. iv. 3. 138; M. Ado, iii. I. 42. Hence "overlook" is 
probably not the subjunctive (see however 369) but the infinitive in 

" Willing you (to) overlook this pedigree." Hen. V. ii. 4. 90. 
So after " have need :" 

"Thou hadst need SKD& for more money." T. N. ii. 3. 99. 

"Vouchsafe me speak a word." C. of E. v. I. 282. 

" To come view fair Portia." M. of V. ii. 7. 43. 

"We'll come dress you straight." M. W. of W. iv. 2. 80. 

" I will go seek the king." Hamlet, ii. I. 101. 
We still retain a dislike to use the formal to after " go " and "come," 
which may almost be called auxiliaries, and we therefore say, ' ' I 
will come and see you. " 

We cannot reject now the to after "know" (though after this 
word we seldom use the infinitive at all, and prefer to use the 
conjunction "that"), but Shakespeare has 

"Knowing thy heart (to) torment me with disdain." Sonn. 132 



250 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

A similar omission is found in 

" That they would suffer these abominations 
By our strong arms from forth her fair streets (to be) chased." 

R. of L. 1634. 

So " Because, my lord, we would have had you (to have) heard 
The traitor speak." Rich. III. iii. 5. 56. 

To is inserted after "let" both in the sense of "suffer" and in 
that of "hinder." 

" And let (suffer) no quarrel nor no brawl to come. " 

T. N. v. I. 364. 

" If nothing lets (prevents) to make us happy both." Ib. 256. 
On the other hand, to is omitted after " beteem " in the sense of 
"suffer:" 

" He might not beteem the winds of heaven 
Visit her face too roughly." Hamlet, i. 2. 142. 

After "durst:" 

" I durst, my lord, to wager she is honest." Othello, iv. 2. 11. 
The to is often inserted after verbs of perceiving, " feel," "see," 
"hear," &c. 

"Who heard me to deny it?" C. of E. v. i. 25. 
" Myself have heard a voice to call him so." 

2 Hen. VI. ii. i. 94. 

" Whom when on ground she grovelling saw to roll." 

SPENS. F. Q. v. 7. 32. 

"Methinks I feel this youth's perfections 
To creep in at mine eyes." T. JV. i. 5. 317. 

" I had rather hear you to solicit that." Ib. iii. i. 120. 

" To see great Hercules whipping a gig, 
And profound Solomon to tune a jig, 
And Nestor play at push-pin with the boys." 

L. L. L. iv. 3. 167-9. 

This quotation shows that, after " see," the infinitive, whether 
jvi;h or without "to," is equivalent to the participle. " Whipping," 
"to tune," and "play," are all co-ordinate. The participial form is 
the most correct : as in Latin, "Audivi illam canentem;" modern 
English, "I heard \iKcsing;" Elizabethan English, "I heard her 
to sing." The infinitive with to after verbs of perception occurs 
rarely, if ever, in Early English (Matzner quotes Wickliffe, St. John 
i. 1 8, but ?). It seems to have been on the increase towards 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 251 

the end of the sixteenth century, for whereas Wickliffe (St. Matt. 
xv. 31) has "The puple wondride seynge dumb men spekynge 
and crokid men goynge, blynde men seyinge," Tyndale (1534) has 
"The people wondred to se the domme speak, the maymed 
whole, the halt to go, and the blynde to se ; " and the A. V. 
(1611) has to throughout. This idiom is also very common in 
North, and Florio's " Montaigne." We have recurred to the idiom 
of Early English. 

Compare William of Palerne, 1. 871 : "and whan he self 
)>at semly sitte him bi-fore," i.e. "and when he saw her in her 
beauty sit before him." In this quotation we might render "sitte" 
by the participle "sitting," as the girl is regarded as "in the 
state of sitting. " This opens the question of the origin of the phrase 
"to see great Hercules whipping." Is "whipping," by derivation, 
a verbal abbreviated for "a- whipping," as in 93, or a present 
participle? The common construction after "see" and "hear" in 
Layamon and William of Palerne seems to be neither the participle 
nor the verbal, but the infinitive in -e or -en. Probably, when the 
infinitive inflection died out, it was felt that the short uninflected 
form was not weighty enough to express the emphatic infinitive, and 
recourse was had to the present participle, a substitution which 
was aided by the similarity of the terminations -en and -ing. 
This is one of the many cases in which the terminations of the 
infinitive and present participle have been confused together (93), 
and the -ing in this construction represents the old infinitive in 
flection -en. This may explain : 

" I my brother know 
Yet living (to live) in my glass." T. N. iii. 4. 415. 

i.e. " that my brother lives." 

Hence, perhaps, also -ing was added as a reminiscence of the old 
gerundive termination -ene, in such expressions as 

" Put the liveries to making." M. of V. ii. 2. 124. 

Similarly we find, side by side, in Selden's "Table Talk," " He 
fell to eating" and he " fell to eat." 

350. "To" omitted and inserted in the same sentence, 

The to is often omitted in the former of two clauses and inserted in 
the latter, particularly when the finite principal verb is an auxiliary, 
or like an auxiliary. 



252 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Whether hadst thou rather be a Faulconbridge 
And. like thy brother, to enjoy thy land." K. J. i I. 134. 

" I -would no more 

Endure this wooden slavery than to suffer 
The flesh-fly blow my mouth." Tempest, iii. i. 62. 

" Who woultfbe so mock'd with glory, or to live 
But in a dream of friendship?" T. of A. iv. 2. 33. 

So K. J. v. 2. 133-9 ; ?. C. iv. 3. 73 ; T. N. v. i. 346. 

" Sir, I desire you (to) do me right and justice, 

And to bestow your pity on me." Hen. VIII. ii. 4, 14. 

" Bids you 
Deliver up the crown and to take pity." Hen. V. ii. 4. 104. 

" Makes both my body pine and soul to languish." 

P. of T. i. i, 31. 

" Make thy two eyes like stars start from their spheres, 
Thy knotted and combined locks to part." Hamlet, i. 4. 18. 

" Brutus had rather be a villager 
Than to repute himself a son of Rome." J. C. i. 2. 173. 

" She tells me she'// wed the stranger knight, 
Or never more to view nor day nor night." P. ofT. ii. 5. 17. 

" Some pagan shore, 

Where these two Christian armies might combiae 
The blood of malice in a vein of league, 
And not to spend it so unneighbourly. " K. J. v. 2. 39. 

Thus probably we must explain : 

' ' And let them all encircle him about, 
And fairy-like to pinch the unclean knight. " 

M. W.ofW. iv. 4. 57. 

The common explanation "to-pinch," attributes to Shakespeare 
an archaism which is probably nowhere found in his works (not 
even in P. of T. iii. 2. 17). See All to, 28. 

It is a question how to explain 

" She is abus'd, stol'n from me and corrupted 
By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks : 
For nature so preposterously to err, 
Being not deficient, blind or lame of sense, 
Sans witchcraft could not. " Othello, i. 3. 62. 

Here, either as above, (i) "to err" depends on "could," i.e. 
"Nature was not able to err;" or (2) "could not" might perhaps 
stand for "could not be," "was impossible," having for its subject 
' ' Nature to err. " (See 354. ) In (2) " for " may be either (a) a con- 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 253 

junction, or (b) a preposition : "It was not possible for Nature 
thus to err." I prefer (i). 

In "For little office 

The hateful commons will perform for us 
Except, like curs, to tear us all to pieces," Rich. II. ii. 2. 139. 

"to tear" may be considered as a noun, the object of "except." 

351. It Were best (to). To is often omitted after "best" in 
such phrases as "it were best," "thou wert best," &c. Perhaps 
there is in some of these cases an unconscious blending of two con 
structions, the infinitive and imperative, exactly corresponding to 
the Greek olffff ovv 8 Speurov. 

" 'Tis best put finger in the eye." T. oj Sh. i. i. 78. 

" I were best not call." Cymb. iii. 6. 19. 

" 'Twere best not know myself." Macbeth, i. 2. 73. 

" Best draw my sword." Cymb. iii. 6. 25. 

In most of these cases the speaker is speaking of himself : but 
often it is impossible, without the context, to tell whether the verb is 
in the infinitive or imperative. Thus in 

" Better be with the dead," Macbeth, iii. 2. 20. 
it is only the following line, 

" Whom we, to gain our peace, have sent to peace," 
that shows that be is infinitive. When we now use this idiom, we 
generally intend the verb to be used imperatively. 

352. I were best (to). The construction 

" Thou wert better gall the devil." A'. J. iv. 3. 95. 

" I -were forf leave him." I Hen. VI. v. 3. 82. 

" Madam, you're best consider. " Cymb. iii. 2. 79. 
like the modern construction "if you please," (in which we should 
now say, and be correct in saying, that "you" is the subject, though 
it was originally the object, of "please,") represents an old imper 
sonal idiom : "Me were liefer," i.e. "it would be more pleasant to 
me ;" " Me were loth ;" " Him were better." Very early, howevei, 
the personal construction is found side by side with the impersonal. 
The change seems to have arisen from an erroneous feeling that " Me 
were better" was ungrammatical. Sometimes the to is inserted : 

" You were best to go to bed." 2 Hen. VI. v. i. 196. 
" You were best to tell Antouio what he said." M. oj V ii. 8. 33. 



254 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

353. "To" omitted after Conjunctions. 

Where two infinitives are coupled together by a conjunction, the 
to is still omitted in the former, -where the tatter happens to be nearer 
to the principal verb, e.g. after "rather than." "Rather than see 
himself disgraced, he preferred to die. " But we could not say 
" Will you be so good, scauld knave, as eat it ?" Hen. V.v.i. 31. 
This is probably to be explained, like the above, as a blending 
of two constructions the infinitive, ' ' Will you be so good as to 
eat it ?" and the imperative, " Eat it, will you be so good ?" 
In " Under the which he shall not choose but fall." 

Hamlet, : v. 7. 66. 
" Nay then, indeed she cannot choose but hate thee." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 289. 

" Thou shalt not choose but go." T. N. iv. I. 61. 
the obvious and grammatical construction is "he shall not choose 
anything except (to) fall ;" "she cannot choose anything except (to) 
hate thee;" but probably (contrary to Matzner's view, iii. 18) the 
explanation of the omission is, that Shakespeare mentally supplies 
"shall," "can," &c. "He shall not choose anything else, but 
(shall) fall." This is supported by 

" Who . . . cannot choose but they must blab." Othello, iv. I. 28. 

354. Noun and infinitive used as subject or object. 

It might be thought that this was a Latinism. But a somewhat 
similar use of the infinitive with a noun in impersonal sentences is 
often found in E. E. and, though rarely, in A. -S. 

"No wondur is a lewid man to ruste." CHAUCER, C. T. 504. 
" It is ful fair a man to bear him even." Ib. 1525. 
"It spedith one ma.n/or to die for \>e puple." WICKLIFFE, St, 
John xviiii. 14. 

(So Matzner, but Bagster has "that o man,") i.e. "that one man 
should die." 

" It is the lesser fault, modesty finds, 
Women to change their shapes than men their minds." 

T. G. ofV.v.6,, 109. 
" As in an early spring 

We see the appearing buds which to prove fruit 
Hope gives not so much warrant as despair 
That frosts will bite them." 2 Hen. IV. i. 3. 39. 

" This to be true 
1 do engage my life." A. Y. L. v. 4. 171. 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 255 

" Be then desir'd 
A little to disquantity your train, 
And the remainder that shall still depend 
To be such men that shall besort your age. " Lear, i. 4. 272. 

In the following instance " brags of" is used like " boasts :" 

' ' Verona brajjs of him 
To be a virtuous and well-go vern'd youth. " R. and J. i. 5. 70. 

" I have deserv'd 

All tongues to talk their bitterest."^ T. iii. 2. 217. 
" (This) is all as monstrous to our human reason 

As my Antigonus to break his grave." Ib. v. I. 42. 
" O that self-chain about his neck 

Which he foreswore most monstrously to have." 

C. of E. v. i. 11 ; Rich. III. iv. 4. 337. 
Add perhaps ' ' The duke 

Will never grant this forfeiture to hold" M. ofV. iii. 3. 25. 

though "forfeiture" may be personified, and "grant" used like 
" allow." We retain this use, but transpose " for " in "for to" (see 
the example from Wickliffe above) and place it before the noun or 
pronoun : 

"For me to put \rnti to his purgation would perhaps plunge him 
into far more choler." Hamlet, iii. 2. 317. 

355. The Infinitive used as a Noun. This use is still re 
tained when the Infinitive is the subject of a verb, as "To walk is 
pleasant ; " but we should not now say 

"What's sweet to do to do will aptly find." L. C. 13. 

" My operant powers their functions leave to do" 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 184 ; id. iii. 4. 66. 

" Have not to do with him." Rich. III. i. 3. 292. 
So 3 Hen. VI. iv. 5. 2. 

" Metaphors far-fet hinder to be understood." B. J. Disc. 757. 
Apparently to is omitted in the following curious passage : 

" For to (to) have this absolute power of Dictator they added 
never to be afraid to be deposed." N. P. 611. 

It is doubtful whether the infinitive is a noun in the objective in 

"Nor has he with him to supply his life." T. of A. iv. I. 46. 
i,e. "the power of supplying;" or whether "anything" is under 
stood : " He has not anything to supply his livelihood." 



256 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

We can say " I was denied my rights," but not 

" I am denied to sue my livery here." Rich. III. ii. 3. 129. 

356. Infinitive, indefinitely used. To was originally used not 

with the infinitive but with the gerund in -e, and, like the Latin "ad" 
with the gerund, denoted a purpose. Thus "to love" was originally 
"'to lovene," i.e. "to (or toward) loving" (ad amandum). Gradually, 
as to superseded the proper infinitival inflection, to was used in 
other and more indefinite senses, "for," "about," "in," "as 
regards," and, in a word, for any form of the gerund as well as for 
the infinitive. 

" To fright you thus methmks I am too savage. " Macb. iv. 2. 70. 
Not " too savage to fright you," but " in or for frighting you." 

" I was too strict to make mine own away. "Rich. II. i. 3. 243. 
i.e. "I was too severe to myself in sacrificing my son." 

" Too proud to be (of being) so valiant." Coriol. i. i. 263. 

"I will not shame myself to give you (by giving you) this." 

M. of V. iv. i. 431. 

" Make moan to be abridged. " Ib. i. I. 126. 
Not, "in order to be," but, " about being abridged." 

" Who then shall blame 
His pester'd senses to recoil and start." Macb. v. 2. 22. 

i.e. "for recoiling." Comp. T. of Sh. iii. 2. 27 ; A. Y. L. v. 2. 110. 

" O, who shall hinder me to wail and weep ?" 

Rick. III. ii. 2. 27. 
i.e. "as regards, or from, wailing." 

" But I shall grieve you to report (by reporting) the rest. " 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 95. 
" You might have saved me my pains to have taken away the ring." 

T. N. ii. 2. 6. 
i.e. "by having taken away." 

" I the truer, so to be (for being) false with you." 

Cymb. L 5. 44. 

"Lest the State shut itself out to take any penalty for the 
same." B. E. 158. 

i.e. "as regards taking any penalty." We still say, "I fear to do it," 
where "to" has no meaning of purpose ; but Bacon wrote 

"Young men care not to innovate." B. E. 161. 
" are not cautious about innovating. " So Tr.andCr. v. i. 71. 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 257 

This gerundive use of the infinitive is common after the verb " to 
aiean :" 

" What mean these masterless and gory swords 
To lie discolour'd by this place of peace ?" R. andj. v. 3-143. 

' ' What mean you, sir, 

To give them, this discomfort?" A. and C. iv. I. 34. 
-So Tr. and Cr. v. I. 30. 

"To weep to have that which it fears to lose." Sonn. 64 
i.e. "to weep because of having, becaiue-it has." 

We say, " I took eleven hours to write it," or " I spent eleven 
hours in writing," not 

" Eleven hours I spent to write it over." 

Rich. HI. Hi. 6. 5 ; M. of V. i. i. 154. 

" But thou strik'st me 

Sorely, to say (in saying) I did." W. T. v. I. 18. 
"You scarce can right me throughly then to say 
You did mistake." 70. ii. I. 99. 

i.f. "by saying." 

' ' I know not what I shall incur to pass it. " Ib. ii. 2. 57. 
if. "I know not what penalty I shall incur as the consequence of, 
or for, letting it pass." 

"You're well to live." W. T. iii. 3. 121. 

i.e. "You are well off as regards living," resembles our modern, 
"You are well to do." The infinitive thus used is seldom preceded 
by an object : 

" So that, conclusions to be as kisses, if your (221) four negatives 
Make your two affirmatives, why then," &c. T. N.v. I. 22. 

" What ! /, that kill'd her husband and his father, 
To take her in her heart's extremest hate !" 

Rich. III. i. 2. 231-2. 

Fiom 216 it will be seen that the English pronoun, when it repre 
sents the Latin accusative before the infinitive, is often found in the 
nominative. The following is a curious instance of the ambiguity 
attending this idiom : 

" I do beseech your grace 
To have some conference with your grace alone. " 

Rich. II. v. 3. 27. 

t.e. "about having some conference," and here, as the context 
shows, "that I may have some conference." 

3 



258 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Equally ambiguous, with a precisely opposite interpretation, L< 

"Sir, the queen 

Desires your visitation, and to be 
Acquainted with fhis stranger." Hen. VIII. v. I. 169. 

i.e. "and that you will become acquainted." 

"Of him I gather'd honour 
Which he to seek (seeking) of me again perforce 
Behoves me keep at utterance." Cymb. iii. i. 7? 

Probably we must thus explain : 

" Thou'lt torture me to leave unspoken that 
Which, to be spoke, would torture thee." Ib. v. 5. 139. 

i.e. " You wish to torture me for leaving unspoken that which, by 
being spoken, would torture you. " 

"Foul is most foul being foul to be a scoffer," 

A. Y. L. iii. 5. 62. 

seems to mean " foulness is most foul when its foulness consists in 
being scornful. " 

357. "To" frequently stands at the beginning of a 

sentence in the above indefinite signification. Thus Macb. iv. 2. 
70, quoted above, and 

" To do this deed, 
Promotion follows. " W. T. \. z. 356. 

" To know my deed, 'twere best not know myself." 

Macbeth, ii. z. 75. 

" To say to go with you, I cannot." B. J. E. out 6<r. iv. 6. 
" To belie him I will not." A. W. iv. 3. 299. 

" Other of them may have crooked noses, but to ou<e (as regard* 
owning) such straight arms, none." Cymb. iii. I. 38. 

' ' For of one grief grafted alone, 
To graft another thereupon, 
A surer crab we can have none." HEYWOOD. 

" To lack or lose that we would win 
So that our fault is not therein, 
What woe or wanf end or begin ? " Ib. 

1 ' To sue to live, I" find I seek to die, 
And seeking death find life," M. for M. Hi. I. 43. 

tfttere "to sue to live" means "as regards suing to live," and 
corresponds to "seeking death." 



\ 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 2^0 

This indefinite use of the infinitive in a gerundive sense seems to 
be a continuation of the old idiom which combined to with the 
gerund. 

Less frequently the clause depends on " that : " 

" But that I'll give my voice on Richard's side, 
God knows I will not do it " Rick. III. iii. I. 53. 

358. For to. When the notion of purpose is to be brought out, 
for to is often used instead of to, and in other cases also. Similarly 
the Danish and Swedish languages (Matzner) have "for at," and 
the old French has "por (pour) a," with the infinitive. For to is 
still more common in Early English than in Elizabethan. 

359. Infinitive active is often found where we use the passive, 
as in 

" Yet, if men moved him, was he such a storm 
As oft 'twixt May and April is to see." L. C. 102. 

This is especially common in "what's to do" (T. N. iii. 3. 18 ; 
&c.) for " what's to be done." See Ellipses, 405, and compare 
"Savage, extreme, rude, cruel, not to trust." Sonn. 129. 
i.e. " not to be trusted. " 

360. Infinitive, complete Present, it is now commonly 

asserted that such expressions as "I hoped to have seen him yester 
day " are ungrammatical. But in the Elizabethan as in Early 
English authors, after verbs of hoping, intending, or verbs signifying 
that something ought to have been done but was not, the Complete 
Present Infinitive is used. We still retain this idiom in the expression, 
" I would (i.e. -wished to) have done it." " I ought (i.e. was bound] 
to have done it. " But we find in Shakespeare 

" I hoped thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife; 
I thought thy bride-bed to have decKd, sweet maid. " 

Hamlet, v. I. 268. 
"Thought to have begg'd. " Cymb. iii. 6. 48. 

In " Levied an army weening to redeem, 

And have install 'd me in the diadem," I Hen. VI. ii. 5. 89, 

it is difficult to explain the juxtaposition of the simple present with 
ati apparently complete present infinitive. Probably have is here 
used in the sense of "cause," i.e. "thinking to redeem me and 
to have me install'd," " to cause me to be install'd. " So in 
S 2 



36o SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Ambitious love hath so in me offended 
That barefoot plod I the cold ground upon 
With sainted vow my faults to have amended," 

A. W. Hi. 4. 7. 

"to have amended" seems to mean "to cause to be amended.'' 
But possibly there is no need for this supposition of transposition. 
The thought of unfulfilment and disappointment growing on the 
speaker might induce her to put the latter verb in the complete 
present infinitive. 

"Pharnabazus came thither thinking to have raised the siege." 
N. P. 179. 

Sometimes the infinitive is used without a verb of "thinking," to 
imply an unfulfilled action. 

"I told him of myself, which was as much 
As to have ask' J him. pardon." A. and C. ii. 2. 79. 

But often it seems used by attraction to "have," expressed or 
implied in a previous verb. 

" She would have made Hercules to have turned spit." 

M. Ado, ii. I. 261. 

"1 had not (i.e. should not have) been persuaded to have hurled 
These few ill-spoken lines into the world." 

BEAUMONT on Faithful Shepherdess. 

So Milton : " He trusted to haveequalVd the Most High." 

The same idiom is found in Latin poetry (Madvig, 407. Obs. 2) 
after verbs of wishing and intending. The reason of the idiom 
seems to be a desire to express that the object wished or intended is 
a completed fact, that has happened contrary to the wish and cannot 
now be altered. 

361. Subjunctive, simple form. See also Be, Were, An, 

But, If, &c. The subjunctive (a consequence of the old inflectional 
form) was frequently used, not as now with would, should, &c., but 
in a form identical with the indicative, where nothing but the 
context (in the case of past tenses) shows that it is the subjunctive, 
as : 

' ' But, if my father had not scanted me, 
Yourself, renowned prince, then stood as fair." 

M. of V. ii. I ] 7. 

" Preferment goes by letter and affection, 
And not by old gradation where each second 
the first." Othello, i. i. 38. 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 261 

If it be asked what is the difference between "stood" here and 
if would have stood," I should say that the simple form of the 
subjunctive, coinciding in sound with the indicative, implied to an 
Elizabethan more of inevitability (subject, of course, to a condition 
which is not fulfilled). "Stood" means "would certainly have 
stood." The possibility is regarded as an unfulfilled fact, to speak 
paradoxically. Compare the Greek idiom of 'if a with the indicative. 

"If he did not care whether he had their love or no, he waived 
indifferently 'twixt doing them neither good nor harm ; but he seeks 
their hate with greater devotion than they can render it him." 
Coriol. ii. 2. 17. 

"If they 

Should say, ' Be good to Rome,' they charged him even 
As those should do," &c. Coriol. iv. 6. 112. 
" (If I rebuked you) then I check' d my friends." 

Rich. III. iii. 7. 150. 

"Till" is used varyingly with the indicative present, future, and 
the subjunctive. 

The subjunctive is found after "so" in the sense of "so (that)," 
i.e. "(if it be) so (that)." 

" I will . . . endow a child of thine, 
So in the Lethe of thy angry soul 
Thou drown the sad remembrance of these wrongs." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 251. 

Sometimes the presence of the subjunctive, used conditionally 
(where, as in the case of did, the subjunctive and indicative are 
identical in inflections), is indicated by placing the verb before the 
subject : 

" Did I tell this . . . who would believe me ? " 

M.for M. ii. 4. 171. 
' ' Live Roderigo, 
He calls me to a restitution." Othello, v. I. 14. 

" Live a thousand years, 

I shall not find myself so fit to die." J. C. iii. I. 159. 
"Live thou, I live." M. of V. iii. 2. 61. 
Where we should say, " Should I tell, live," &c. 

The indicative is sometimes found where the subjunctive might 
be expected: 

" Pleaseth you walk with me down to his house, 
I will discharge my bond," C. of E. iv. I. 12. 

where the first clause might be taken interrogatively, "Is ic your 



262 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

pleasure to walk with me? In that case I will," &c. So 2 Hen. IV. 
iv. i. 225. Perhaps we may thus expkin the so-called imperative 
in the first person plural : 

" Well, sit we down, 
And let us hear Bernardo speak of this." Hamlet, i. I. 3. 

i.e. " suppose we sit down?" "what if we sit down?" Compare 
Ib. 168. 

So " Alcib. I'll take the gold thou giv'st me, not all thy counsel. 
Timon. Dost thou, or dost thou not, Heaven's curse upon 
thee!" T. of A. iv. 3. 131. 

So "willy-nilly" and 

"He left this ring behind him, would I or not." T. N. i. 5. 321. 

' ' Please " is, however, often found in the subjunctive, even 
interrogatively. 

"Please it you that I call?" T. of Sh. iv. .4. 1. 
It then represents our modern "may it please?" and expresses 
a modest doubt 

The subjunctive is also found, more frequently than now, with if, 
though, &c. The subjunctive " he dare " is more common than 
"he dares" in the historical plays, but far less common in the 
others. The only difference between the two is a difference of 
thought, the same as between "he can jump six feet" and "he 
could jump six feet," i.e. if he liked. 

Compare " For I know thou darest, 

But this thing dare not." * Tempest, iii. 2. 62-3. 

i.e. "would not dare on any consideration :" stronger than "dares." 
The indiscriminate use of "dare" and "dares" (regulated, 
perhaps, by some regard to euphony) is illustrated by 

" Here boldly spread thy hands, no venom'd weed 
Dares blister them, no slimy snail dare creep. " 

B. and F. F. Sh. iii. I. 

362. Subjunctive auxiliary forms. The simple form of the 

subjunctive is sometimes interchanged and co-ordinate with the 
auxiliary form. 

"If thou wert the ass, thy dulness would torment thee, and 
still thou livedst but as a breakfast to the wolf; if thou wert the 
wolf, thy greediness would afflict thee, and oft thou shouldst hazard 
thy life for a dinner 5 wert thou a horse, thou wouldest be seized by 

* " This thing " means " this creature Trinculo," and is antithetical to " thou.' 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 263 

the leopard ; wert thou a leopard, thou wert german to the lion." 
T. of A. iv. 3. 385-94. 

Note here that "livedst " and "shouldst" imply inevitability and 
compulsion. " Wouldest" is used in the passive because the passive 
in itself implies compulsion. " Would " is used after " dulness " 
and "greediness" because they are quasi-personified as 'voluntary 
persecutors. Why not ' ' hazard edst " as well as ' ' livedst ? " Perhaps 
to avoid the double d, 

"Do," "did," are often used with verbs in the subjunctive : 

" Better far, I guess, 

That Vf&do make our entrance several ways. " i Hen. VI. ii. I. 30. 
" Lest your retirement do amaze your friends." I Hen. IV. v. 4. 5. 

363. The Subjunctive is replaced by the Indicative after 

"if," where there is no reference to futurity, and no doubt is 
expressed, as in "if thou lovest me." 

" O Nell, sweet Nell, // thou dost love thy lord, 
Banish the cankers of ambitious thoughts." 

2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 17. 

"An thou canst not smile as the wind sits, thou'lt catch cold 
shortly." Lear, i. 4. 112. 

"Ah, no more of that, Hal, an thou lovest me." I Hen. IV. 
n. 4. 312. 

In the last example Falstaff is assuming the Prince's love as a 
present fact in order to procure the immediate cessation of ridicule. 
But in the following he asks the Prince to do him a favour regarded 
as future, and as somewhat more doubtful: 

" If thou love me, practise an answer." I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 411. 
Incredulity is expressed in 

"If thou have power to raise him, bring him hither." 

Ib. iii. i. 60. 

In " If thou dost nod thou breaKst thy instrument," 

y. C. iv. 3. 27L 

the meaning is "you are sure to break," and the present indicative 
being used in the consequent, is also used in the antecedent. So in 

"I am quickly ill and well 
So (almost ' since') Antony loves." A. and C. i. 3. 73. 

tn "It (my purpose) is no more 

But that your daughter, ere she seems as won, 
Desires this ring," A. W. iii. 7. 32. 



264 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

the purpose is regarded graphically as a fact in the act of being 
completed. However, the indiscriminate use of the indicative and 
subjunctive at the beginning of the seventeenth century is illustrated 
by the A. V. St. Matt. v. 23 : 

" Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there 
remember esi. " 

364. Subjunctive used optatively or imperatively. This 

was more common then than in modern poetry. 

"Who's first in worth, the same be first in place." 

B. J. Cy.'s Rei: v. I. 
(May) " Your own good thoughts excuse me, and farewell." 

L. L. L. ii. i. 177 

" O heavens, that they -were living both in Naples, 
The king and queen there! (provided) that they were, I wish 
Myself were mudded in the oozy bed." Tempest, v. I. 150. 

"No man inveigh against the wither'd flower, 
But chide rough winter that the flower hath kill'd." 

R. of L 

" In thy fats our cares be drowned, 
With thy grapes our hairs be crowned. " A . and C. ii. 7. 122 

The juxtaposition of an imperative sometimes indicates the im 
perative use. 

' ' Touch you the sourest points with sweetest terms, 
Nor (let) curstness grow to the matter." A. and C. ii. 2. 25. 

" Good now, sit down, and tell me he that knows," &c. 

Hamlet, i. I. 70. 

" Take Antony Octavia to his wife." A. and C. ii. 2. 129. 
"Run one before, and let the queen know." Ib. iv. 8. 1. 

"Thus time we waste, and longest leagues make short ; 
Sail seas in cockles, have an wish but for 't. " 

F. of T. iv. 4. Gower, V 

M. " Let any one but wish it, and we will sail seas in cockles." 
Sometimes only the context shows the imperative use : 

"For his passage, 

(See that) The soldiers' music and the rites oi war 
Speak loudly for him." Hamlet, v. 2. 411. 

The ' and'' is superfluous, or else "question" is imperative, in 

" Question, your grace, the late ambassadors, 
And you shall find." Hen. V. ii. 4. ol. 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 265 

So in " Hold out my horse and I will first be there." 

Rich. II. ii. I. 800 
"Then (see that) every soldier kill\\\s, prisoners." 

Hen. V. iv. 6. 37. 

On the other hand, "prove" is conditional (or "and" is omitted) 
in 

"O my father ! 

Prove you that any man with me conversed, 
Refuse me, hate me, torture me to death. " 

M. Ado, iv. i. 182-6. 

Often it is impossible to tell whether we have an imperative with 
a vocative, or a subjunctive used optatively or conditionally. 

" Melt Egypt into Nile, and kindly creatures 
Turn all to serpents." A. and C. ii. 5. 78. 

"That I shall clear myself, 
Lay all the weight yc can upon my patience, 
I make as little doubt as," &c. Hen. VIII. v. i. 66. 
"Now to that name my courage prove my title." 

A. and C. v. 2. 291. 
'Sport and repose turn from me day and night." 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 218. 

365. This optative use of the subjunctive dispensing with 

"let," "may," &c. gives great vigour to the Shakespearian line : 

" Judge me the world." Othello, i. 2. 72. 
i.e. " let the world judge for me." 

" Disorder, that hath spoil'd us, friend us now." 

Hen. V. iv. 5. 17. 
" Long die thy happy days before thy death." 

Rich. III. i. 3. 207. 

"The worm of conscience still begna-w thy soul." Ib. 222. 
The reader of Shakespeare should always be ready to recognize 
the subjunctive, even where the identity of the subjunctive with the 
indicative inflection renders distinction between two moods impos 
sible, except from the context. Thus : 

" Therefore take with thee my most heavy curse, 
Which in the day of battle tire thee more 
Than all the complete armour that thou wear'st J 
My prayers on the adverse party fight, 
And there the little souls ol Edward's children 
Whisper the spirits of thine enemies, 
And promise them success and victory." Rich. Ill, iv. 4. 190. 



266 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Here, in the second line, "tire," necessarily subjunctive, im 
presses upon the reader that the co-ordinate verbs, "fight," &c., are 
also subjunctive. But else, it would be possible for a careless 
reader to take " fight," &c. as indicative, and ruin the passage. 

This optative or imperative use of the subjunctive, though 
common in Elizabethan writers, had already begun to be supplanted 
by auxiliaries. Thus Wickliffe has (Coloss. ii. 16) "No man juge 
you," while all the other versions have " Let no man judge you." 

366. Subjunctive, complete present. (See Should for "if 

lie should have.") The subjunctive with "have" is not very 
frequent. It is used where a past event is not indeed denied, but 
qualified conditionally, in an argumentative manner : 

"If, sir, perchance 

She have restrain'd the riots of your followers, 
'Tis on such ground ... as clears her from all blame. " 

Lear, ii. 4. 145 

i.e. "If it should hereafter be proved that she have" "if so be tha. 
she have." 

So "If this young gentleman have done offence." 

T. N. iii. 4. 344. 

"Though it have" is somewhat similarly used to express a conces 
sion for the sake of argument, not a fact. 

" For though it have holp madmen to their wits." 

Rich. II. v. 5. 62. 

367. Subjunctive used indefinitely after the Relative. 

"In her youth 

There is a prone and speechless dialect 
Sitch as move men." M. for M. i. 2. 189 
" And the stars -whose feeble light 

Give a pale shadow. " B. and F, 
" But they whose guilt within their bosom lie 

Imagine every eye beholds their blame." R. of L. ii. 1344 
" Thou canst not die, -whilst any zeal abound.' 1 

DANIEL (quoted by WALKER). 

" I charge you to like as much of this play as please you." 

A. Y. L. Epilogue 

" And may direct his course as please himself." 

Rich. III. ii 2. 12& 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 26? 

Perhaps (but see 218) 

' ' Alas, their love may be called appetite, 
No motion of the liver, but the palate 
That suffer surfeit." T. N. ii. 4. 102. 

In the subordinate clauses of a conditional sentence, the relative 
is often followed by the subjunctive : 

"A man that were to sleep your sleep." Cymb. v. 4. 179. 
i.e. " If there were a man who was destined to sleep your sleep." 

" If they would yield us but the superfluity -while it were whole 
some." Coriol. i. I. 18. 

368. Subjunctive in a subordinate sentence. The sub 
junctive is often used with or without "that," to denote a purpose 
(see above, That)- But it is also used after "that," "who,"&c. in 
dependent sentences where no purpose is implied, but only futurity.* 

" Be it of less expect 

That matter needless of importless burden 
Divide thy lips." Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 71. 

No "purpose "can be said to be implied in "please," in the fol 
lowing : 

' ' May it please you, madam, 
That he bid Helen come to you." A. W. i. 3. 71. 

' ' Yet were it true 

To say this boy were like me." W. T, i. 2. 135. 
' ' Thou for whom Jove would swear 

Juno but an yElhiop were." L. L. L. iv. 3. 118. 
" Would you not swear that she were a maid ?" 

M. Ado, iv. i. 40. 
" One would think his mother's milk were scarce out of him." 

T. N. i. 5. 171. 

tn the last four passages the second verb is perhaps attracted to 
the mood of the first 

"Proteus. But she is dead. 
Silv. Say that she be: yet," Sc. 

T. G. of V. iv. 2. 109 
" With no show of fear, 

No, with no more than if we heard that England 
Were busied with a Whitsun Morris-dance. " 

Hen. V. ii. 4. 25. 

* 1 have found no instance in Shakespeare like the following, quoted by 
Walker from Sidney's A rcadia : 

" And I think there she do dwell." 



268 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"I pray (hope) his absence proceed by swallowing that." 

Cymb. iii. 5. 58 

"If it be proved against an alien 
That by direct or indirect attempt 
He seek the life of any citizen." M. of V. iv. I. 351. 
" One thing more rests that thyself execute." T.ofSh. i. I. 251. 
where, however, "that" may be the relative, and "execute" ar 
imperative. 

I know of no other instance in Shakespeare but the following, 
where the subjunctive is used after "that" used for "so that,' 
of a fact : 

" Through the velvet leaves the wind 
All unseen can passage find, 
That the lover sick to death 
Wish, himself the heaven's breath." L. L. L. iv. 3. 108. 

The metre evidently may have suggested this licence : or -es or -d 
may have easily dropped out of "wisher" or "wishV." 
The subjunctive is used where we should use the future in 

"I doubt not you (will) sustain what you're worthy of by your 
attempt." Cymb. i. 4. 125. 

"Think " seems used subjunctively, and "that" as a conjunction in 
"And heaven defend (prevent) your good souls that you 

(should) think 

I will your serious and great business scant 
For (because) she is with me." Othello, i. 3. 267. 

The "that" is sometimes omitted : 

"It is impossible they bear it out." Ib. ii. I. 19. 
Here "bear" is probably the subjunctive. The subjunctive is by 
no means always used in such sentences. We may contrast 

" No matter then who see it." Rich. II. v. 2. 59. 

" I care not "wlio know it." Hen. V. iv. 7. 118. 

with 

" I care not who knows so much." T. N. iii. 4. 300. 

369. The Subjunctive after verbs of command and 

entreaty is especially common ; naturally, since command implies 
a purpose. 

"We enjoin thee that thou carry." IV. T. ii t. 174. 

" I conjure thee that thou declare. " Ib. i. z. 402. 
So M. for M. v. i. f 0. 



VERBS, MOODS AND TENSES. 269 

"Tell him from me 
He bear himself with honourable action." 

T. ofSh. Ind. L I, 110. 
"Thy dukedom I resign, and do entreat 
Thou pardon me my wrongs." Temp. v. I. 119. 

So after "forbid." 

"Fortune forbid my outside have not charmed her." 

T. N. ii. 2. 19. 
Sometimes an auxiliary is used : 

"I do beseech your majesty may salve. " I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 155. 
Hence in such passages as 

" Go charge my goblins that they grind their joints," 

Temp. iv. i. 259. 
the verb is to be considered as in the subjunctive. 

After a past tense " should" is used : 

"She bade me ... I should teach him." Othello, i. 3. 165. 

370. Irregular sequence Of tenses. Sometimes the sequence 
of tenses is not observed in these dependent sentences : 

' ' Therefore they thought it good you hear a play. " 

T. ofSh. Ind. 2. 136. 

' ' ' Twere good you do so much for charity. " M. ofV.'\\. I. 261. 
In both cases a present is implied in the preceding verb : "They 
thought and think," " It were and is good." 
Reversely in 

' ' But do not stain 
The even virtue of our enterprise 
To think that or our cause or our performance 
Did need zx\ oath." J. C. ii. i. 136. 

"Did need" means "ever could need," and is stronger than 
"need" or "can need." In 

" Is it not meet that I did amplify my judgment ?'' Cymb. i. 5. 17. 
as in "It is time he came" the action is regarded as one "meet" in 
time past, as well as in the future. 

"It hath been taught us from the primal state 
That he which is is wished until he were. " A. and C. i. 3. 42. 

Here "were" is used partly for euphony and alliteration, partly 
because the speaker is speaking of the past, "is and was always 
wished until he were." 



2-ro SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

371. Conditional sentences. The consequent does not always 
answer to the antecedent in mood or tense. Frequently the irregu 
larity can be readily explained by a change of thought. 

"And that I'// prove on better men than Somerset, 
(Or rather, I would) Were growing time once ripen'd to 
my will." I Hen. VI. ii. 4. 98. 

So 3 Hen. VI. v. 7. 21. 

" If we shall stand still 
(Or rather, if we should, for we shall not) We should take root." 

Hen. VIII. i. 2. 86. 
"Iwifffind 
Where truth is hid, (and I would find it) though it were hid 

indeed 
Within the centre." Hamlet, ii. 2. 157-8. 

Compare Ezek. xiv. 14, A. V. : 

" Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it. they 
should deliver but their own souls. " 

with ib. 20, "they shall deliver." 

" But if the gods themselves did see her then 

(If they had seen her) The instant burst of clamour that she 

made 
Would have made milch the burning eyes of heaven." 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 535-40. 
' ' Till I know 'tis done, 
Howe'er my hopes (might be), my joys were ne'er begun." 

Ib. iv. 3. 70. 

Sometimes the consequent is put graphically in the present merely 
for vividness : 

"If he should do so, 
He leaves his back unarm'd ', . . . never fear that." 

2 Hen. IV. i. 3. 80. 
Or else the speaker rises in the tone of confidence : 

" I am assured, if I be measured rightly, 
Your majesty hath no just cause to hate me." Ib. v. 2. 66. 



PARTICIPLES. 

372. Participles, Active. Our termination -ing does duty foi 
( i ) the old infinitive in -an ; (2) the old imperfect participle in end, 
ende, ande ; and (3) a verbal noun in -ung. Hence arises great con 



PARTICIPLES. 471 

fusion It would sometimes appear that Shakespeare fancied thnt 
ing was equivalent to -en, the old affix of the Passive Participle. 
Thus 

" From his all- obeying breath 
I hear the doom of Egypt." A. and C. iii. 13. 77. 

t.e. " obeyed by all." 

" Many a dry drop seemed a weeping tear. " R. of L. i. 1375. 
So " His unrecatting crime " (R. of L.} for " unrecalled." 
(In " Many excesses which are owingz. man till his age," B. E. 122. 
i.e. "own, or, belonging to a man," <nving is not a participle at all, 
but an adjective, "agen," "awen," "owen," "owenne," "owing;" 
which was mistaken for a participle. 

"There is more owing her than is paid." A. W. i. 3. 107. 
" Wanting, "as in CorioL ii. I. 217, "One thing is wanting" can be 
explained from the use of the verb wanteth in the following passage : 

" There wanteth now our brother Gloucester here 
To make the period of this perfect peace. " R. III. ii. I. 43. ) 

The same explanation may apply to "I am much beholding to 
you," which is sometimes found for "beholden,"./?^. ///. ii. 1.129, 
J. C. iii. 2. 70-3, and even to 

" Relish your nimble notes to pleasing ears." R. of L. 

In the following, -ing might be supplanted, without altering the 
sense, by the infinitive or the verbal preceded by a- :* 

"Women are angels, wooing: 
Things won are done." Tr. and Cr. i. 2. 312. 

t.e, "women are considered angels to woo, or a-wooing" where 
wooing, if treated as an ordinary present participle, would give the 
opposite to the intended meaning. Probably in the above, as in 
the following, a- is omitted. 

" Be brief, lest that the process of thy kindness 
Last longer (a-, or in) telling than thy kindness date." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 254. 
The "in" is inserted in 

' ' Pause a day or two 

Before you hazard ; for in choosing wrong I lose your com 
pany." M. of V. iii. 2. 2. 

* Comp. " Returni- were as tedious as (to) go o'er," Macb. iii. 4. 138. 
in which the inf perhaps qualifies "go" as well as "return," and might be sup 
planted by " to." 



27* SHAKkSPBARlAN GRAMMAR 

i.e. " in the event of your choosing wrong, / lose your company ' 
The two constructions occur together in 

" Come, come, in wooing sorrow let's be brief, 
Since, (%.-}ii)edding it, there is such length in grief." 

Rich. II. v. i. 92. 

It is perhaps a result of this confusion between the verbal and the 
infinitive that, just as the infinitive with "to" is used independently 
at the beginning of a sentence (357) in a gerundive signification, so 
is the infinitive represented by -ing: 

" Why, were thy education ne'er so mean, 
Having thy limbs, a thousand fairer couioes 
Offer themselves to thy election. " B. J. E. in &*c. ii. i. 

i.e. "since thou hast thy limbs." This explains the many instances 
in which present participles appear to be found agreeing with no 
noun or pronoun. 

Part of this confusion may arise from the use uf the verbal in -ing 
as a noun in compounds. We understand at once that a " knedyng 
trowh" (CHAUCER, C. T. 3548) means "a trough for kneading;" 
but "spending silver" (Ib. 12946) is not quite so obviously 
"money for spending." Still less could we say 

" Sixth part of each ! A trembling contribution. " 

Hen. VIII. i. 2. 95 
Somewhat different is 

" Known and feeling sorrows," Lear, iv. 6. 226. 
where "feeling" seems to be used like "known," passively, "knowr 
and realized sorrows." 

So "loading" is used for "laden," BACON, Essays, p. 49 
(Wright). 

" Your discontenting father, " W. T. iv. 4. 543. 
may perhaps be explained by the use of the verb "content you ;" 
" I discontent (me) " meaning " I am discontented." 

373, The Verbal differs in Elizabethan usage from its modern 
use. (a) We do not employ the verbal as a noun followed by " of," 
unless the verbal be preceded by "the," or some other defining 
adjective. But such phrases as the following are of constant 
occurrence in Elizabethan English : 

" To disswade the people from making of league." N. P. 170. 
" He was the onely cause of murdering of the poor Melians." 

Ib. 171 



PARTICIPLES 273 

" By winning only of Sicilia." N. P. 171. 

IJ Enter Clorin the Shepherdess, sorting of herbs. " 

B. and F. F. Sh. ii. I. 

i.e. "a-sorting, or in sorting of herbs." 

For instances from Shakespeare, see 1 78 and 93. 

(b) On the other hand, when the verbal is constituted a noun by 
the dependence of " the," or any other adjective (except a possessive 
adjective) upon it, we cannot omit the of. The Elizabethans can. 

" To plague thee for thy foul misleading me." 

3 Hen. VI. v. i. 97. 

We should prefer now to omit the "thy" as well as "foul," 
though we have not rejected such phrases as 

" Upon his leaving our house." Goldsmith. 

For instances of "of" omitted when " the" precedes the verbal, 
see Article, 93- In this matter modern usage has recurred to E. E. 

374. Participles, Passive. It has been shown (294) that, from 
the licence of converting nouns, adjectives, and neuter verbs into 
active verbs, there arose an indefinite and apparently not passive 
use of Passive Participles. Such instances as 

" Of all he dies possess' d of," M. of V. v. I. 293. 
(possess being frequently used as an active verb,) may thus be ex 
plained. 

Perhaps, 

" And, gladly quaked (made to quake), hear more," 

Coriol. i. 9. 6. 
may be similarly explained. Compare also : 

" All the whole army stood agazed on him." 

\ Hen. VI. i. I. 126. 

But, in the following, we can only say that, in the excessive use 
of this licence, -ed is loosely employed for -ful, -ing, or some other 
affix expressing connection. 

" Revenge the jeering and disdained contempt." 

i Hen. IV. i. 3. 183. 

" Brooded- watchful day." K. J. iii. 3. 52. 
As we talk of "watching (during) the night," this may explain 
" The weary and ill-watched night." Hen. V. iv. Prologue, 88. 



274 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

But more probably "all-watched" (like "o'er-watched,"^ C. tf. 
241) resembles "weary, "and means "tired with watching.'' For 
this use of adjectives see 4. 

" Gnm-looVd night. "-M. N. D. v. I. 171. 

" The ebbed m^n." A. and C. i. 4. 43. 
It is perhaps still not unusual to say "the tide is ebbed." 

" A inoulten raven." I Hen. IV. iii. I. 152. 

" With sainted vow." A. W. iii. 4. 7. (= saintly). 
" And at our more considered time we'll read." Hamlet, ii. 2. 81. 

" Unconstrained gyves." L. C. 242. 

Sometimes passive participles are used as epithets to describe the 
state which would be the result of the active verb. Thus : 

" Whyareyouafozwrt.?" Temp. ii. 1. 308; M.N.D. iii. 2. 402. 
i.e. " Why do I find you with your swords drawn?" 

" Under the blow of thralled discontent. " Sonii. 124. 
"The valued file" (Macb. iii. i. 95) perhaps means "the file oi 
:atalogue to which values are attached." 

375. The Passive Participle is often used to signify, not that 
which was and is, but that which was, and therefore can be hereafter. 
In other words, -ed is used for -able. 

" Inestimable stones, unvalued jewels. " Rich. III. i. 4, 27. 
i.e. "invaluable." 

" All unavoidedis the doom of destiny. " Id. iv. 4. 217. 
i.e. "inevitable." So 

" We see the very wreck that we must suffer, 
And unavoided is the danger now." Rich. II. ii. i. 268. 

" With all imagined (imaginable) speed." Af. ofV. iii. 4. 52. 

' ' The murmuring surge 
That on the unnumbered idle pebbles chafes." Lear,iv.6.2l. 

So, probably, Theobald is right in reading 

" The twinn'd stone upon th' unnumbered beach," 

Cymb \. 6. 56 
though the Globe retains " number' d." 

" Unprized " in 

"This unprized precious maid," Lear, L I. 26i. 
may mean " unprized by others, but precious to me." 



PARTICIPLES. J75 

" There's no hoped far mercy with the brothers." 

3 Hen. VI* v. 4. 35. 
!.. " to be hoped for." 

It has been conjectured that "delighted" means "capable of 
being delighted " in 

" This sensible warm motion to become 
A kneaded clod, and the delighted spirit 
To bathe in fiery floods." M. for M. iii. I. 121. 

More probably, "delighted" here means the spirit "that once took 
its delight in this world ; " but ' ' knead^ " seems used for " 



376. Participle used with a Nominative Absolute. In 

Anglo-Saxon a dative absolute was a common idiom. Hence, even 
when inflections were discarded, the idiom was retained ; and indeed, 
in the case of pronouns, the nominative, as being the normal state oi 
the pronoun, was preferred to its other inflections. The nominative 
absolute is much less common with us than in Elizabethan authors. 
It is often used to call attention to the object which is superfluously 
repeated. Thus in 

" The master and the boatswain, 
Being awake, enforce them to this place," Temp. v. i. 100. 

there is no need of "them." So "he" is superfluous in 

" Why should he then protect our sovereign, 
He being of age to govern of himself?" 2 Hen. VI. \. \. 166. 

It is common with the relative and relative adverbs. 

" Then Deputy of Ireland ; -who removed, 
Earl Surrey was sent thither, "/for. VIII. ii. I. 42. 

" My heart, 

Where the impression of mine eye infixing, 
Contempt his scornful perspective did lend me. " 

A. IV. v. 3. 47. 
" Thy currish spirit 

Govren'd a wolf, who hang'd for human slaughter, 
Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet." 

M. of V. iv. I. 134 
" Emblems 

Laid nobly on her ; which performed, the choir 
Together sung 'Te Deum.'" Hen. VIII. iv. i. 91. 

The participle with a nominative originally intended to be 
absolute seems diverted into a subject in 
T2 



276 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" J"he king . . . aiming at your interior hatred 
Makes him send." Rick. III. i. 3. 65-8. 

i.e. " the fact that the king guesses at your hatred makes him send." 

377. The Participle is often used to express a condition 

where, for perspicuity, we should now mostly insert "if." 

" Requires to live in Egypt, -which not granted, 

He lessens his requests." A. and C. iii. 12. 12. 
" That whoso ask'd her for his wife, 

His riddle told not, lost his life." P. of T. i. Gower, 38. 
" For I do know Fluellen valiant, 

And, touch 'd -with choler, hot as gunpowder. " 

Hen. V. iv. 7. 188. 
' ' Your honour not overthrown by your desires, 

I am friend to them and you." W. T. \. I. 230. 

' Admitted " is probably a participle in 

" This is the brief of money, plate and jewels 
I am possess'd of: 'tis exactly valued, 
Not petty things admitted." A. and C. v. I. 146. 

i.e. " exactly, if petty things be excepted." 

The participle is sometimes so separated from the verb that it 
seems to be used absolutely. 

" Resolve me with all modest haste which way 
Thou might'st deserve, or they impose this usage, 
Coming from us. " Lear, ii. 4. 27. 

i.e. " since thou comest." 

" But being moody give him line and scope." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. 4. 39. 

"And" is sometimes joined to a participle or adjective thus used. 

See And, 95- 

" What remains 

But that I seek occasion how to rise, 
And yet the king not privy to my drift." Z^ en - VJ- i- 2 - ^' ' 

" But when the splitting wind 
Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks, 
And flies (being) fled under shade." Tr. and Cr. L 3. 51. 

:.e. "the flies also being (295) fled." 

378. Participle Without NOUU. This construction is rare i^ 
earlier English. 



PARTICIPLES. 877 

"My name is gret and merveylous, treuly you telland." Cm>. 
Myst. (Matzner). 

Here again, as in 93, we must bear in mind the constant con 
fusion between the infinitive, the present participle, and the verbal. 
In the above example we should expect the infinitive, " to tell you 
the truth," and perhaps "telland" is not exactly used for, bat 
confused with, "tellen."* 

It is still a usual idiom with a few participles which are employed 
almost as prepositions, e.g. "touching," "concerning," "respect 
ing," "seeing." "Judging" is also often thus incorrectly used, 
and sometimes "considering;" but we could scarcely say 

" Or in the night imagining (if one imagines) some fear, 

How easy is a bush suppos'd a bear." M. N. D. v. 1. 21 
" Here, as I point my sword, the sun arises, 
Which is a great way growing on the south, 
Weighing the youthful season of the year." J. C. ii. 1. 108. 
Note especially 

" I may not be too forward, 
Lest (I) being seen thy brother, tender George, 
Be executed." Rich. III. v. 3. 95. 

" (It must be done) something from the palace, always thought 
That I require a clearness." Macbeth, iii. I. 132. 

t. e. " it being always borne in mind." 

" (Death sits) infusing him (man) with self and vain conceit, 
And, (man having been) humoured thus, 
(Death) comes at the last." Rich. II. iii. 2. 168. 

This use is common in prose. 

" He was presently suspected, judging (since men judged) the ill 
success not in that he could not, but . . . for that he would not." 
N. P. 182. 

So "being," i.e. "it being the fact," is often used whete we use 
"seeing." 

" You loiter here too long, being you are to take soldiers up in 
counties as you go." 2Hen.IV.\\. I. 200 ; M. Ado, iv. i. 25!. 

"Though I with death and with 
Reward did threaten and encourage him, 
Not doing \ and (it) being done." W. T. iii. 2. 166. 

* It would be interesting to trace the corresponding process in French by which 
the gerund "dicendo" and the participle "dicens" were blended in "disant." 
It was not till the beginning of the eighteenth century that the Academy definitely 
pronounced " La regie est faite. On ne fera plus accorder les participes presents ' 
But from the earliest limes the d of the gerund became t. 



278 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

i.e. "I threatened him, not doing it, with death, and encos raged 
him with reward, (it) being done ;" a specimen of irregular terseness 
only to be found in Elizabethan authors and in Mr. Browning's 
poems. 

The context often suggests a noun or pronoun : 

" If not that, I being queen, you bow like subjects, 
Yet that, (I being) by you deposed, you quake like rebels.'' 

Rich. III. L 3. 162. 
" But her eyes 

How could he see to do them ? Having made one, 
Methinks it should have power to steal both his." 

M.ofV. Hi. 2. 125. 
i.e. " when he had made one." 

"Had, having, and in quest to have, extreme." Sonn. 129. 
i.e. "when an object is had, possessed," unless it is still more irre 
gularly used for "having had." 

This irregularity is perhaps in some cases explained by 372. 

379. Participle with Pronoun implied. Sometimes a pro 
noun on which a participle depends can be easily understood from 
a pronominal adjective. Compare 

" Nostros vidistiyfc#/w ocellos." 
So " Not helping, death's my fee." A. W. \\. i. 192. 

i.e. "death is the fee of me not helping." 

"Men 

Can counsel speak and comfort to that grief 
Which they themselves not feel ; but, tasting it, 
Their counsel turns to passion." M. Ado, v. i. 22. 
"She dares not look, yet, winking, there appears 

Quick-shifting antics ugly in her eye. " R. of L. 458. 
" Coining (as we came) from Sard is, on our former ensign 
Two mighty eagles fell. " J. C. v. I. 80. 

380. Instead of the Participle an Adjective is sometimes 

found. 

' ' I would not seek an absent argument 

Of my revenge, thou present." A. Y. L. iii. i. 4. 
" And (she), her attendants absent, swallowed fire. "-J. C. iv. 3. 156. 
" Joy absent, grief is present for that time.' Rith. II. i. 3. 259. 



ELLIPSES. 279 

Sometimes the adjective depends on an implied pronoun : 

" Thy word is current with him for my death, 
But dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath. " 

Rich. II. i. 3. 232. 
i.e. " the breath of me when dead." 

" It is an obvious conjecture from this use of "absent, 1 ' "present," 
"dead," that their quasi-participial terminations favoured this par 
ticipial use. But add 

"Thence, 
A prosperous south-wind friendly, we have cross'd. " 

W. T. v. I. 161. 

381. Ths Participle is sometimes implied in the case of 

a simple word, such as "being." 

" I have heard him oft maintain it to be fit that sons (being) at 
perfect age and fathers declining, the father should be as ward to the 
son." Lear, i. 2. 77. 

"And be well contented 

To make your house our tower. You (being) a brother of us, 
It fits we thus proceed, or else no witness 
Would come against you." Hen. VIII. v. I. 106. 

i.e. "Since you are our brother." (Or (?) "though you were our 
brother, it [would be and] is fit to proceed thus.") 

" (Those locks are) often known 
To be the dowry of a second head, 
The skull that bred them (being) in the sepulchre." 

M. of V. iii. 2. 96. 

We retain this use in antithetical phrases, such as "face to face," 
"sword against sword," but we should rarely introduce an adjective 
into such an antithetical compound. Shakespeare, however, has 

"And answer me declined sword 'gainst sword." 

A. and C. iii. 13. 27. 



ELLIPSES. 

382. Several peculiarities of Elizabethan language have already 
been explained by the desire of brevity which characterised the 
authors of the age. Hence arose so many elliptical expressions that 
they deserve a separate treatment. The Elizabethan authors ob 
jected to scarcely any ellipsis, provided the deficiency cou'd be easily 
supplied from the context. 



28o SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

11 V r ouchsafe (to receive) good-morrow from a feeble tongue.' 

y. C. ii. I. 313. 
"When shall we see (one another) again?" 

Cymb. i. I. 124 ; Tr. and Cr. iv. 4. 59 
[ust so we still use "meet." 

"You and I have known (one another), sir." 

A. and C. ii. 6. 86 ; Cymb. i. 4. 36. 

" On their sustaining garments (there is) not a blemish, 
But (the garments are) fresher than before." 

Tempest, i. 2. 219. 

Thus also, as in Latin, a verb of speaking can be omitted where 
it is implied either by some other word, as in 

" She calls me proud, and (says) that 
She could not love me. " A. Y. L. iv. 3. 1 6. 

" But here's a villain that would face me dcnvn 
He met me on the mart." C. of E. iii. i. 7. 

i.e. "maintain to my face that he met me ;" or by a question as in 

"What are you? 

(I ask) Your name and quality ; and why you answer 
This present summons." Lear, \. 3. 120. 

(The Globe inserts a note of interrogation after quality.) 

" Enforce him with his envy to the people, 
And (say) that the spoil got on the Antiates 
Was ne'er distributed." Coriol. iii. 3. 4. 

Thus, by implying from "forbid" a word of speaking, '"bid," and 
not by a double negative, we should perhaps explain 
" You may as well forbid the mountain pines 
To wag their high tops and (bid them) to make no noise. " 

M. cf F. iv. I. 76. 

Thus ' ' I know not whether to depart in silence 
Or bitterly to speak in your reproof 
Best fitteth my degree or your condition. 
If (I thought it fittest) not to answer, you might haply 
think," &c.Rich. III. iii. 7. 144. 

After " O !" "alas !" and other exclamations, a verb of surprise 
or regret is sometimes omitted. 

" (it is pitiful) that deceit should steal such gentle shapes." 

Rich. III. ii. 2. 27. 
" Good God ! (I marvel that) these nobles should such 

stomachs bear : 
I myself fight not once in forty year." I Hen. VI. i. 3. 90 



ELLIPSES. 281 

Sometimes no exclamation is inserted : 

" Ask what thou wilt (1 would) That I had said and done. " 

2. Hen. VI. i. 4. 81. 

Ellipses in Conjunctional Sentences. The Elizabethans 

seem to have especially disliked the repetition which is now con 
sidered necessary, in the latter of two clauses connected by a relative 
or a conjunction. 

383. And: 

" Have you 

Ere now denied the asker, and now again 
Of him that did not ask but mock (do you) bestow 
Your sued-for tongues?" Coriol. ii. 3. 213. 

Here in strictness we ought to have "bestowed," or ' do vou 
bestow." 

An ellipse must be supplied proleptically in 

"(Beggars) Sitting in the stocks refuge their shame, 
That (i.e. because) many have (sat), and many must sit 

there." Rich. //. v. 5. 27. 
" Of (such) dainty and such picking grievances." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. r. 198. 
"It (i.e. love) shall be (too) sparing and too full of riot." 

V. and A. 1147. 
"It shall be (too) merciful and too severe." Ib. 1155. 

384. As: 

" His ascent is not so easya.r (the ascent of) those who," &c. 

Coriol. ii. 2. 30. 

" Returning were as tedious as (to) go o'er." Macb. iii. 4. 138. 
"They boldly press so far as (modern Eng. that) further none 
(press)." B. J. Cy.'s Rev. v. 3. 

" O, 'tis sweating labour 
To bear such idleness so near the heart 
As Cleopatra (bears) this." A. and C. i. 3. 95. 
" And I, that haply take them from him now, 
May yet ere night yield both my life and them 
To some man else, as this dead man doth (to) me." 

3 Hen. VI. ii. 5. 60. 
" Return those duties back as (they)are most fit (to be returned)." 

Lear, i. i. 99. 
At can scarcely, in the above, be taken for " which." 



282 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"This is a strange thing (as strange) as e'er I look'd on." 

Tem.p. v. \. 289 

385. But (after bid the finite verb is to be supplied without the 
negative) : 

"The tender nibbler would not take the bait 
But (would) smile and jest" P. P. 4. 

"To be thus is nothing, 
But to be safely thus (is something)." Macbeth, iii. i. 47 

"And though I could 

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight 
And bid my will avouch it, yet I must not, 
(For certain friends that are both his and mine, 
Whose loves I may not drop,) but (I must) wail his fall 
Who I myself struck down." Macbeth, iii. r. 119. 

Sometimes but itself is omitted : 

" 'Tis not my profit that doth lead mine honour, 

(But it is) Mine honour (that doth lead) it (i.e. profit)." 

A. and C. ii. 7. 83. 

Sometimes the repeated varies slightly from the original propo 
sition : 

" 'Tis not enough to help the feeble up, 

But (it is necessary) to support him after. " ?". of A. L I. 107. 

In the following, the negative is implied in the first verb through 

the question, " Why need we?" i.e. "We need not." The second 

verb must not be taken interrogatively, and thus it omits the negative. 

" Why, what need we 

Commune with you of this, but rather follow 
Our forceful indignation?" IV. T. ii. I. 162. 

>. " Why need we commune with you? we need rather follow oui 
own impulse." Else, if both verbs be taken interrogatively, "but" 
must be taken as "and not :" " Why need we commune with you, 
and not follow our own impulse?" 

Where the negative is part of the subject, as in "none," a new 
subject must be supplied : 

" God, I pray him 

That none of you may live your natural age 
But (each of you) by some unlook'd accident cut ofT." 

Rich. III. \. 3. 214 

386. Ere: 

"The rabble should have first unroof'd the city 
Ere (they should have) so prevail'd with me." Coriol. L i. 222 



ELLIPSES. 183 

" I'll lean upon one crutch and fight with the other 
Ere (I will) stay behind this business." Coriol. \. \. 246. 

387. If: 

" I am more serious than my custom ; you 
Must be so too, if (you must or intend to) heed me." 

Temp. ii. I 220. 
See "must," 314. 

" I yet beseech your majesty 

If (it is) for (i.e. because) I want that glib and oily art 
. . . That you make known," &c. Lear, i. i. 227. 

" O, if (you be) a virgin 

And your affection (be) not gone forth, I'll make you 
The queen of Naples. " Tempest, i. 2. 447-8. 

" Haply you shall not see me more, or //"(you see me), 
(You will see me) A mangled shadow. " A. andC. iv. ii. 27. 

This is a good Greek idiom. So 

" Not like a corse : or if, not to be buried, 

But quick, and in mine arms." W. T. iv. 4. 131. 

In the following hypothetical sentence there is a curious ellipsis : 
" Love, loving not itself, none other can." Rich. II. v. 2. 88. 
i.e. " if a man does not love his own flesh and blood he cannot (love) 
a stranger." 

388. Like (t.e. resembling) : 

"But you like none, none (like) you, for constant heart." Satin. 

388a. Or: 

' ' For women's fear and love holds quantity ; 
In neither (is) aught, or (it is) in extremity." 

Hamlet, iii. z. 178. 

i. t " women's fear and love vary together, are proportionable : they 
either contain nothing, or what they contain is in extremes." 

389. Since: 

"Be guilty of my death since (thou art guilty) of my crime." 

R. of L. 

390 Than: 

"To see sad sights moves more than (to) hear them told." 

R. of L. 451. 



284 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

**It cost more to get than (was fit) to lose in a day."* 

B. J. Poetaster 

v Since I suppose we are made to be no stronger 
Than (that) faults may shake our frames." 

M.for M. ii.4.133. 

" But I am wiser than (I should be were I) to serve their 
precepts." B. J. E. out &c. i. i. 

" My form 

Is yet the cover of a fairer mind 
Than (that which is fit) to be butcher of an innocent child." 

K. J. iv. 2. 258. 

" This must be known ; which being kept close might move 
More grief to hide, than hate to utter (would move) love." 

Hamlet, i. I. 108-9. 

i.t. "this ought to be revealed, for it (273), by being suppressed, 
might excite more grief in the king and queen by the hiding (356) 
of the news, than our unwillingness to tell bad news would excite 
love. " 

" What need we any spur but our own cause 
To prick us to redress ? What other bond 
Than (that of) secret Romans?" J. C. ii. I. 125. 

As in the case of " but " (385), so in the following, the verb must 
be repeated without its negative force : 

" I heard you say that you had rather refuse 
The offer of an hundred thousand crowns 
Than (have) Bolingbroke's return to England." 

Rich. II. iv. i. 17. 

Here, perhaps, the old use of the subjunctive "had" for "would 
have " exerts some influence. 
The word "rather" must be supplied from the termination er in 

" The rarer action is 

In virtue (rather) than in vengeance." Temp. v. I. 28. 
"You are well understood to be a perfects giber for the talle 
than a necessary bencher in the Capitol." Coriol. ii. I. 91. 

391. Though: 

" Saints do not move, though (saints) grant for prayers' sake." 

R. andj. i. 5. 107. 

" I keep but two men and a boy (as) yet, till my mother be dead 
But what though ? Yet I live like a poor gentleman born." 

M. W.ofW. i. i. 287 

* Compare tne Greek idiom. Jelf, ii. 863. a. . 



ELLIPSES. 285 

392. Till : 

" He will not hear till (he) feel." T. of A. ii. 2. 7. 

393. Too .... to : 

" His worth is too well known (for him) to be forth-coming. " 

B. J. E. out dry. v. I. 

394. Relative. (In relative sentences the preposition is often 
not repeated. ) 

" Most ignorant of -what he's most assured (ol)." 

M.forM. ii. 2. 119. 

" A gift of all (of which] he dies possess'd." M. of V. iv. r. 389. 
" Err'd in this point (in) -which now you censure him." 

M. for M. ii. i. 15. 
" For that (for) which, if myself might be his judge, 

He should receive his punishment in thanks. " Ib. 4 28. 
" I do pronounce him in that very shape 

(In which) He shall appear in proof." Hen. VIII.\. \. 196 
" As well appeareth by the cause (for which} you come." 

Rich. II. i. I. 26. 

" In this (in or of) which you accuse her." W. T. ii. I. 133. 
" In that behalf (in) which we have challenged it." 

K. y. ii. i. 264. 
" To die upon the bed (upon which) my father died." 

W. T. iv. 4. 466. 

" In such a cause as fills mine eyes with tears, 
And stops my tongue while (my) heart is drown'd in cares." 

3 Hen. VI. iii. 3. 14. 
There is a proleptic omission in 

" Or (upon) whom frown'st thou that I do fawn upon." 

Sonn. 149. 

395. Antithetical Sentences frequently do not repeat pro 
nouns, verbs, &c. 

" What most he should dislike seems pleasant to him, 
What (he should) like, (seems) offensive." Lear, iv. 2. 10. 

Sometimes the verb has to be repeated in a different tense. 

" To know our enemies' minds we 'Id rip their hearts : 

(To rip) Their papers is more lawful. Lear, iv. 6. 266. 
" To be acknowledg'd, madam, is (to be) overpaid." 

Ib. iv. 7. 4 



286 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

The antithesis often consists in the opposition between past aix 1 
present time. 

" I meant to rectify my conscience, which 
I then did feel full sick, and_jr/ (do feel) not well." 

Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 201 

" And may that soldier a mere recreant prove 
That means not (to be), hath not (been), or is not in love. 1 ' 

Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 288. 

" She -was beloved, she loved ; she is (beloved) and doth (love).' 

Ib. iv. 5. 292. 

396. Ellipsis of Neither before Nor, One before Other. 

" (Neither) He nor that affable familiar ghost." Sonn. 86. 
" But (neither) my five wits nor my five senses can 

Dissuade one foolish heart from seeing thee." Ib. 141. 
' ' A thousand groans . . . 

Came (one) on another's neck." Ib. 131. 
" Pomp. You will not bail me then, sir. 

Lucio. (Neither) Then, Pompey, nor now.-" 

M. for M. iii. 2. 86. 

397. Ellipsis of Adverbial and other Inflections. 

" The duke of Norfolk sprightfully and bold(ly)." 

Rich. //. i. 3. 3. 

" Good gentlemen, look fresh(ly) and merrily." J. C. ii. I. 224. 
" Apt(ly) and willingly." T. N. v. I. 135. 
" With sleided silk, feat(ly) and affectedly." L. C. 48. 
" His grace looks cheerfully and smooth(ly) this morning." 

Rich. III. iii. 4. 50. 
" And she will speak most bitterly and strange(ly)." 

M.forM. v. I. 36. 
' How honourable(y) and how kindly we 

Determine." A. and C. v. I. 58. 

" And that so lamely and unfashionable(y). " Rich. III. \. l. 22. 
It will not escape notice ( I ) that in all but two of these instances 
the -ly is omitted after monosyllabic adjectives, which can be more 
readily used as adverbs without change; (2) that . "honourable," 
" unfashionable," &c., in their old pionunciation would approximate 
to "honourably," " unfashionably," and the former is itself used as 
an adverb. (See I.) Nevertheless it seems probable that this, like 
the following idiom, and like many others, arises partly from the 
readiness with which a compound phrase connected by a conjunction 
is regarded as one and inseparable. Compare 



ELLIPSES. 287 

" Until her husband('s) and my lord's return." M. ofV. iii. 4. 30 
" As soul('s) and body's severing." Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 16 
where " soui-and-body " is a quasi-noun. 

" Shall be your love('s) and labour's recompense." 

Rich. II. ii 3. 62. 

398. Ellipsis of Superlative Inflection. 

" The generous and gravest citizens. " M. for M. iv. 6. 13. 
" Only the grave and wisest of the land." HEYWOOD (Walker). 
"The soft and sweetest music." B. J. (Il>. ). 
" The vain and haughtiest minds the sun e'er saw." 

GOFFE (Il>.). 

" To mark the_///-fraught man and best endued." 

Hen. V. ii. 2. 139. 

"The humble as the proudest sail doth bear." Sonn. 80. 
The fit of the second adjective modifies the first. 
Reversely we have 

"The best condition'd and unwearied spirit," M. of V. iii. 2. 295. 
where " best" modifies the second adjective. 

" Call me the horrid" st and unhallow'd thing 
That life and nature tremble at." MlDDLETON (Walker). 

In "I took him for the plainest harmless creature," 

Rich. III. iii. 4. 25. 

though the meaning may be "the plainest, (the most) harmless 
creature," it is more likely a compound word, "plainest-harmless" 
(see 2). 

399. Ellipsis Of Nominative. Where there can be no doubt 
what is the nominative, it is sometimes omitted. 

" It was upon this fashion bequeathed me by will, but poor a 
thousand crowns, and as thou sayest charged my brother, on hi* 
blessing, to breed me well." A. Y. L.\. I. 3. 

" They call him Doricles : and boasts himself 

To have a worthy feeding." W. T. iv. 4. 168. 
" Who loved her so, that speaking of her foulness 

(He) Washed \i with tears."* M. Ado, iv. i. 156. 
" (It) shall not be long but I'll be here again." 

Macbeth, iv. 2. 28. 

" Nor do we find him forward to be sounded, 
But with a crafty madness keeps aloof." Hamlet, iii. 1.8. 
"That" inipht (but for, 260) be treated as a relative pronoun. 



288 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

This explains K. J. ii. I. 571, and 

' ' When I am very sure, if they should speak, 
(They) Would almost damn those ears which," <ic. 

M. ofV. L I. 97 
Compare 

"Come, fortune's a jade, I care not who tell her, 
<Who, i.e. since she) Would offer to strangle a page of the 
cellar." B. and F. 

" The king must take it ill 
That he's so slightly valued in his messenger, 
(That he or ? you} Should have him thus restrained." 

Lear, ii. 2. 154. 
So Hen. VIII. i. 2. 197. 

The following might be explained by transposition, " may all" for 
" all may :" but more probably " they " is implied : 

" That he awaking when the other do, 
May all to Athens back again repair. " 

M. N. D. iv. i. 72. See also Ib. v. i. 98. 

400. The omission of the Nominative is most common 
with "has," "is," "was," &c. 

"He has" is frequently pronounced and sometimes written "has," 
and "he" easily coalesces with "was,"* "will,'-' &c. Hence these 
cases should be distinguished from those in the preceding paragraph. 

" And to the skirts of this wild wood he came, 
Where, meeting with an old religious man, 
After some question with him -was converted." 

A. Y. L. v. 4. 167. 

"This young gentlewoman had a father whose skill was almost as 
great as his honesty : had it stretch'd so far, would have made nature 
immortal." A. W. i. I. 20. 

"Hero. I'll wear this. 

Marg. By my troth, V not so good." M. Ado, iii. 4. 9 and 18. 

" For Cloten 

There wants no diligence in seeking him, 
And (he) will no doubt be found." Cymb. iv. 3. '21. 

" For I do know Fluellen valiant. 

And, touch'd with choler, hot as gunpowder ; 

A.nd quickly will return an injury." Hen. V. iv. J. 188 

' This is that banish'd haughty Montague, 
And here is come. " R. and y. v. 3. 5% 
* See 461 



ELLIPSES. 289 

" As for Cromwell, 

iieside that of the jewel-house, (he) is made master 
O' the rolls." Hen. VIII. v. i. 34 ; 50. 
' I know the gentleman ; and, as you say, 

There .(he) was a' gaming." Hamlet, ii. r. 58. 
" Bring him forth ; has sat in the stocks all night," &c. 

A. W. iv. 3. 116. 
So Ib. 114, 298 ; T. N. i. 5. 156. 

" 'Tis his own blame: hath put himself from rest." 

Lear, ii. 4. 293. 

Ib. iii. I. 5; Othello, iii. I. 67; T. of A. iii. 2. 39, iii. 3. 23, iv. 
3. 463. This omission is frequent after appellatives or oaths. 

" Poor jade, is wrung in the withers out of all "cess." 

I Hen. IV. ii. I. 6. 

" Poor fellow, never joyed since the price of oats rose." Ib. 11. 
" Richard. Send for some of them. 

Ely. Marry, and -will, my lord, with all my heart." 

Rich. III. iii. 4. 36. 

In " And the fair soul herself, 

Weigh'd between loathnese and obedience, at 

Which end o' the beam should bow," Tempest, ii. i. 131. 

either " she " is omitted, or "should " is for "she would," or " o' " 
has 'been inserted by mistake. 

401. A Nominative in the second person plural or first person 
is less commonly omitted. 

' ' They all rush by 
And leave you hindermost ; 
Or like a gallant horse, fall'n in first rank, 
(You) Lie there for pavement to the abject rear." 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 162. 
" They . . . gave me cold looks, 
And, meeting here the other messenger, 
Having more man than wit about me, (I) drew." 

Lear, ii. 4. 42. 

The / before " pray thee," "beseech thec," is constantly omitted. 
(Tempest, ii. I. 1.) 

" Good-morrow, fair ones ; 
(I) pray you if you know." A. Y. L. iv. 3. 76. 

i,e. "I ask you whether you know." 

The inflection of the second person singular allows the nominative 
to be readily understood, and therefore justifies its omission. 



290 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

" Art any more than a steward?" T. N. ii. 3. 122. 

' ' It was she 

First told me thou wast mad ; then (thou) earnest in smiling. " 

Ib. v. I. 357. 

402. Ellipsis of Nominative explained. This ellipsis o< 

the nominative may perhaps be explained partly (i) by the lingering 
sense of inflections, which of themselves are sometimes sufficient to 
indicate the person of the pronoun understood, as in Milton 

" Thou art my son beloved : in him am pleased ;" 
partly (2) by the influence of Latin ; partly (3) by the rapidity of 
the Elizabethan pronunciation, which frequently changed "he" into 
" "a" (a change also common in E. E.), 

" 'a must needs," 2 Hen. VI. iv. z. 59. 

and prepared the way for dropping "he" altogether. Thus perhaps 

in "Who if alive and ever dare to challenge this glove, I have 

sworn to take him a box o' th' ear," Hen. V. iv. 7. 132. 

we should read " 'a live and ever dare." In the French of Rabelais 
the pronouns are continually dropped : but the fuller inflections in 
French render the omission less inconvenient than in English. In 
the following instance there is an ambiguity which is only removed 
by the context : 

' ' We two saw you four set on four ; and (you) bound them 
and were masters of their wealth." I Hen. IV. ii. 4. 278. 

403. Ellipsis of it is, There is, Is. 

" So beauty blemish'd once (is) for ever lost." P. P. 13. 
"I cannot give guess how near (it is) to day." J. C. ii. i. 2, 

" Seldom (is it) when 
The steeled gaoler is the friend of men." 

M. for M. iv. z. 90. 
"And (it is) wisdom 

To offer up a weak poor innocent' lamb. " Macb. iv. 3. 16. 
"Since [there is neither (163)] brass nor stone nor earth nor 

boundless sea, 

But sad mortality o'ersways their power." Sonn. 64. 
"'Tis certain, every man that dies ill, the ill (is) upon hi: 
own head." Hen. V. iv. I. 197. 
" Many years, 

Though Cloten (was) then but young, you see, not wore him 
From my remembrance." Cymb. iv. 4. 2J. 



ELLIPSES. 29i 

toHen. V. iv. 7. 132 (quoted in 402), if the text be retained 

s M w A T St \? WhCther " arC " 1S mitted ' or whether dess pro- 
^bly) (And, 95) " and " is used for " also with a nom. absolute, i,, 

. "But 'tis not so above: 

Ihere is no shuffling, there the action lies 
In his true nature : and we ourselves (? are) compelled 
To give m evidence." Hamlet, iii. 3. 62 ; T. N. i. T 38 ; 
ww , . , Hen. V. i. i'. 5?' 

Which I did store to be my foster-nurse, 
When service should in my old limbs lie lame 
And unregarded age (? should be) in corners thrown " 

A. Y. L. ii. 3. 4-2. 

^ As the verb is omitted by us constantly after "whatever " e ? 
anything whatever," so Shakespeare could write, 

" Beyond all limit of what else (is) in the world." 
TI , Temp. iii. r. 172. 

Ihusalso "however" is for " however it may be," i.e. "in any 



case 



If haply won perhaps a hapless gain ; 

f lost, why then a grievous labour won ; 
However (it be), but a folly bought with wit." 
w T.G.of V. i. i. 31, 

We have passed in the use of "however" from the meaning "in 
spite of what may happen in ^future," to "in spite of what 
happened in the/arf," i.e. "nevertheless." 

"There is" is often omitted with "no one but," as 
" (There is) no one in this presence 
But his red colour hath forsook his cheeks." 

. " Who is " (244) is omitted in *** /7/ "' '" 84 ' 

"Here's a young maid (who is) with travel much oppressed, 

And faints for succour. ",4. Y. L. ii. 4. 75. 
Otherwise the nominative (399) is omitted before "faints." 

404. Ellipsis of it and There. 

" Whose wraths to guard you from, 
\\hich here in this most desolate isle else falls 
Upon your head, (there) is nothing but heart-sorrow 

^ And a clear life ensuing. " Temp. iii. 2. 82. 

" Satisfaction (there) can be none but by pangs of deal}, " 



T. N. hi. i -a. 
u a 



202 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" D. Pedro. What ! sigh for the toothache? 

Lean. Where (there) is but a humour or a worm." 

M. Ado, \ii. 2. 27 ; Ib. ii. 2. 20. 

" At the Elephant (it) is best to lodge."/ 1 . N. iii. 3/40. 
" Be (it) what it is." Cymb. v. 4. 149. 
" The less you meddle with them the more (it) is for your 
honesty." M. Ado, iii. 3. 56. 

Tlie omission is common before "please." 

" So please (it) him (to) come unto this place." J. C. iii. 1. 140. 
" Is (it) then unjust to each his due to give ?" 

SPENS. F. Q. i. 9. 33. 
" (ft) remains 

That in the official marks invested you 
Anon do meet the Senate." Coriol. ii. 3. 147. 

This construction is quite as correct as our modem form with 
"it." The sentence "That in. ... Senate," is the subject tc 
" remains." So 

' ' And that in Tarsus (it) was not best 

Longer for him to make his rest." Pericl. ii. Gower, 25. 
" Happiest of all is (it or this), that her gentle spirit 

Commits itself to you to be directed." M. ofV. iii. 2. 166. 

We see how unnecessary and redundant our modern " it" is from 
the following passage : 

" Unless self-charity be sometimes a vice, 
And to defend ourselves it be a sin." Othello, ii. 3. 203. 

This is (if the order of the words be disregarded) as good English as 
our modern " Unless it be a sin to defend ourselves." The fact is. 
this use of the modern "it" is an irregularity only justified by the 
clearness which it promotes. "It" at thebeginningofasenten.ee 
calls attention to the real subject which is to follow. " It is a sin, 
viz. to defend oneself." 

The sentence is sometimes placed as the object, "it" being 
omitted. 

" But long she thinks (it) till he return again." A', of L. 454. 

"Being" is often used for "it being," or "being sc, :> very much 
like Sv and its compounds in Greek. 

" That Lepidus of the triumvirate 
Should be deposed ; and, (it) being (so), that we detain 
All his revenue." A. and C. iii. 6. 3". 



ELLIPSES. 293 

1 I learn you take things ill which are not so 
Or, being (so), concern you not." A. and C. ii. 2. 30. 

405. Ellipses after will and is. 

"I will," i.e. " I purpose," when followed by a preposition of 
motion, might naturally be supposed to mean " I purpose motion." 
Hence, as we have 

" He purposeth to Athens," A. and C. iii. i. 35. 
so " /'// to him." R. and J. iii. 2. 141. 
" Will you. along?" Coriol. ii. 3. 157. 
"Now we'// together." Macbeth, iv. 3. 136. 

" I will to-morrow, 

And betimes I will, to the weird sisters." Ib. iii. 4. 133. 
" Strange things I have in head that will to hand." 

Ib. iii. 4. 139. 
Compare 

"Give these fellows some means (of access) to the king." 

Hamlet, iv. 6. 13. 
Similarly, as we have 

"I must (go) to Coventry." Rich. II. i. 2. 56. 
" I must (go) a dozen mile to-night." 2 Hen. IV, iii. 2. 310. 
so "And he to England shall along with you." Hamlet, iii. 3. 4. 
We still say, " He is (journeying) for Paris," but not 

" He is (ready) for no gallants' company without them." 

B. J. E. o^lt &c. i. I. 
"Any ordinary groom is (fit) for such payment." 

Hen. VIII. v. i. 174. 
So T. N. iii. 3. 46 ; A. W. iii. 6. 109. 

"I am (bound) to thank you for it." T. of A. i. 2. 111. 
Such an ellipsis explains 

' ' Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom 
Of such a thing as thou, (a thing Jit) to fear (act. ), not to 
delight." Othello, i. 2. 71. 

Again, we might perhaps say, "This is not a sky (fit) to walk 
ander, " but not 

" This sky is not (fit) to walk in." J. C. i. 3. 39. 
The modern distinction in such phrases appears to be this : when 
the noun follows is, there is an ellipse of "fit," "worthy:" when 
the noun precedes is, there is an ellipse of "intended," ''made. ' 



294 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Thus : " this is a book to read" means " this is a book worthy to 
read;" but, "this book is to read and not to tear," means "this 
book is intended or made for the purpose of reading." This dis 
tinction was not recognized by the Elizabethans. When we wish to 
express "worthy" elliptically, we insert a: "He is a man to re 
spect," or we use the passive, and say, "He is to be respected." 
Shakespeare could have written "He is to respect" in this sense. 
The Elizabethans used the active in many cases where we should 
use the passive. Thus 

"IA\\\e\stoito."AIacl>ft/i t v. 7. 28. 

"What's more to do." Ib. v. 8. 64; A. and C. ii. 6. 60; 

J. C. iii. I. 26 ; 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 3. 

Hence "This food is not to eat" might in Shakespeare's time have 
meant "This food is notyfr to eat;" now, it could only mean "in 
tended to eat." Similarly "videndus" in Cicero meant "one 
who ought to be seen," " worthy to be seen ;" but in poetry and 
in later prose it meant "one who may be seen," "visible." 

The following passages illustrate the variable nature of this 
ellipsis : " I have been a debtor to you 

For curtesies which I will be ever to pay you, 
And yet pay still." Cymb. i. 4. 39. 

i.e. "kindnesses which I intend to be always ready to pay you, and 
yet to go on paying." 

We still retain an ellipsis of "under necessity" in the phrase 

"I am (yet) to learn." M. of V. i. i. 5. 
But we should not say : 

"That ancient Painter who being (under necessity) to represeni 
the griefe of the bystanders," &c. MONTAIGNE, 3. 

We should rather translate literally from Montaigne: " Ayatr 
a representer. " 

In " I am to break with thee of some affairs," 

T. G. ofV. iii. i. ,'9. 

the meaning is partly of desire and partly of necessity: "I want. 
So Bottom says to his fellows : 

"O, masters, I am (ready) to discourse wonders." 

M. N. D. iv. 29- 
The ellipsis is ' ' sufficient " in 

" Mark Antony is every hour in Rome 
Expected ; since he went from Egypt 'tis 
A space (sufficient) for further travel." A. and C. ii. I. 81 



IRREGULARITIES. 295 



IRREGULAR1T1 ES. 

406. Double Negative. Many irregularities may be explained 
by the desire of emphasis which suggests repetition, even where 
/epetition, as in the case of a negative, neutralizes the original 
phrase : 

' ' First he denied you had in him no right. " 

C. ofE. iv. 2. 7. 
"You may deny that you were not the cause." 

Rich. III. i. 3. 90. 

" Forbade the boy he should not pass these bounds." P. P. 124 
" No sonne, were he* never so old of yeares, might not 
marry." ASCH. 37. 

This idiom is a very natural one, and quite common in E. E. 

Double Comparative and Superlative. See Adjectives, ". 

407. Double Preposition. Where the verb is at some dis 
tance from the preposition with which it is connected, the preposi 
tion is frequently repeated for the sake of clearness. 

"And generally in all shapes that man goes up and down in, 
from fourscore to thirteen, this spirit walks in. " 

T. of A. ii. 2. 119. 

"For in what case shall wretched I be in." DANIEL. 
"But on us both did haggish age steal on." A. W. i. 2. 29. 
" The scene wherew we play in." A. Y. L. ii. 7. 139. 
"In what enormity is Marcius poor in?" Coriol. ii. I. 18. 
" To what form but that he is, should wit larded with malice, and 
malice forced with wit, turn him to?" Tr. and Cr. v. I. 63. 

408. "Neither . . . nor," used like "Both . . . and," fol 
lowed by "not." 

" Not the king's crown nor the deputed sword, 
The marshal's truncheon nor the judge's robe, 
become them," &c. M. for M. ii. 2. 60. 

* The use of "never so " is to be explained (as in Greek, OauyuaffTov 6?) 
by an ellipsis. Thus 

"Though ne'er so richly parted (endowed)." E. out Av. iii. i. 
means " Though he were endowed richly though never a man were endowed 
so richly." 



29b SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Tliis very natural irregularity (natural, since the tinbecomingnut 
may be regarded as predicated both of the "king's crown," the 
"deputed sword," and the "marshal's truncheon") is very 
common. 

" He nor that affable familiar ghost 
That nightly gulls him with intelligence 
As victors of my silence cannot (406) boast. "-- -Sonn. 86. 

The following passage may perhaps be similarly explained : 

' ' He* waived indifferently 'twixt doing them neither good nor 
term." Cartel. 11. 2. 19, 20. 

But it is perhaps more correct to say that there is here a 
confusion of two constructions, " He waived 'twixt good and 
harm, doing them neither good nor harm." The same con 
fusion of two constructions is exemplified below in the use of the 
superlative. 

409. Confusion of two Constructions in Superlatives. 

" This is the greatest error of all the rest." M. N. D. v. I. 252. 
" Of all other affections it is the most importune." B. E.Envy. 
"York is most unmeet of any man." 2 Hen. VI. i. 3. 167. 
" Of all men else I have avoided thee." Macbeth, v. 8. 4. 
1 ' He hath simply the best wit of any handicraft-man in Athens. " 

M. N. D. iv. 2. 9. 
" To try whose right, 

Of thine or mine * is most'vn. Helena." Ib. iii. 2. 337. 
" I do not like the tower of any place." Rich. III. iii. i. 68. 
This (which is a thoroughly Greek idiom, though independent in 
English) is illustrated by Milton's famous line 

" T}\&\fairest of her daughters Eve." 

The line is a confusion of two constructions, "Eve fairer than 
all her daughters," and " Eve fairest of all women." So " I dislike 
the tower more than any place" and "most of all places," becomes 
" of any place. " 

Our modern "He is the best man that I have ever seen," seems 
itself to be incorrect, if "that" be the relative to "man." It may, 
perhaps, be an abbreviation of "He is the best man of the men 
that I have ever seen." 

C'Vimo. if the reading be retained 

"Which, of he or Adrian, begins to crowt" Temp. i. i. 29. 



IRREGULARITIES. 297 

410. Confusion of two constructions with "whom." 

"Young Ferdinand -whom they suppose is drown "d." 

Temp. iii. 3. 92. 

" Of Arthur whom they say is killed to-night." A". J. iv. 2. 165. 

" The nobility . . . whom vre see have sided." Coriol. iv. 2. 2. 
So in St. Matt. xvi. 13, all the versions except Wickliffe's have 
" Whom do men say that I, the son of man, am?" Wickliffe ha* 
" Whom seien men to be mannes sone ?" 

The last passage explains the idiom. It is a confusion of two 
constructions, e.g. "Ferdinand who, they suppose, is drowned" 
and "'whom they suppose to be drowned." 

411. Other confusions of two constructions. 

' ' Why I do trifle thus with his despair 
Is done to cure it," Lear, iv. 6. 33. 

combines " Why I trifle is to cure" and "My trifling is done to 
cure. " In itself it is illogical. 

" The battle done, and they within our power 
SW11 never see his pardon," Lear, v. i. 67. 

is a confusion of " let the battle be done, and they" and "the battle 
(being) done, they." 

" I saw not better sport these seven years day." 2 Hen. VI. ii. I. 3. 
A combination of "since this day seven years" and " during these 
seven years."' 

" Out of all 'cess (excess)," I Hen. IV. ii. I. 6. 
is a confusion of "to excess" or "in excess" and "out of all 
bounds." " So late ago," T. N. v. I. 22, seems a combination 
of "so lately " and "so short a time ago" 

"Marry that, I think, be young Petruchio," R. and J. i. 5. 133. 
is a confusion of "That, I think, is" and "I think that that be." 
For the subjunctive after " think," see Subjunctive, 368 and 299. 

So, perhaps, 

"This youth, howe'er distressed, appears he hath had 

Good ancestors," Cymb. iv. 2. 47. 

is a confusion of " He hath had, (it) appears, good ancestors," and 
' He appears to have had. " This is, perhaps, better than to take 
"appears" as an active veii. 866295. Precisely similar is : 

" Let what is meet be said, it must be meet." Coriol. iii. i. 170. 



9-S SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

combining "Let what is meet be said to be" and "Let it be said 
(that) what is meet must be meet." 

Compare 353, and add, as a confusion of the infinitive -and 
imperative, 

"There is no more but (to) say so." Rich. III. iv. 2. 81. 
In "We would have had you heard,'' Ib. III. iii. 5. 56, there 
may be some confusion between "you should have heard " and " we 
would have had you hear ; " but more probably the full construction 
is " We would have had you (to have) heard (360)," and " to have " is 
omitted through dislike of repetition. So Coriol. iv. 6. 35(415) : 
" We should . . . found 'it so." 
Compare also 

"He would have had me (to have) gone into the steeple-house. " 

Fox's Journal (ed. 1765), p. 57. 
" He would have had me (to have) had 'a meeting. " Ib. p. 60. 

412. Confusion Of proximity. The following (though a not 
uncommon Shakespearian idiom) would be called an unpardonable 
mistake in modern authors : 

" The posture of your blows are yet unknown." J. C. v. I. 33 
" Whose loss of his most precious queen and children 
Are even now to be afresh lamented." W. T. iv. 2. 20. 

" Which now the loving haste of these dear friends 
Somewhat against our meaning have prevented." 

Rich. III. iii. 5. 56. 

" The venom of such looks, we fairly hope, 
Havelo^L their quality." Hen. V. v. 2. 19. 

" But yet the state of things require." DANIEL, Ulysses and Siren t 
"The approbation of those . . . are," &c.Cymi>. i 4. 17. 

"How the sight 

Of those smooth rising cheeks renew the story 
Of young Adonis." B. F. F. Sh. i. I. 
"Equality of two domestic powers 
Breed scrupulous faction." A. and C. i. 3. 48. 

" The -voice of all the gods 
Make heaven drowsy." Z. Z. Z. iv. 3. 345. 

Here, however, "voice" may be (471) for "voices." 

"Then know 
The peril of our curses light on thee." K. J. iii. l. 2*>5 



IRREGULARITIES. *QQ 

' The very thought of my revenges that way 
Recoil upon myself." W. T. ii. 3. 20. 

" More than the scope 
Of these delated articles allow." Hamlet, i. 2. 38. 

/he subjunctive is not required, and therefore " have " is probably 
plural, in 

" If the scorn of your bright eyne 
Have power to raise such love in mine." A. Y. L. iv. 3. 51. 

In these cases the proximity of a plural noun seems to have caused 
the plural verb, contrary to the rules of grammar. The two nouns 
together connected by "of" seem regarded as a compound noun 
with plural termination. So 

" These kind-ot-knaves." Lear, ii. 2. 107. 

" r/^blest-/a*y-of-nxed-.r/0rj." B. and F. F. Sh. ii. I. 

" These happy -pair of lovers meet straightway." Ib. 
Similarly 

"Where such zsthou mayest find him." Macbeth, iv. 2. 81. 
In the following instance the plural nominative is implied from 
the previous singular noun 

" As every alien pen hath got my use, 
And under thee their poesy disperse. " Sonn. 78. 

In " And the stars whose feeble light 

Give a pale shadow to the night," B. and F. F. Sh. iii. 1. 

perhaps " give" may be subjunctive after the relative. (See 367.) 

413. Implied nominative from participial phrases. Some 
times a nominative has to be extracted ungrammatically from the 
meaning of a sentence. This is often the case in participial phrases : 

' ' Beaten for loyalty 
Excited me to treason." Cymb. v. 5. 343. 

i.e. " my having been beaten." 

' ' The king of his own virtuous disposition, 
Aiming belike at your interior hatred, 
Which in your outward actions shews itself, 
Makes him to send." Rich. III. i. 2. 63. 

i.e. " the fact that the king aims makes him to send " 

414. The redundant Object, instead of saying "I know 

what you are," in which the object of the verb " I know" is the 
clause " what you are," Shakespeare frequently introduces ln-fort 



300 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

the dependent clause another object, so as to make the depen leni 
clause a mere explanation of the object. 

" I know you what you are." Lear, i. I. 272. 
" I S.QQ you what you are." T. N. i. 5. 269. 
" Conceal me what I am." Ib. i. 2. 53. 
" You hear the learn 'd Bellario what he writes." 

M. of V. iv. i. 167. 

"We'll hear him what he says." A. and C. v. I. 51. 
" To give me hearing what I shall reply." 

i Hen. VI. iii. I. 28. 
" But wilt thou hear me how I did proceed ?" 

Hamlet, v. 2. 27 
" March on and mark King Richard how he looks." 

Rich. II. iii. 3. 61 ; Ib. v. 4 1. 
" Sorry I am my noble cousin should 
Suspect me that I mean no good to him. " 

Rich. III. iii. 7. 89. 
" See the dew-drops, how they kiss 
Every little flower that is." B. and F. F. S/i. ii. I. 

Hence in the passive : 

" The queen's in labour, 
(They say in great extremity) and fear'd 
She'll with the labour end," Hen. VIII. v. I. 19. 

where the active would have been ' ' they fear the queen that she will 
die." For "fear" thus used, see Prepositions, 200. 

So " no one asks about the dead man's knell for whom it is " 
becomes in the passive 

" The dead man's knell 
Is there scarce asked, for who" Macbeth, iv. 3. 171. 

and "about which it is a wonder how his grace should glean it" 
becomes 

* Which is a wonder how his grace should glean it." 

Hen. V. L i. 53. 

This idiom is of constant occurrence in Greek , but it is very 
natural after a verb of observation to put, first the primary object of 
observation, e.g, " King Richard," and then the secondary object, 
viz. " King Richard's looks." There is, therefore, no reason what 
ever for supposing that this idiom is borrowed from the Greek. After 
a verb of commanding the object cannot always be called redundant, 



IRREGULARITIES 301 

" (She) bade me, if I had a friend that loved her, 
I onouid but teach him how to tell my story." 

Othello, i. 3. 165, 
**s "she commanded me (that) I should," &c. But it is redundant in 

"The constable desires thee thou wilt mind 
Thy followers of repentance." Hen. V. iv. 3. 84. 

" He wills you . . . that you divest yourself. " Ib. ii. 4. 77-8. 
Compare 

" Belike they had some notice of (about) the people 
How I had moved them." J-. C. iii. 2. 275. 

A somewhat different case of the redundant object is found in 

" Know you not, master, to some kind of men 
Their graces serve them but as enemies ? 
No more do yours," A, Y. L. ii. 3. 10. 

where the last line means, "your graces are not more serviceable 
to you. " 

415. Construction changed by change of thought. 

"One of the prettiest touches was when, at the relation of the 
queen's death, . . . /i<nv attentiveness wounded his daughter." 
m T. v. 2. 94. 

The narrator first intends to narrate the point of time, then 
diverges into the manner, of the action. 

" Purpose is but the slave to memory, 
Which now, like fruit unripe, sticks on the tree, 
Butyb// unshaken when they mellow be." Hamlet, iii. 2. 201. 

The subject, which is singular, is here confused with, and lost in, 
that to which it is compared, which is plural. Perhaps this ex 
planation also suits : 

" And then our arms, like to a muzzled bear, 
Save in aspect hath all offence sealed up," K. J. ii. I. 250. 

though this may be a case of plural nominative with singular verb. 
(See 334.) 

In the following, Henry V. begins by dictating a proclamation, 
but under the influence of indignation passes into the imperative of 
the proclamation itself : 

"Rather proclaim it, Westmoreland, through our host 
That he which hath no stomach to this fight 
Let him depart " Hen. V. iv. 3. 35-6. 



jo2 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

This is more probable than that " he " (224) is used for " man." 
" Should " is treated as though it were " should have " (owing to 

the introduction of the conditional sentence with "had") in the 

following anomalous passage : 

" We should by this to all our lamentation, 

If he had gone forth consul, found it so." Coriol. iv. 6. 35. 
So Rifh. III. iii. 5. 56 (411). 

The way in which a divergence can be made from the subject to 
the thing compared with the subject is illustrated by 

" So the proportions of defence are filled : 
Which, of a weak and niggardly projection, 
Doth, like a miser, spoil his coat with scanting 
A little cloth." Hen. V. ii. 4. 46. 

" Whose veins, like a dull river far from spring 
Is still the same, slow, heavy, and unfit 
For stream and motion, though the strong winds hit 
With their continual power upon his sides." 

B. and F. F. Sh. i. i. 
" But, good my brother, 
Do not, as some ungracious pastors do, 
Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven, 
Whiles, like a puffed and reckless libertine, 
Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads." 

Hamlet, \. 3. 50. 
instead of " whiles you tread." But in 

"Those sleeping stones 
That, as a waist, doth girdle you about, 
Had been dishabited," K. J. ii. I. 216. 

"doth," probably, has "that" for its subject. See Relative, 247. 

Tn " Are not you he 

That frights the maidens of the villagery, 
Skim milk, and sometimes labour in the quern 
And bootless make the breathless housewife chum?" 

M. N. D. ii. I. 35-9. 

the transition is natural from "Are not you the person who?" to 
" Do not you ?" 

416. Construction changed for clearness. (See also 285.) 

Just as (285) that is sometimes omitted and then inserted to connect 
a distant clause with a first part of a sentence, so sometimes '' to" 
is inserted apparently for the same reason 



IRREGULARITIES. 303 

" That God forbid, that made me first your slave, 
I should in thought control your times of pleasure, 
Or at your hand the account of hours to crave." So tin 58. 

Here "to" might be omitted, or "should" might be inserted 
instead, but the omission would create ambiguity, and the insertion 
would be a tedious repetition. 

" Heaven would that she these gifts should have, 
And I to live and die her slave." A. Y. L, iii. 2. 162. 

" Keep your word, Phoebe, that you'// marry me, 
Or else, refusing me, to wed this shepherd. " 

Ib. v. 4. 21-2. 

" But on this condition, that she should follow him, and he not 
to follow her." BACON, Adv. of L. 284. 

" The punishment was, that they should be put out of commons 
and not to be admitted to the table of the gods." Ib. 260. 

" That we make a stand upon the ancient way, and look about 
us and discover what is the straight and right way, and so 
to walk in it." B. . loo. 

In the following, the infinitive is used in both clauses, but the "to" 
only in the latter : 

" In a word, a man were better relate himself to a Statue 01 
Picture, than to suffer his thoughts to pass in smother." 

B. E. 103. 



417. Noun Absolute. See also Redundant Pronoun, 243. 

Sometimes a noun occurs in a prominent position at the beginning 
of a sentence, to express the subject of the thought, without the 
usual grammatical connection with a verb or preposition. In some 
cases it might almost be called a vocative, only that the third person 
instead of the second is used, and then the pronoun is not redundant. 
Sometimes the noun seems the real subject or object of the verb, 
and the pronoun seems redundant. When the noun is the object, it 
is probably governed by some preposition understood, "as for," 
"as to." 

" My life's foul deed, my life's fair end shall free it." R. ofL. 

" The prince that feeds great natures, they will slay him." 

B. J. Sejanus, iii. 3. 

" But virtue, as it never will be moved, 
So lust," &c. HamU't, i. 5. 53. 



304 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Look when I vow, I weep ; and vows so born, 

In their nativity all truth appears." M. N. D. iii. 2. 124 
But this may be explained by 376. 

'"Tis certain, every man that dies ill, the ill upon his own head. 1 ' 
Hen. V. iv. I. 197. 

' ' But if I thrive, the gain of my attempt 
The least of you shall share his part thereof." 

Rich. III. v. 3. 267. 
" That thing you speak of I took it for a man." Lear, iv. 6. 77. 

The following may be thus explained : 

"Rather proclaim it, Westmoreland, through our host, 
That he which hath no stomach to this fight, 
Let him depart." Hen. V. iv. 3. 34. 

" That can we not . . . but he that proves the king 
To him will we prove loyal." K. J. ii. I. 271. 

" lie" being regarded as the normal form of the pronoun, is appro 
priate for this independent position. So 

"But I shall laugh at this a twelve-month hence, 
That they who brought me in my master's hate 
I live to look upon their tragedy." Rich. III. iii. 2. 57. 

These three examples might, however, come under the head of 
Construction Changed, 415, as the following (which closely 
resembles the first) certainly does : 

" My lord the emperor, 

Sends thee this word that, if thou love thy son, 
Let Marcius, Lucius, or thyself, old Titus, 
Or any one of you, chop off your hand." T. A. iii. i. 151 

In this, and perhaps in the first example, the "that," like Srt Lu 
Greek, is equivalent to inverted commas. 

"May it please your grace, Antipholi4s, my husband, 
Whom I made lord of me, . . . this ill day 
A mo-it outrageous fit of madness took him." 

C. of E. v. i. 138. 
' The trumpery in my house, go bring it hither." Temp. iv. I. 186. 

It is, of course, possible to have an infinitive instead of a noun : 
" To strike him dead, I hold it not a sin." R. and J. i. 4. 61. 
For the noun absolute with the participle, see Participle, 376. 

418. Foreign Idioms. Several constructions in Bacon, Ascham, 
and Ben Jonson, such as "ill," for "ill men" (Latin 'mali'), 
" without all question " ( ' sine omni dubitatione '), seem to have beeu 



IRREGULARITIES. 305 

oorrowed from Latin. It is questionable, however, whether there 
are many Latinisms in construction (Latinisms in the formation of 
words are of constant occurrence) in Shakespeare. We may 
perhaps quote 

" Those dispositions that of late transform you 
From what you rightly are." Lear, i. 4. 242. 

Compare 

" He is ready to cry all this day," B. J. Sil. Worn. 4. 
as an imitation of the Latin use of "jampridem" with the present 
in the sense of the perfect. But it is quite possible that the same 
thought of continuance may have prompted the use of the present, 
both in English and Latin. " He is and has been ready to cry,"&c. 
The use of ' ' more better," &c. , the double negative, and the infinitive 
after ' than," are certainly of English origin. The following 

' ' Whispering fame 

Knowledge and proof doth to the jealous give, 
Who than to fail would their own thought believe," 

B. J. Sejan. z. 

in the omission of "rather" after "would," reminds us of the omis 
sion of "potius" after "malo." Perhaps also 

" Let that be mine," M. for M. ii. 2. 12. 
is an imitation of "meum est," " It is my business." 

The following resembles the Latin idiom, "post urbem conditam," 
except that there is also an ellipsis of a pronoun : 

" 'Tis our hope, sir, 

After (our being) well enter 'd (as) soldiers, to return 
And find your grace in health." A. W. ii. I. 6. 

I cannot recall another such an instance, and it is doubtful whe 
ther "after" does not here mean "hereafter:" "It is our hope 
to return hereafter well-apprenticed soldiers." But such participial 
phrases preceded by prepositions seem to be of classical origin, as 
iu Milton : 

" Nor delay'd 
The winged saint after his charge received" 

MILTON, P. L. v. 248. 

" He, after Eve seduced, unminded slunk 
Into the wood fast by." Ib. 332. 

md even, contrary to the paiticular Latin idiom : 

"'ihey set him free without his ransom paid " j tten. VL'iii, 3.72. 



306 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

The following resembles the Latin use of " qui si," for the English 
"and if he." 

" Which parti- coated presence of loose love 
Put on by us, if in your heavenly eyes 
Have misbecomed our oaths and gravities." L. L. L. v. 2. 778, 

419. Transposition of Adjectives. 

The adjective is placed after the noun : 

(1) In legal expressions in which French influence can be traced 

" Heir apparent." i Hen. IV. i. 2. 65. 

" Heir general." Hen. V. i. 2. 66. 

"Thou cam'st not of the blood-royal." i. Hen. IV. i. 2. 157, 

"In the seat royal." Rich. III. iii. i. 164. 

" Sport royal." T. N. ii. 3. 187. 

" Or whether that the body public be a horse." 

M.forM. i. 2. 163. 
" My letters patents (Fol. ) give me leave." Rich. II. ii. 3. 130. 

(2) Where a relative clause, or some conjunctional clause, \s 
understood between the noun and adjective : 

' ' Duncan's horses, 

(Though) Beauteous and swift, the minions of their race, 
Turned wild in nature." Macbeth, ii. 4. 15. 
"Filling the whole realm . . . with new opinions 
(That are) Divers and dangerous." Hen. VIII. v. 3. 18. 

Hence, where the noun is unemphatic as "thing," "creature," 
this transposition may be expected : 

"In killing creatures (that were) vile." Cvmb. v. 5. 252. 
" He look'd upon things (that are) precious as they were 
The common muck of the world." Coriol. ii. 2. 129. 

Hence, after the name of a class, the adjective is more likely to be 
transposed than in the case of a proper name. Thus 

" Celestial Dian, goddess argentine." P. of T. v. 2. 251. 
i.e. " goddess (that bearest) the silver bow." The difference between 
a mere epithet before the noun, and an additional statement conveyed 
by an adjective after the noun, is illustrated by 

" If yet your gentle souls fly in the air 
And be not fix'd in (a) doom (that is) perpetual." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 11, 12. 
Similarly in 

"With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut." A. Y. L. ii. 7. 165, 



TRANSPOSITIONS. 707 

" My presence like a ttfoz pontifical " I Hen IV. iii. 2. 56. 
"eyes" and "a robe" are unemphatic, their existence being taken 
for granted, and the essence of the expression is in the transposed 
adjective. 

The "three" is emphatic, and the divorcing of some "souls and 
bodies " is taken as a matter of course, in 

" Souls and bodies hath he divorced three." T. N. Hi 4. 260 
Somewhat similar 

"Satisfaction there can be none." Ib. 262. 

This relative force is well illustrated by 

" Prince. I fear no nndes dead. 

Glou. Nor none that live, I hope. " 

Rich. III. iii. i. 146. 

(3) Hence participles (since they imply a relative), and any 
adjectives that from their terminations resemble participles, are 
peculiarly liable to be thus transposed. 

Similarly adjectives that end in -ble, -ite, and -t, -ive, -al, are often 
found after their nouns, e.g. "unspeakable," "unscaleable," "im 
pregnable;" "absolute," "devout," "remote," "infinite" (often), 
"past," "inveterate;" "compulsative," "invasive," "defective;" 
"capital," "tyrannical," "virginal," "angelical," "unnatural." 

(4) Though it may be generally said that when the noun is un 
emphatic, and the adjective is not a mere epithet but essential to 
the sense, the transposition may be expected, yet it is probable that 
the influence of the French idiom made this transposition especially 
common in the case of some words derived from French. Hence, 
perhaps, the transposition in 

" Of antres vast and deserts idle." Othello, i. 2. 140. 
And, besides "apparent" in fhe legal sense above, we have 

" As well the fear of harm as harm apparent." 

Rich. III. ii. 2. 130. 

Hence, perhaps, the frequent transposition of " divine," as 
"By Providence divine. " Tempest, i. 2. 158. 

So " Ful wel sche sang the service devyne." 

CHAUCER, C. T. 122. 
"Men devout." Hen. V. \. l. S. 

" Unto the appetite and affection common." Coriol. i. I. 108 

X 2 



jo8 SHAKESPEARTAN GRAMMAR. 

Latin usage may account for some expressions, as 

" A sectary astronomical. " Lear, \. 2. 164. 

419 a. Transposition of adjectival phrases. 

It has been shown above (419), that when an adjective is not a 
mere epithet, but expresses something essential, and implies a rela 
tive, it is often placed after the noun. When, however, connected 
with the adjective, e.g. "whiter," there is some adverbial pnrase, 
e.g. "than snow," it was felt that to place the adjective after the 
noun might sometimes destroy the connection between the noun and 
adjective, since the adjective was, as it were, drawn forward to the 
modifying adverb. Hence the Elizabethans sometimes preferred to 
place the adjectival part of the adjective before, and the adverbial 
part after, the noun. The noun generally being unemphatic caused 
but slight separation between the two parts of the adjectival 
phrase. Thus " whiter than snow," being an adjectival phrase, 
" whiter" is inserted before, and " than snow" after, the noun. 

" Nor scar that [whiter] skin-of-hers [than snow]." 

Othello, v. 2. 4. 

" So much I hate a [breaking] cause to be 
[Of heavenly oaths]. " L. L. L. v. 2. 355. 

So "A [promising] face [of manly princely virtues]." 

B. and F. (Walker). 
" As common 
As any [the most vulgar] thing [to sense]." Ham. i. 2. 99. 

i.e. "anything the most commo.nly perceived." 

" I shall unfold [equal] discourtesy 
[To your best kindness]." Cymb. ii. 3. 101. 
"The [farthest] earth [removed from thee]." Sonn. 44 
"Bid these [unknown] friends [to us], welcome." 

W. T. iv. 3. 65 
" Thou [bloodier] villain [than terms can give thee out]." 

Macbeth, v. 8. 7. 
"A [happy] gentleman [in blood and lineaments]." 

Rich. II. iii. I. 9. 
" As a [long-parted] mother [with her child]." 

Ib. iil 2. 8. (See 194.) 

Thou [little better] thing [than earth]." Ib. iii. 4. 77. 
' You have won a [happy] victory [to Rome]." 

Coriol. v. 3. 186. 



TRANSPOSITIONS. 



309 



Hence, even where the adjective cannot immediately precede the 
noun, yet the adjective comes first, and the adverb afterwards. 
"That were to enlard his fat-already '-pride." 

7>. and Cr. ii. 2. 20. 

"May soon return to this our [suffering] country 
[Under a hand accurst]." Macbeth, iii. 6. 48. 

"The [appertaining] rage 
[To such a greeting]." R. and J. iii. i. 66. 
" With [declining] head [into his bosom]." T. of Sh. Ind. 1. 119 
So probably 

"Bear our [hack'd] targets [like the men that owe them]." 

A. and C. iv. 8. 31. 
This is very common in other Elizabethan authors : 

"The [stricken] hind [with Shaft]." LORD SURREY (Walker). 
"And [worthie] work [of infinite reward]." 

SPENSER, F. Q. iii. 2. 21. 
"Of that [too wicked] woman [yet to die]." 

B. and F. (Walker). 
"Some sad [malignant] angel [to mine honour]." Ib. 

which perhaps explains 

"Bring forth that [fatal] screech-owl [to our house]." 

3 Hen. VI. ii. 6. 56. 

So " Thou [barren] thing [of honesty] and honour ! " B. and F. 
perhaps explains 

"Thou perjur'd and thou [simular] man [of virtue]." 

Lear, iii. 2. 64. 
" Bring me a [constant] woman [to her husband]." 

Hen. VIII. iii. I. 134. 
" O, for my sake do you with fortune chide, 

The [guilty] goddess [of my harmful deeds]." Sonn. in. 
" To this [unworthy] husband [of his wife]." A. W. iii. 4. 30. 
" A [dedicated] beggar [to the air]." T. of. A. iv. 2. 13. 
This transposition extends to an adverb in 

" And thou shall live [as freely] as thy lord 
[To call his fortunes thine]." T. N. L 4. 39, 40. 

i.e. " as free to use my fortune as I am." 

Unless "to " is used loosely like " for," the following is a case of 
transposition : 

" This is a [dear] manakin [to you], Sir Toby." 

71 N. iiL 2. 57. 



310 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

420. Transposition Of Adverbs. The Elizabethan author* 
allowed themselves great licence in this respect 

We place adverbial expressions that measure excess or defect 
before the adjective which they modify, "twenty times better," &c. 
This is not always the case in Shakespeare : 

"Being twenty times of better fortune." A. and C. iv. 2. 3, 
"Our spoils (that) we have brought home 
Do more than counterpoise, a full third fart, 
The charges of the action." Coriol. v. 6. 78. 

" I am solicited not by a few, 
And those -of true condition." Hen. VIII. i. 2. 18. 

For not transposed, see also 305. 

" Like to a harvest man that's task'd to mow 
Or all, or lose his hire." Coriol. i. 3. 40. 

In "All good things vanish less than in a day" (Nash), there is, 
perhaps, a confusion between " less long-lived than a day" and 
"more quickly than in a day." At all events the emphatic use of 
" less" accounts for the transposition. 

Such transpositions are most natural and frequent in the case of 
adverbs of limitation, as but (see But,i29),0/J', even, &c. 

" Only I say," Macbeth, iii. 6. 2. 
for "I only say." 

" Only I yield to die." J. C. v. 4. 12. 
for "I yield only in order to die," 

' ' And I assure you 
Even that your pity is enough to cure me," B. J. 

for "that even your pity." 

He did it to please his mother and to be partly proud," 

Coriol. i. i. 40. 
for " and partly to be proud. " 

Somewhat similar is 

" Your single bond, "-M. of V. i. 3. 146. 
for " the bond of you alone." 

421. Transposition Of Adverbs. When an adverb is trans 
posed to the beginning for emphasis, it generally transposes the 
subject after the verb, but adverbs are sometimes put at the be 
ginning of a sentence without influencing the order of the other 
words. 



TRANSPOSITIONS. 3 1 1 

" Sddom he smiles." J. C. i. 2. 205. 

" For always I am Caesar." Ib. \. 2. 212. 

" No more that thane of Cawdor shall deceive." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 63. 

" Of something nearly that concerns yourselves." 

M. N. D.\. i. 12. 

422. Transposition Of Article. In Early English we some 
times find " a so new robe." The Elizabethan authors, like our 
selves, transposed the a and placed it after the adjective: "so 
new a robe. " But when a participle is added as an epithet of the 
noun, e.g "fashioned," and the participle itself is qualified by an 
adjective used as an adverb, e.g. "new," we treat the whole as 
one adjective, thus, "so new-fashioned a robe." Shakespeare on 
the contrary writes 

"So new a fashion'd robe." K. J. iv. 2. 27. 
" So fair an offer'd chain." C. of E. iii. 2. 186. 
" Or having sworn too hard a keeping oath." 

L. L. L. i. I. M. 
" So rare a wonder'd father and a wife." 

Temp. iv. I. 123. 

"I would have been much more a fresher man." 

Tr. and Cr. v. 6. 20. 

We still say, "too great a wit," but not with Chaucer, C. T. : 

" For when a man hath overgret a wit," 

possibly because we regard "overgreat" as an adjective, and "too 
great" as a quasi -adverb. Somewhat similar is : 

" On once-a-flock-bed, but repair'd with straw, 
With tape-ty'd curtains never meant to draw. " 

POPE, Moral E. iii. 301. 

So we can say "how poor an instrument," regarding "how" as 
an adverb, and "how poor" as an adverbialized expression, but not 

"What poor an instrument," A. and C. v. 2. 236. 
because " what" has almost lost with us its adverbial force. 

" So brave(ly) a mingled temper saw I never." 

B. and F. (Walker). 

"Chaucer, who was so great(ly) a learned scholar." 

KINASTON (Walker). 



312 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

The a is used even after the comparative adjective in 
" If you should need a pin, 
You could not with more tame a tongue desire it." 

M. for M. ii. 2 . 46. 

423. Transpositions in Noun- clauses containing two 

nouns Connected by "of." It has been observed in 412 th2t 
two nouns connected by " of" are often regarded as one. Hence 
sometimes pronominal and other adjectives are placed before the 
whole compound noun instead of, as they strictly should be, before 
the second of the two nouns. 

" Yet that thy brazen gates of heaven may ope." 

iHen. VI. ii. 3. 40. 
"My pith of business." M. for M. i. 4. 70. 

"The tribunes have pronounced 

My everlasting doom of banishment." T. A. iii. I. 51. 
" Let it stamp wrinkles in her brow of youth." 

Lear, L 4. 306. 

"My latter part of life." A. and C. iv. 6. 39. 
" My whole course oj life." Othello, i. 3. 91. 
" I will presently go learn their day of marriage." 

M. Ado, ii. 2. 6? 

" Thy bruising irons of "wrath." Rich. HI. v. 3. 110. 
" Thy ministers of chastisement." Ib. 113. 
" In my prime of youth." Ib. 119. 
" Thy heatoj lust." R. of L. 1473. 
" My home of love." Sonn. 109. 
" And punish them to your height of pleasure." 

M. for M. v. I. 240- 

"His means of death, his obscure funeral." 

Hamlet, iv. 5. 213. 

i.s. " the means of his death. 

" What is your cause of distemper ?" Hamlet, iii. 2. 350. 
" Your sovereignty of 'reason." Ib. i. 4. 73. (See 200.) 
" My better part of 'man." Macbeth, v. 7. 18. 
" His chains of bondage." Rich. II. i. 3. 89. 
' Your state of jortune and your due of birth. " 

Rich. III. iil 7. 127. 

This is perhaps illustrated by 

" What country-man ?" T. N. v. I. 238 ; T. ofSh. i. 2. 190. 
for "a man of what country?" 



TRANSPOSITIONS. 313 

The possessive adjective is twice repeated in 

. " Her attendants of her chamber." A. Y. L. ii. 2. 5. 

So " This cause of Rome" T. A. i. I. 32. 

does not mean "this cause as distinguished from other causev 
of Rome," but " this, the Roman cause." Somewhat similar is 

" Your reproof 
Were well deserv'd of rashness" A. and C. ii. 2. 124. 

where we should say "the reproof of your rashness" (unless "of" 
here means "about," "for"). 

1 ' The idea of her life shall sweetly creep 
Into his study of imagination." M. Ado, iv. I. 227. 

i.e. "the study of his imagination." 

" Our raiment and state of bodies." Coriol. v. 3. 95. 
"More than ten criers, and six noise of trumpets" 

B. J. Sejan. v. 7. 

The compound nature of these phrases explains, perhaps, the 
omission of the article in 

" Hath now himself met with the fall-of-leaf. " 

Rich. II. iii. 4. 49. 

424. Transposition of Prepositions in Relative and other 

Clauses. We now dislike using such transpositions as 

" The late demand that you did sound me in." Rich. III. iv. 2. 87. 
"Betwixt ihat smile we would aspire to." Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 368. 
"A thousand men that fishes gnawed upon." Rich. III. i. 4. 25. 
"Found thee a way out of his wreck to rise in." 

Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 438. 

But it may be traced to E. E. (203), and is very common in 
Shakespeare, particularly in Hen. VIII., where we even find 

"Where no mention 
Of me must more be heard of." Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 435. 

It has been said above (203) that the dissyllabic forms of prepo 
sitions are peculiarly liable to these transpositions. Add to the 
above examples : 

" Like a falcon towering in the skies, 
Coucheth the fowl below." R. of L. 506. 

425. Transposition after Emphatic Words. The influence 

of an emphatic word at the beginning of a sentence is shown in the 



3M SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

transposition of the verb and subject. In such cases the last as wel! 
as the first word is often emphatic. 

"In dreadful secrecy impart they did." Hamlet, i. 2. 207. 

"And so have /a noble father lost, 
A sister driven into desperate terms." Ib. iv. 7. 25. 

Here note, that though the first line could be re-transposed and 
Laertes couM naturally say "I have lost a father," on the other hand 
he could not say "I have driven a sister" without completely 
changing the sense. " Have " is here used in its original sense, and 
is equivalent to "I find." When "have " is thus used without any 
notion of action, it is separated from the participle passive. 

" But answer made it none," Hamlet, \. 2. 216. 
" Pray can I not"Ib. iii. 3. 38. 

"Supportable 
To make the dear loss have I means much weaker" 

Temp. v. I. 146. 

The influence of an emphatic adverbial expression preceding is 
shown in the difference between the order hi the second and the first 
of the two following lines : 

" As every alien pen hath got my use, 
And under thee their poetry disperse. " Sonn. 78. 

" I did, my lord, 
But loath am to produce so bad an instrument." 

A. W. v. 3. 201. 

" Before the time I did Lysander see, 
Seemed Athens as a paradise to me." M. N. D. i. I. 205. 

When the adverbs "never," "ever," are emphatic and placed 
near the beginning of a sentence, the subject often follows the verb, 
almost always when the verb is "was," &c. We generally write 
now "never was," but Shakespeare often wrote "(there) was 
never." 

" Was never widow had so dear a loss." Rich. III. ii. 2. 77. 

Sometimes a word is made emphatic by repetition : 

" Sec. 0. Peace ! We'll hear him. 

Third O. Ay, by my beard will we." T. G. of V. iv. 1. 10. 

" Hamlet. Look you, these are the stops. 
Guild. But these cannot I command." Hamlet, iii. 3. 377- 

Or partly by antithesis, as well as by its natural importance : 



TJRANSPOSITIOA r S. 315 

" I your commission will forthwith despatch, 
And he to England shall along with you." 

Hamlet, iii. 3. 3, 4. 

" My soul shall thine keep company to heaven." 

Hen. P. iv. 6. 16 

The following is explained by the omission of "there :" 

" I am question'd by my fears . . . that (there) may blffiu 
No sneaping winds at home." W. T. i. 2. 13. 

There seems a disposition to place participles, as though used 
absolutely, before the words which they qualify. 

"And these news, 

Haruing been -well, that would have made me sick, 
Being sick, have in some measure made me well." 

2 Hen. IV. i. I. 138. 
It is rare to find such transpositions as 

" Then the rich jewell'd coffer of Darius, 

Transported shall be at high festivals." i Hen. VI. i. 6. 26. 

Transpositions are common in prose, especially when an adverb 
precedes the sentence. 

" Yet hath Leonora, my onely daughter, escaped.'* 

MONTAIGNE (Florio), 225. 

" And, therefore, should not we marry so young." Ib. 
"Now, sir, the sound that tells what hour it is 
Are clamorous groans," Rich. II. v. 5. 56. 

is rather a case of ' ' confusion of proximity " ( ' ' are " being changed 
to " is ") than transposition. (See 302.) 

426. Transposition after Relative. The relative subject, 

possibly as being somewhat unemphatic itself, brings forward the 
object into a prominent and emphatic position, and consequently 
throws a part of the verb to the end, not however (as in German) 
the auxiliary. 

" By Richard that dead is." I Hen. IV. i. 3. 146. 

" But chide rough winter that the flower hath killed." R. of L. 

" That heaved s light did hide." SPENS. F. Q. i. I. 7. 

427. Other Transpositions. In the second of two passive 
clauses when the verb "is" is omitted, the subject is sometimes 
transposed , perhaps for variety. 



316 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" When liver, heart, and brain, 
These sovereign thrones, are all supplied, and filled 
(Are) Her sweet perfections with one self king." 

T. JV.i. i. 39. 
" Since his addiction was to courses vain, 

And never (was) noted in him any study." Hen. V. i. 1.57. 
It is not probable that "perfections" and "study" are here ab 
solutely used with the participle. See, however, And, 95- 

In " By such two that would by all likelihood have confounded 
each other" (Cymb. i. 4. 53), "two" is emphatic, like "a pair." 
So "we" is emphatic in, "all we like sheep have gone astray," and 
in Hamlet, ii. 2. 151, in both cases, because of antithesis. 

" Into the madness wherein now he raves 
And all we mourn for." Hamlet, ii. 2. 151. (See 240.) 



COMPOUND WORDS. 

428. Hybrids. The Elizabethans did not bind themselves 
by the stricter rules of modern times in this respect. They 
did not mind adding a Latin termination to a Teutonic root, 
and vice versa. Thus Shakespeare has " increaseful," "bode- 
ment," &c. Holland uses the suffix -fy after the word "fool" (which 
at all events does not come to us direct from the Latin), "foolify," 
where we use "stultify." The following words illustrate the Eliza 
bethan licence : 

" Bi-fold." Tr. and Cr. v. 2. 144. 

" Out-cept." B. J. (Nares). 

"Exteriorly."^. J. iv. 2. 257. 

" Sham'st thou not, knowing whence thou art extraught?" 

3 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 142. 

where there is a confusion between the Latin "extracted" and the 
English "raught," past part, of "reach." Compare Pistol's "ex 
hale," Hen. V. ii. I. 66, i.e. "ex-haul," "draw out," applied to a 
sword. 

There was also great licence in using the foreign words which 
were pouring into the language. 

" And quench the stelhd fires." Lear, iii. 7. 61. 

" Be aidant and remediate." Ib. iv. 4. 17. 

" Antres vast and deserts idle." OtJiello, i. 3. 14 C. 



COMPOUND WORDS. 317 

429. Adverbial Compounds. 

" Till Harry's back-return." Hen. V. v. Prologue, 41. 
"Thy here-approach," Macb. iv. 3. 133, 148 ; " Our hence-going" 
Cymb. iii. 2. 65 ; " Here-hence," B. J. Poetast. v. I ; "So that men 
are punish'd for before-breach of the king's laws in now-the-king?s- 
quarrel" Hen. V. iv. I. 179, i.e. "the king's now (present) quarrel." 
This last extraordinary compound is a mere construction for the 
occasion, to correspond antithetically to "before-breach," but it 
well illustrates the Elizabethan licence. 

" The steep-up heavenly hill." Sonn. 7. 

" I must up-fill this osier cage of ours." R. and J. ii. 3. 7. 

" Up-hoarded. ' Hamlet, i. I. 136. 

"With hair up-staring." Tempest, i. 2. 213. 

430. Noun-Compounds. Sometimes the first noun may be 
treated as a genitive used adjectively. (See 22. ) Thus, "thy heart- 
blood" (Rich. II. iv. r. 38) is the same as " thy heart's blood;" 
"brother-love" (Hen. VIII. v. 3. 73), i.e. brother's love. 

So "Any-moment-leisure." Hamlet, i. 3. 133. 
" This childhood-^rooi. " M. of V. i. i. 144. 
"Childhood- innocence."^/. N. D. iii. 2. 202. 
"All the region-kites." Hamlet, ii. 2. 607. 
" A lion-fell." -M. N. D. v. I. 227, i.e. "a lion's skin." 
So probably 

"Faction-traitors." Rich. II. ii. 2. 57. 

" Self " is used as a compound noun in "self-conceit," and this 
explains 

' ' Infusing him with sdf-and-vain-comeit. " Rich. II. iii. 2. 1 66. 
"Every minute-while," I Hen. VI. i. 4. 54. 
where "while" has its original force as a noun = "time." 

But often when a noun is compounded with a participle, some 
preposition or other ellipse must be supplied, as "like" in our 
"stone-still" &c., and the exact meaning of the compound can only 
be ascertained by the context. 

" Wind-changing Warwick." 3 Hen. VI. v. 1. 57. 
" My furnace-burning heart." Ib. ii. I. 80. 
i.e. "burning like a furnace." 

" Giant-rude" A. Y. L. iv. 3. 34 ; " marble-conetant" A. and C. 
v. 2. 240; " koney-heavy-dew," J. C. ii. I. 230; so " ftcwer- 



Ji8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

soft hands," A. and C. ii. 2. 215; "maid-pale peace," Rich. II. 
Hi. 3. 98 ; "an orphan's water-standing eye," 3 Hen. VI. v. 6. 40. 
i.e. "standing -with water;" "weeping-ripe" L. L. L. v. 2. 274, 
"ripe for weeping;" "thought-sick," Hamlet, iii. 4. 51, i.e. "as 
i.t. theresu It ^thought;" so "lion-sick," Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 13, is 
explained lower down, "sick of proud heart;" " pity -pleading 
eyes," R. of L. 561, i.e. "pleadingy&r pity ;" "peace-parted souls," 
Hamlet, v. i. 261, /'.<?. "souls that have departed in peace;" 
" fancy-free," M. N. D. ii. I. 164, i.e. "free, from fancy (love) ;" 
"child-changed father," Lear. iv. 7. 17, i.e., " changed to a child." 
Or the noun is put for a passive participle or an adjective. 

" Upon your sword sit /ar^/(led) victory." A. and C.i. 3. 100. 
" The honey of his musicfal) vows." Hamlet, iii. I. 164. 
" The z>enom(o\\5) clamours of a jealous woman." 

C. ofE. v. I. 69; so R. of L. 850. 
"The Carthage queen. "M. N. D. i. I. 173. 
"Your Corioli walls." Coriol. i. 8. 8 ; it I. 180. 
"Our Rome gates. "Ib. iii. 3. 104 : Ib. iv. 5. 214. 
For similar examples, see 22. 
Sometimes the genitive is used : 

" I'll knock your knave's pate." 

T. ofSh. i. 2. 12; C. of E. iii. I. 74. 

431. Preposition-Compounds. 

" An after-dinner's (comp. 'afternoon's') breath." 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 3. 120. 

" At after-supper:' 1 Rich. III. iv. 3. 31 ; M. N. D. v. i. 34. 

" At over-night" A. W. iii. 4. 23. 

ttr ^& falling- from of his friends."^, of A. iv. 3. 400. 
The preposition usually attached to a certain verb is sometimes 
appended to the participle of the verb in order to make an adjective. 

" There is no hoped-for mercy." 3 Hen. VI. v. 4. 35. 

" Some never-heard-of torturing pain," T. A. ii. 3. 286. 
for "unheard-of." 

" Your sued-for tongues." Coriol. ii. 3. 216. 

" Bemock'd-atsizbs."Temp. iii. 3. 63. 

" The unthought-on accident." W. T. iv. 4. 649. 

" Your unthought-of Harry." I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 141. 



COMPOUND WORDS. 319 

432. Verb-Compounds. Verbs were compounded with their 
objects more commonly than with us. 

" Some carry-tale, some please-man, some slight zany, 

Some mumble-news." L. L. L, v. 2. 463-4. 
" 'All find-faults." Hen. V. v. 2. 298. 

We still use "mar-plot" and "spoil-sport." Such compounds 
seem generally depreciatory. " Weather-fend " in 

" In the lime grove which weather-fends your cell," 

Temp. v. I. 10. 

means "defend from the weather," and stands on a somewhat 
different footing. 

One is disposed to treat "wilful-blame" as an anomalous com 
pound in 

" In faith, my lord, you are too wilful-blame." 

I Hen. IV. iii. I. 177. 
like " A false-heart traitor." 2 Hen. VI. v. I. 143. 

But "heart" is very probably a euphonious abbreviation of 
"hearted." The explanation of "too wilful-blame" is to be sought 
in the common expression " I am too blame," Othello, iii. 3. 211, 
282 ; M. of V. v. I. 166. "I am too too blame," is also found in 
Elizabethan authors. It would seem that, the "to" in " I am to 
blame" being misunderstood, "blame" came to be regarded as an 
adjective, and "to" (which is often interchanged in spelling with 
"too") as an adverb. Plence "blame," being regarded as an 
adjective, was considered compoundable with another adjective. 

433. Participial Nouns." A participle or adjective, when 
used as a noun, often receives the inflection of the possessive case 
or the plural. 

" His chosen 's merit." B. and F. F. Sh. iii. I. 
" All cruels else subscribed." Lear, iii. 7. 65. 
i.e. "All cruel acts to the contrary being yielded up, forgiven." 
Compare for the meaning Lear, iv. 7. 36, and for " subscribe," 
Tr. and Cr. iv. 5. 105. Another explanation is, "all other cruel 
animals being allowed entrance." 

So " Vulgars," IV. T. ii. I. 94 ; " Severals" Hen. /'. i. i. 86, i.e. 
"details." 

" Yon equal potents." K. J. ii. I. 357. 

" To the ports 
The discontents repair." A. and C. i. 4. 89. 



320 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Lead me to the revolts (revolters) of England here." 

K. y. v. 4. 7 : eo Cymb. iv. 4. 6 
Add, if the text be correct : 

ft 1\i& Norway s 1 \dng." Macbeth, i. 2. 59. 
t.t. " the king of the Norwegians." 

It would appear as though an adjective in agreement with a plural 
noun received a plural inflection in 

" Letters-patents." Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 249 ; Rich. II. ii. I. 
202 (Folio), 3. 130. 

More probably the word was treated by Shakespeare as though 
it were a compound noun. But in E. E. adjectives of Romance 
origin often take the plural inflection. 

" Lawless resolutes." Hamlet, i. I. 98. 
" Mighty opposites." Ib. v. ii. 62. 

434. Phrase-Compounds. Short phrases, mostly containing 
participles, are often compounded into epithets. 

" The always-wind-obeying deep." C. of E. i. I. 64. 

"My too-muck-changed son." Hamlet, ii. z. 36. 

" The ne'er-yet-beaten horse of Parthia." A. and C. iii. I. 33. 

" Our past-cure malady." A. W. ii. I. 124. 

" A past-saving slave." Ib. iv. 3. 158. 

" The none-sparing war." Ib. iii. 2. 108. 

" A jewel in a ten-times-barred-up chest." Rich. II. i. 1. 180. 

" A too-long-wither' d flower." Ib. ii. i. 134. 

" Tempt him not so too-far."^ A. and C. i. 3. 11. 

" The to-and-fro-conflicting wind," Lear, iii. I. 11. 

" You that have turn'd off &first-to noble wife." 

A. W. v. 3. 220 

" Of this yet-scarce-cold battle." Cymb. v. 5. 469. 

" A cunning thief, or a-that-way-accomplished courtier." 

Ib. i. 4. 101. 

" In this so-never-needed help." Coriol. v. I. 34. 
" A world-without-endba.rg'a.i'n.." L. L. L. v. 2. 799. 
See Sonn. 5. 

" Our not-fearing Britain." Cymb. ii, 4. 19. 

" The ne'er-lust-wearied Antony." A. and C. ii. I. 88 

"A twenty-years-Ktmovcd thing ." T. N. v. i 92. 



PREFIXES. 321 

435. Anomalous Compounds. We still, though rarely, abbre 
viate "the other" into "t'other," but we could not say 

" The t'other." B. J. Cy's. Rev. iv. I ; v. I (a corruption 

of E. E. J>et o>er). 

" Yea, and furr'd moss when winter flowers are none, 
To winter-ground thy corpse. " Cymb. iv. 2. 229. 

i.e. perhaps " to inter during winter." So " to winter-rig " is said 
(Halliwell) to mean "to fallow land during winter." 
" And" is omitted in 

" At this odd-even and dull watch of the night." 

Othello, i. i. 124 

Cicero says, that the extreme test of a man's honesty is that you 
can play at odd and even with him in the dark. And perhaps 
" odd-(and-)even " here means, a time when there is no distinguish 
ing between odd and even. 

As there is a noun " false-play," there is nothing very remarkable 
in its being converted thus into a verb : 

" Pack'd cards with Caesar zn.A false-played my glory." 

A. and C. iv. 14. 19. 

A terse compound is often invented for special use, made intelli 
gible by the context. Thus, the profit of excess is called 
" Poor-rich gain." J?. of L. 140. 
" Where shall I five now Lucrece is unlived." Ib. 1754. 



PREFIXES. 

A-. See 24. 

436. All-to (see 28) is used in the sense of " completely 
asunder " as a prefix in 

" And <7//-A?-brake his skull." Judges ix. 53. 
"Asunder" was an ordinary meaning of the prefix "to* ic. E, E, 
It must be borne in mind that all had no necessary connec:ki with 
to, till by constant association the two syllables v/ere corrupted into 
a prefix, ail-to, which was. mistaken for altogether and so used. 
Hence, by corruption, in many passages, where ail-to or ail-too is 
said to have the meaning of "asunder," it had come tc mean 
"altogether," as in 

" Mercutio's ycy hand had al-to frozen mine." H 
Y 



3aa SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

It has been shown (73) that too and to are constantly interchanged 
in Elizabethan authors. Hence the constant use of all too for " quite," 
"decidedly too," as in Rich. II. iv. I. 28, "a// too base," may have 
been encouraged by the similar sound of ail-to. Shakespeare does 
not use the archaic ail-to in the sense of "asunder," nor does 
Milton probably in 

" She plumes her feathers and lets grow her wings, 
That in the various bustle of resort 
Were all too ruffled." MILTON, Comus, 376. 

437. At- in "attask'd," Lear, i. 4. 366 ("task'd," "blamed"), 
perhaps represents the O.K. intensive prefix "of," which is some 
times changed into "an-," "on-," or "a-." But the word is more 
probably a sort or" 'rnitation of the similar words "attach" and 
"attack." 

438. Be. The prefix be is used, not merely with verbs of colour 
ing, "smear," "splash," &c., to localize and sometimes to intensify 
action, but also with nouns and adjectives to convert the nouns into 
verbs 

"Zfanonster." Lear, iv. z. 63. 

"JSe-sort." Ib. i. 4. 272. 

"All good ^-fortune you." T. G. of V. iv. 3. 41. 

" .Zfemadding. " Lear, iii. I. 38. 

It is also used seemingly to give a transitive signification to verb? 
that, without this prefix, mostly require prepositions : 

"j&gnaw." Rich. III. i. 3. 221. 

"fithowls the moon." M. N. D. v. I. 379. 

".Zfepeak" = "address" in Hamlet, ii. 2. 140. 

".^rweep." Rich. III. ii. 2. 49 ; Lear, i. 4. 324. 
In participles, like other prefixes, it is often redundant, and 
seems to indicate an unconscious want of some substitute for the old 
participial prefix. 

"Wellfe-met." Lear, v. i. 20. 

But the theory that be- in "become," "believe," "belove," &c., 
represents the old ge-, does not seem to be sound. 

439. Dis- was sometimes used in the sense of un-, to mean 
"without," as 

''Z^rcompanied," Cy.'s Rev. iii. 3, for "unaccompanied," 1 
. e. " without company. " 



PREFIXES. 323 

"A little to ^quantity your train." Lear, i. 4. 270. 
"Ztehabited," K. J. ii. i. 220, = "Caused to migrate." 
"Ztolived," CHAPMAN, = "Deprived of life." 
"/^matured," Lear, i. 4. 305, for " Unnatural." 
"Z>mioble," HOLLAND; "Z>wtemperate," RALEIGH- 

for "ignoble" and "intemperate." 
" Being full of supper and attempering draughts." 

Othello, i. i. Stf. 

"Ztocovery" is often used for "uncovering," i.e. "unfold, ' 
whether literally or metaphorically. "So shall my anticipation 
prevent your discovery," Hamlet, ii. 2. 305, i.e. "render your dis 
closure needless by anticipation. " So Rich. III. iv. 4. 240. 

440. En- was frequently used, sometimes in its proper sense of 
enclosing, as "enclosed," "engimrd," Lear, i. 4. 349; "^wcave," 
Othello, iv. i. 82; "How dread an army hath grounded him," 
Hen. V. iv. Prol. 36; "awheel thee round," Othello, ii. I. 87 ; 
"^wfetter'd," ib. ii. 3. 351 ; "enmesh," ib. 368 ; "^wrank," I Hen. 
VI. i. i. 115 ; " <?shelter'd and mbay'd," Othello, ii. I. 18 ; " en- 
steep'd," ib. 70; "wgaol'd," Rich. II. i. 3. 166; "^scheduled," 
Hen. V. v. 2. 73; "<?shelled," Coriol. iv. 6. 45. So " em- 
bound," "^vassell'd," DANIEL on Florio ; "^wbattle" (to put in 
battle array); "^wfree" (to place in a state of freedom) ; "en- 
tame," A. Y. L. iii. 5- 48 (to bring into a state of tameness). 
But the last instances show that the locative sense can be 
metaphorical instead of literal, and scarcely perceptible. There 
is little or no difference between "free" and "enhee." So 
"the Bridged sea," Lear, iv. 6. 71 ; "the ^wchafed flood," Othello, 
ii. I. 17, are, perhaps, preferred by Shakespeare merely because 
in participles he likes some kind of prefix as a substitute for the 
old participial prefix. In some cases the en- or in- seems to take a 
person as its object, "zdart," R. and J. i. 3. 98 ("to set darts in," 
not "in darts"). So 'Vwpierced," JR. and 71 i. 4- 19 ; and so, 
perhaps, "mpoison," Coriol. v. 6. 11. The word " impale " is 
used by Shakespeare preferably in the sense of "surrounding." 

"////pale him with your weapons round about," 

Tr. and Cr. v. 7. 5. 
means "hedge him round with your weapons." So 

" Did I /;pale IvVn with the regal crown." 3 Heft. VI. iii. 3. 189. 

Y 2 



324 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

441. For- is used in two words now disused : 
"/w-slow no longer." 3 lien. VI. ii. 3. 56. 

" She>rdid herself. "Lear, v. 3. 255 ; M. N. D. v. I. 381. 
In both words the prefix has its proper sense of " injury." 

442. Un- for modern in- J in- for un-. (Non- only occurs twice 
hi all the plays of Shakespeare, and in V. and A. 521.) 

///charitable, ///fortunate, mcertaln, /'//grateful, /wcivil, in 
substantial. 

7//possible, //perfect, ////provident, w//active, ////expressive, 
propei, wwrespective, w/zviolable, M//partial, ////fallible, 
wdividable, ^//constant, //curable, ////effectual, //measur- 
able, //disposed, ////vincible (N. P. 181), ////reconcil/'able 
(A. and C. v. I. 47). 

We appear to have no definite rule of distinction even now, since 
we use Mwgrateful, ///gratitude ; //equal, /'//equality. * Un- seems to 
have been preferred by Shakespeare before/ and r, which do not 
allow in- to precede except in the form im-. In- also seems to have 
been in many cases retained from the Latin, as in the case of 
" /'//gratus, " "///fortunium," &c. As a general rule, we now use 
in- where we desire to make the negative a part of the word, 
and un- where the separation is maintained "wwtrue," "///firm." 
Hence un- is always used with participles "M//tamed," &c. 
Perhaps also un- is stronger than in-, "(friholy" means more 
than "not holy," almost "the reverse of holy." But in "/'//- 
attentive," "///temperate," in- has nearly the same meaning, "the 
reverse of." 

" You wrong the reputation of your name 
In so unseeming to confess receipt." L. L. L. ii. i. 156. 

Here "unseeming" means "the reverse of seeming" more than 
"not seeming" (like oti <t>rj/j.i) : "in thus making us as though you 
would not confess." 

SUFFIXES. 

443. -Er is sometimes appended to a noun for the purpose of 
signifying an agent Thus 

"A Roman swords." 2 Hen. VI. iv. I. 135. 



* Tliis however is perhaps explained below. In- is a part 
" Mpratiluiie ; " u't- in he adjcctro' " ttKgrateful " means " not." 



of the noun 



SUFFIXES. 325 

" O most gentle pulpifcr. " A. Y. L. iii. 2. 163. 
"A morakr." Othello, ii. 3. 301. 

" Homage." A. and C. i. I. 31. (O. Fr. "homagier.") 
"Justic^rj." Lear, iv. 2. 79. (Late Lat. "justitiarius.") 
In the last two instances the -er is of French origin, and in many 
cases, as in " enchanter," it may seem to be English, while really it 
represents the French -eur. 

"Joinder," T. N. v. I. 160, perhaps comes from the French 
" joindre." 

The -er is often added to show a masculine agent where a noun 
and verb are identical : 

" Trusts. "Hamlet, i. 2. 172. 
" The paus^r reason." Macbeth, ii. 3. 117. 
"Causer." Rich. III. iv. 4. 122. 
"To you, my origin and end^r." L. C. ii. 22. 
Note the irregular, "Precurrer" (for "precursor"). P. P. 

We have " windring" from " winder," Tempest, iv. I. 128, formed 
after the analogy of "wand<?r," " clamber," " \\o.ver," the er having 
apparently a frequentative force. 

444. -En, made of (still used in gokUv*, &c. ), is found in 

"Her threads fillet." L. C. $ : Hen. v. iii. Prol. 444. 
"A twiggm bottle." Othello, iii. 3. 152. 

445. -Ive, -ble. (See 3.) -Ive is sometimes used in a passive 
instead of, as now, in an active signification. Thus : " Incompre- 
hensrer depths ;" "plausive," " worthy to be applauded ;" "direc- 
tive," " capable of being directed ;" " insuppressz'w metal ;" "the 
fair, the inexpress/z^ she " (similarly used by Milton in the Hymn 
on the Nativity). On the other hand, -ble is sometimes used actively, 
as in " medicina^/i? " (which is also used passively), and in "un- 



" This is a slight umneritable man." J. C. iv. I. 12. 
So "defensible," " deceivable, " "disputable," and "tenable." 

In "Inlem'Me sieve," A. W. i. 3. 208, not only does -ble convey 
an active meaning, but Shakespeare uses the Latin instead of the 
English form of the termination, just as we still write "tem'ble," 
not "terrable." I imagine we have been influenced in our -able by 
the accidental coincidence of meaning between the word ' ' able" 



326 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

and the termination -ble. But French influence must have had some 
weight. 

446. -Less. Sometimes found with adjectives, as "busy/ess," 
" sick/m," "modest/o-j." 

Lest used for "not able to be." 

"That phrase&M hand." L. C. 22$; i.e. " in-describable.' 

"That term/m skin." Ib. 94. 

" Sum/ess treasuries. " Hen. V. i. 2. 165. 

" My care/m crime." R. of L. 771. 

"Your great oppose/m wills." Lear, iv. 6. 38. 
It is commonly used with words of Latin or Greek origin, as above 
Add " reason&rj," Hen. V. v. 4. 137; "crime/m," 2 Hen. VI. 
ii. 4. 63. 

447. -Ly found with a noun, and yet not appearing to convey 
an adjectival meaning. "Anger-/)'," Macb. iii. 5. 1 ; T. G. of V. 
i. 2. 62. Compare "wonder-/x" in the Morte d" Arthur, and 
"cheer-/y," Tempest, i. I. 6. This is common in E. E. 

The -ly represents " like," of which it is a corruption. Compare : 

" Villain-like he lies." Lear, v. 3. 97. 

So "master/v," adv., W. T. v. 3. 65 ; Othello, i. i. 26 ; "hunger/y," 
adv., to. iii. 4. 105 ; "exterior/y," adv., A", y. iv. 2. 257 ; "silver^," 
adv., ib. v. 2. 46. "Fellow/j'," Temp. v. i. 64, and " traitor/^," 
JF. 7! iv. 4. 822, are used as adjectives. Perhaps a vowel is to be 
supplied in sound, though omitted, in "unwield(i)/j/," Rich. II. 
iv. i. 205 ; " need(i)/j'," R. and J. iii. 2. 117 ; and they may be 
derived from "unwieldy" and "needy." Add "orderly," Rich. II. 
\. 3.9; "manly," Macbeth, iv. 3. 235. 

448. -Ment. We seldom use this suffix except where we find it 
already existing in Latin and French words adopted by us. Shake 
speare, however, has " intend;w^/, " " supply ment, " " designw<r?/ > ," 
" denote ment," and " bodement." 

449. -NeSS is added to a word not of Teutonic origin : 

"Equalm." A. and C. v. I. 48. 

450. -Y is found appended to a noun to form an adjective. 

" Slum bery agitation. " Macbeth, v. i. 12. 
" Unheed>/ haste." M. N. D. i. i. 237 



SUFFIXES. 327 

In " Bat/y wings," At. N. D. iii. 2. 365, "bat/)' 1 seems to mean 
"like those of bats." "Wormy beds," ib.\\\. 2. 384, is "worm^/W." 
" Vasty," in "the vasty fields of France," I fen. V. Prologue, 12 ; 
I I fen. IV. iii. I. 52, is perhaps derived from the noun "vast," 
Tempest, i. 2. 327 ; Hamlet, i. 2. 198. " Womby vaultages," 
Henry V. ii. 4. 124 : /.*. "womb-like." 

Y appended to adjectives of colour has a modifying force like -ish : 
"Their paly flames." Hen. V. iv. Prol. 8. 
" His browny locks." L. C. 85. 

451. Suffixes were sometimes influenced by the Elizabethan 
licence of converting one part of speech into another. We should 
append -ation or -ition, -ure or -ing, to the following words used by 
Shakespeare as nouns: "solicit," "consult," "expect," &c. ; "my 
depart" 2 Hen. VI. i. I. 2 ; 3 Hen. VI. iv. I. 92, ii. I. 110 ; <c an- 
curable discomfort," 2 Hen. VI. v. 2. 86 ; " make prepare for war," 
3 Hen. VI. iv. I. 131 ; "a smooth dispose" Othello, i. 3. 403 ; "his 
repair" 3 Hen. VI. v. i. 20 ; "deep exclaims" Rich. III. i. 2. 52, 
iv. 4. 135 ; "his brow's refine," V. and A. 490 ; "a sweet retire" 
Hen. V. iv. 3. 86; "false accuse" 2 Hen. VI. iii. I. 160; "your 
ladyship's impose," T. G. of V. iv. 3. 8 ; " the sun's appear," B. and 
F. F. Sh. v. i ; "from suspect," 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 139 ; " manage," 
M. of V. iii. 4. 25 ; " commends," iv. ii. i. 90; " the boar's annoy, " 
Kick. III. v. 3. 156; "the disclose," Hamlet, iii. I. 174; " com- 
itmds," Rich. II. iii. 3. 126. 

Almost all of these words come to us through the French. 
Note " O heavenly mingle." A. and C. \. 5. 69. 
" Immomen! toys." Ib. v. ii. 166. 



PROSODY 

452. The Ordinary line in blank verse consists of five feet ol 
two syllables each, the second syllable in each foot being accented. 

" We both | have fed | as well, | and we | can both 
Endure | the wint | er's cold | as well | as he." 

J. C. i. 2. 98-9. 

This line is too monotonous and formal for frequent use. The 
metre is therefore varied, sometimes (i) by changing the position of 
the accent, sometimes (2) by introducing trisyllabic and monosyllabic 
feet. These licences are, however, subject to certain laws. It would 
be a mistake to suppose that Shakespeare in his tragic metre 
introduces the trisyllabic or monosyllabic foot at random. Some 
sounds and collections of sounds are peculiarly adapted for mono 
syllabic and trisyllabic feet. It is part of the purpose of the 
following paragraphs to indicate the laws which regulate these 
licences. In many cases it is impossible to tell whether in a tri 
syllabic foot an unemphatic syllable is merely slurred or wholly 
suppressed, as for instance the first e in " different. " Such a foot 
may be called either dissyllabic or quasi-trisyllabic. 

453. The accent after a pause is frequently on the first 
syllable. The pause is generally at the end of the line, and hence 
it is on the first foot of the following line that this, which may be 
called the "pause-accent," is mostly found. The first syllable of 
initial lines also can, of course, be thus accented. It will be 
seen that in the middle of the line these pause-accents generally 
follow emphasized monosyllables. (See 480-6.) 

" Cdmfort, \ my liege ! | why looks | your grace | so pale?" 

Rich. II. iii. 2. 75. 
Examples of the ' ' pause-accent " not at the beginning. 

(i) ' Feed and | regard | him not | Are you \ a man?" 

Macbeth, iii. 4. 58 






PKOSOD Y. 329 

Sometimes the pause is slight, little more than the lime necessary 
for recovery after an emphatic monosyllable. 

(2) "Be in | their flow | ing cups \frhhly \ rcmember'd. '' 

Hen. V. iv. i. 55. 
So arrange 

" In these \flatter \ ing streams, | and make | our faces." 

Macteth, iii. 2. 33. 

" These " may be emphasized. (See 484. ) 

(3) " Who would | believe | me. O' ! | peril \ ous mouths." 

M.for M. ii. 4. 172. 

(4) " Affec | tion, pooh! | You speak | like a \ green girl." 

Hamlet, i. 3. 101. 
"We shall | be call'd | purgers, \ not mur | derers." 

J. C. ii. I. 180. 

(5) "The life | of com | fort. But | for thee, \fellmu." 

Cymb. iv. 3. 9. 
The old pronunciation " fellow " is probably not Shakespearian. 

In (3) (4) and (5) " O," "speak," "call'd," and "thee" may, 
perhaps, be regarded as dissyllables (see 482-4), and the following 
foot a quasi-trisyllabic one. There is little practical difference 
between the two methods of scansion. 

(6) " Senseless | linen! \ Happier | therein | than I." 

Cymb. i. 3. 7. 

Here either there is a pause between the epithet and noun, or 
else "senseless" may possibly be pronounced as a trisyllable, 
"Sense (486) | less linen." The line is difficult 

" Therefore, \ merchant, \ I'll Km | it thee | this day," 

C. of E. i. i. 151. 

seems to begin with two trochees, like Milton's famous line : 

" U'ni | versal \ reproach | far worse | to bear."/ 1 . L. vi. 34. 
Rut " therefore" may have its accent, as marked, on the last 
syllable. 

The old pronunciation " merchant " is not probable. Or " there " 
may be one foot (see 480} : " There | fore merchant | ." 

(7) "Ant. Obey | it on | all cause. | 

Cleop. Pardon, pardon. 

A. and C. iii. II. 68. 

is, perhaps, an instance of two consecutive trochees. (There seems 
no ground for supposing that ' ' pardon " is to be pronounced as ir 



330 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

F'rench. ) Bat if the diphthong "cause" be pronounced as a dis 
syllable (see 484), the difficulty will be avoided. 

We find, however, a double trochee (unless "my" has dropped 
out) in 

" Sec, Cit. Cae'car ] has had | great wrong. , 
Tliird Cii. Has he, | masters?" 

J. C. iii. 2. 115. 

Even here, however, " wrong " may be a quasi-dissyllable (486). 
(8) Between noun and participle a pause seems natural. Often 
the pause represents "in" or "a-" (178). 

"Thy knee | hissing \ the stones." Coriol. iii. 2. 75. 
"The smile | mocking \ the sigh." Cymb. iv. 2. 54. 
"My wind | doling \ my broth." M. of V. i. I. 22. 
In these lines the foot following the emphasized monosyllable may 
(as an alternative to the " pause-accent ") be regarded as quasi-trisyl 
labic. 

453 a. Emphatic Accents. The syllable that receives an 
accent is by no means necessarily emphatic. It must be emphatic 
relatively to the unaccented syllable or syllables in the same foot, but it 
may be much less emphatic than other accented syllables in the 
same verse. Thus the last syllable of " injuries," though accented, 
is unemphatic in 

"The in | juries \ that they | themselves | procure." 

Lear, ii. 4. 303. 

Mr. Ellis (Early English Pronunciation, part i. p. 334) says that 
" it is a mistake to suppose that there are commonly or regularl) 
five stresses, one to each measure." From an analysis of severa. 
tragic lines of Shakespeare, taken from different plays, I should say 
that rather less than one of three has the full number of five emphatic 
accents. About two out of three have four, and one out of fifteen 
has three. But as different readers will emphasize differently, not 
much importance can be attached to such results. It is of more 
importance to remember, ( i ) that the first foot almost always has an 
emphatic accent ; (2) that two unemphatic accents rarely, if ever, 
come together ('' for " may perhaps be emphatic in 

" Hear it not, Dun | can ; for | it is | a knell," 

Macbeth, it i. 63) ; 

and (3) that there is generally an emphatic accent on the third or 
fourth foot 



PROSODY 331 

The five emphatic accents are common in verses that have a pause- 
accent at the beginning or in the middle of the line. 

" Nature \ seems dead, | and wick | ed dreams | abuse." 

Macbeth, iL I. 50. 

" The hand | le toward | my hand. | C6ine t let \ me clutch 
thee." Ib. iL i. 34. 

And in antithetical lines : 

" I have | thee not, | and yet | I s& \ thee still." 

Macbeth, ii. I. 35. 

" Bring with | thee airs \ from htaven \ or blasts \ from Mil. " 

Hamlet, i. 4. 41. 

454. An extra Syllable is frequently added before a pause, 
especially at the end of a line : 

(a) ' ' 'Tis not | alone | my ink | y cloak, | good mother. " 

Hamlet, i. 2. 77. 
but also at the end of the second foot : 

(6) "For mine | own safeties; | you may | be right | ly just." 

Macbeth, iv. 3. 30. 
and, less frequently, at the end of the third foot : 

(c) " For good I ness dares | not check thee ; \ wear thoii | thy 

wrongs. Macbeth, iv. 3. 33. 
and, rarely, at the end of the fourth foot : 

(</) "With all | my lion | ours on | my broth<?r: | whereon." 

Temp. i. 2. 127. 
But see 466. 

" So dear | the 16 ve | my peo | pie bore me : \ nor set." 

Ib. i. 2. HI. 

455. The extra syllable is very rarely a monosyllable, 

still more rarely an emphatic monosyllable. The reason is obvious. 
Since in English we have no enclitics, the least emphatic mono 
syllables will generally be prepositions and conjunctions. These 
carry the attention forward instead of backward, and are therefore 
inconsistent with a pause, and besides to some extent emphatic. 

The fact that in Henry VIII., and in no other play of Shake 
speare's, constant exceptions are found to this rule, seems to me a 
sufficient proof that Shakespeare did not write that play. 

"Go give | 'em wel | come ; you | can speak | the French 

tongiie." Hen. VIII. i. 4. 57. 

"Fell by | our s^rv | ants, by | those men | we lov'd most." 

Ib. ii. i. 122. 



332 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Be sure | you be j not loose ; | for those | you male 

friends." Hen. VIII. ii. I. 127. 

"To si | lence en | vious tongues. | Be just | and fear not. " 

Ib. Hi. 2. 447. 

So Hen. VIII. ii. I. 67, 78, 97 ; and seven times in iii. 2. 442-451 ; 
eight times in iv. 2. 51-80. 

Even where the extra syllable is not a monosyllable it occurs 
so regularly, and in verses of such a measured cadence, as almost 
to give the effect of a trochaic* line with an extra syllable at the 
beginning, thus : 

" In II all my | miser | ies ; but | thou hast | forced me 
Out II of (457 a) thy | honest | truth to | play the | woman. 
Let's || dry our | eyes : and | thus far | hear me, | Cromwell : 
And || when 1 [ am for- | gotten, | as I | shall be, 
And || sleep in | dull cold ] marble | where no | mention 
Of || me must | more be | heard of, | say I | taught thee. 
Say, || Wolsey, | that once | trod the ' 



And || sounded 
Found || thee a 



ways of | glory 

all the | depths and shoals of | honour, 
way, out | of (457 a) his | wreck, to | rise in 



A || sure and | safe one, | though thy | master | missed it." 

Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 430-9. 

It may be safely said that this is not Shakespearian. 
" Boy" is unaccented and almost redundant in 

"I part | ly know | the man : | go call | him hither, boy y ' 

(Folio) Rich. III. iv. 2. 41. 

(Hither, a monosyllable, see 189.) And even here the Globe is, 
perhaps, right in taking " Boy exit" to be a stage direction. 

In " Bid him | make haste | and meet | me at | the North 
gate,"/ 1 . G. ofV. iii. i. 258. 

"gate" is an unemphatic syllable in "Northgate," like our "New 
gate." So 

"My men | should call | me lord : | 1 am | your good-man.'' 

T. of Sh. Ind. 2. 107. 
"A halt | er grat | is ; no | thing else, | for G6d's-sake." 

M. of V. iv. I. 379. 

"Parts," like "sides, "is unemphatic, and "both" is strongly 
emphasized, in 

" Rather | to show [ a nob | le grace j to b6th farts. " 

Coriol. v. 3. 121. 

* The words trochaic" and "iambic" are of course used, when apnlii t; 
S^ijiish poetry, to denote accent, not quantity. 



PROSOD Y. 133 

So " out " is emphatic in 

" We'll have | a swash | ing and | a mart | ial ozitside." 

A. Y. L. i. 3. 122. 
The 's for "is" is found at the end of a line in 

" Perceive I speak sincerely, and high note 's 
Ta'en of your many virtues." Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 59. 

456. Unaccented Monosyllables. . Provided there be only 
one accented syllable, there may be more than two syllables in 
any foot. "It is he" is as much a foot as "'tis he;" "we will 
serve " as " we'll serve ;" " it is over " as " 'tis o'er." 

Naturally it is among pronouns and the auxiliary verbs that we 
must look for unemphatic syllables in the Shakespearian verse. 
Sometimes the unemphatic nature of the syllable is indicated by a 
contraction in the spelling. (See 460.) Often, however, syllables 
must be dropped or slurred in sound, although they are expressed to 
the sight. Thus in 

"Provide tJiee \ two prop | er pal | freys, black | as jet," 

T. A. v. 2. 50 

"thee" is nearly redundant, and therefore unemphatic. 
" If" and "the '' are scarcely pronounced in 

" And fn it \ are the lords | of York, | Berkeley, | and Sey 
mour." Rich. II. ii. 3. 55. 
" Mir. I ev | er saw | so noble. | 

Prosp. //goes on, | I see." Temp. i. 2. 419. 

"But that | the sea, | mounting | to the wel | kin's cheek." 

Ib. i. 2. 4. 

("The" need not be part of a quadrisyllabic foot, nor be sup 
pressed in pronouncing 

" The cur | iosi | ty of na | tions to | deprive me." 

Lear, i. 2. 4. 
Compare, possibly, 

" But I have ever had that ciiri6*(i)ty." B. and F. (Nares). ) 
So "to," the sign of the infinitive, is almost always unemphatic, 
and is therefore slurred, especially where it precedes a vowel. Thus : 
" In seeming | to augment | it wastes | it. Be | advfs'd." 

Hen. VIII. i. I. 145. 

\vhere "in" before the participle is redundant and unemphatic. 

"For truth | to Of') over(o'<r)peer. | Rather | than f6ol | it soV 

Coriol. ii. 3. 128 



534 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So the "I" before "beseech" (which is often omitted, as Temp 
fi. I. 1), even when inserted, is often redundant as far as sound goes. 

"(/) beseech | your majes | ty, give | me leave | to go." 

2 Hen. VI. ii. 3. 20. 
" (/) beseech | your grac | es both | to par | don me." 

Rich. III. i. I. 84. So Ib. 103. 
Perhaps 
" (/) pray thee (prithee) stay | with us, | go not | to Witt | enberg," 

Hamlet, i. 2. 119. 

though this verse may be better scanned 
" I pray | thee stay | with us, | go not | to Wittenberg." See 469. 

" Let me see, | let me see ; | is not | the leaf | turn'd down ? " 

J. C. iv. 3. 273. 
So (if not 501) 

" And I' | will kiss | thy foot : | (7) prithee be | my god." 

Temp. ii. 2. 152. 

"With you" is "wi* you" (as in "good-bye" for "God be 
with you") ; "the" is th\ and "of" is slurred in 

" Two no | ble part | ners -with you ; \ the old duch | ess 
of Norfolk. "Hen. VIII. v. 3. 168. 

To write these lines in prose, as in the Folio and Globe, makes 
an extraordinary and inexplicable break in a scene which is wholly 
verse. 

For the quasi-suppression of of see 

"The bas | tard of O'r | leans I with him | is join'd, 
The duke | of Alen | eon fli f eth to | his side." 

i Hen. VI. i. I. 92, 93. 

In the Tempest this use of unaccented monosyllables in trisyllabic 
feet is very common. 

" Go make | thyself | like a nymph | o' the sea; | be subject 

To no sight | but thine | and mine." Temp. i. 2. 301. 
Even in the more regular lines of the Sonnets these superfluous 
syllables are allowed in the foot. Thus : 

" Excuse | not si | lence so ; | for '/ lies | in thee." Sonn. 101 
And even in rhyming lines of the plays : 

"Call them | again, | sweet prince, | accept [ their suit; 
I'f you I deny 1 I them, all | the land | will rue '(." 

Rich. III. iii. 7. 221. 

This sometimes modifies the scansion. " Hour" is a dissyllable, 
and V is absorbed, in 



PROSODY. 335 

"You know | I gave'/ | you half | an hoti \ r sinct." 

C. of E. iv. i. 65. 

Almost any syllables, however lengthy in pronunciation, can Lc 
used as the unaccented syllables in a trisyllabic foot, provided they 
are unemphatic. It is col visual, however, to find two such unaccented 
syllables as 

" WJiich most gib \ ingty, | ungrave | ly he | did fashion." 

Coriol. ii. 3. 233. 

457. Accented monosyllables. On the other hand, some 
times an unemphatic monosyllable is allowed to stand in an em 
phatic place, and to receive an accent. This is particularly the case 
with conjunctions and prepositions at the end of the line. We stir 
in conversation emphasize the conjunctions "but," "and," " f or,' 
&c. before a pause, and the end of the line (which rarely allovr t 
.1 final monosyllable to be light, unless it be an extra-syllable) 
necessitates some kind of pause. Hence 

" This my mean task 
Would be as heavy to me as odious, but 
The mistress which I serve quickens what's dead." 

Temp. iii. i. &. 
"Or ere 

It should the goo'd ship so have swallow' d and 
The fraughting souls within her." Tb. \. 2. 12. 
" Freed and enfranchised, not a party to 
The anger of the king, nor guilty of 
(If any be) the trespass of the queen." W. T. ii. 2.. 62, 63. 

So Temp. iii .. 33, iv. I. 149 ; W. T. i. 2. 372, 420, 425, 432, 
449, 461, &*. 

The seems to have been regarded as capable of more emphasis 
^ian with us : 

" Whose shadow the dismissed bachelor loves." Temp. iv. I. 67. 

"With silken streamers the young Phoebus fanning." 

Hen. V. iii. Prol. 6. 
" And your great uncle's, Edward the Black Prince." 

Ib. i. i. 105, 112. 

" And Prosp'ro (469) the prime duke, being (470) so re 
puted." Temp. i. 2. 72. 

' Your breath first kindled the dead coal of war." K. J. v 2. 83 
" Omitting tlie sweet benefit of time." T. G. of V. ii. 4, 65. 



j}6 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" So doth the woodbine, the sweet honeysuckle." 

M. N. D. iv. r. 47 
"Thou, my queen, in silence sad, 

Trip we after the night's shade. " Ib. iv. I. 101. 
" His brother's death at Bristol the Lord Scroop." 

I Hen. IV. L 3. 271. 
" So please you something touching the Lord Hamlet." 

Hamlet, i. 3. 89. 

" Thou hast affected the fine strains of honour." 

Coriol. v. 3. 149, 151. 

In most of these cases the precedes a monosyllable which may 
be lengthened, thus : 

"Your breath | first kindled | thedea | d (484) coal | of war." 
So Temp. i. 2. 196, 204 ; ii. 2. 164 ; iv. I. 153. 
Compare 

" Oh, weep for Adonais. The quick dreams." 

SHELLEY, Adonais, 82. 

But this explanation does not avail for the first example, nor for 

"That heals the wound and cures not the disgrace." Sotin. 34. 

" More needs she the divine than the physician." Macb. v. i. 82. 
(Unless, as in Rich. II. i. \. 154, " physician " has two accents : 
" More needs she | the divine | than the | physi | cian.") 

On the whole there seems no doubt that " the " is sometimes 
allowed to have an accent, though not (457 a) an emphatic accent. 

Scan thus : 

"A devil (466), | a bor | n (485) dev | il (475). on | whose 
nature." Tempest, iv. I. 188. 

avoiding the accent on a. 
Them. 

"Then meet | and join ( Jove's light | nings,/^ | precursors," 

Tempest, i. 2. 201. 

seems to require the accent But "light(e)nings" is a trisyllable 
before a pause in Lear, iv. 7. 35 (see 477), and perhaps even the 
light pause here may justify us in scanning 

"Jove's light | (e)nings, | the precursors." 

457 a, Accented Monosyllabic Prepositions. Walker 

CriL on Shakespeare, ii. 173-5) proves conclusively thai "of" in 
out of" frequently has t he accent. Thus : 



PROSODY 337 

"The fount out of which with their holy hands." B. and F 
" Into a i elapse ; or but suppose out of." MASSING ER. 

' otiii walking like a ragged colt, 
And oft out <?/a bush doth bolt." DRAYTON. 

Many other passages quoted by Walker are doubtful, but he 
brings forward a statement of Daniel, who, remarking that a trochee 
is .nadrmssible at the beginning of an iambic verse of four feet, 
instances : 

" Yearly out of his wat'ry cell," 

which shows that he regarded "out of" as an iambus. Walker 
conjectures " that the pronunciation (of monosyllabic prepositions) 
was in James the First's time beginning to fluctuate, and that Mas- 
Stnger was a partisan of the old mode." Hence, probably, the 
Impositions received the accent in 

" Such men j as he | be ne | ver dt \ heart's ease." 

y. C.i. I. 208. 

' Therefore (490), | out 6f\ thy long | exper | ienc'd time." 
R. and J. iv. I. 60 ; Coriol. i. IO. 19. 

' ' Vaunt cour | iers t6 \ oak-cleav | ing thiin | der-bolts. " 

Lear, iii. 2. 5. 

So Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 431, 438. 

" To bring I but five j and twen | ty ; t6 \ no more." 

Lear, ii. 4. 251. 

" Lor. Who und | ertakes | you td \ your end. | 

Vauy. Prepare there." Hen. VIII. ii. 2. 97. 

For Has reason I think it probable that " to " in " m-to," "un-&," 
sometimes receives the accent, thus : 

"That ev | er love | did make | thee run | intd." 

A. Y. L. ii. 4. 35. 

" Came then | int6 \ my mind, | and yet | my mind." 

Lear, iv. I. 36. 

" Fan you | into \ despair. | Have the pow | er still. " 

Coriol. iiL 3. 127. 

"I had thought, | bymak | ing this | well known | /tfyou." 

Lear, i. 4. 224 ; M. of V. v. I. 169. 

" By this I vile con | quest shall | attain | unt6." 

J. C. v. 5. 38 ; Rich. III. iii. 5. 109. 

''Discuss | unt6 \ me. A'rt | thou off j icer?" 

Hen. V.vt. I. 38. (But this is Pistol.) 

I 



33& SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

With in " without " seems accented in 

"That won | you -with \ out blows." CorioL iii. 3. 13?. 

458. TWO extra Syllables are sometimes allowed, if an- 
emphatic, before a pause, especially at the end of the line. Foi 
the details connected with this licence see 467-9, and 494, where 
it will be seen that verses with six accents are very rare in Shake 
speare, and that therefore the following lines are to be scanned with 
five accents. 

" Peruse I this letter. I Nothing | almost | sees miracles." 

Lear, ii. 2. 172. 

" Must be I a faith I that rea I son with | out miracle." 

Ib. i. I. 225. 

"Like one | that means | his pro | per harm | in mdnacles." 

CorioL i. 9. 57. 
" Was duke | dom large | enough : | of temp(o) | ral 

r6y allies." Tempest, i. 2. 110. 
"I dare I avouch I it, sir. | What, fif | ^followers!" 

Lear, ii. 4. 240. 

" You fool | ish shep | herd, where | fore do | you follmt- 

her?" A. Y. L. iii. 5. <9. 
" Of whom I he's chief, I with all , *he size | that -verity." 

Coriol. v. 2. 18. 

"Ely. Incline | toil, | orn6. | 

Cant. He seems | indifferent." Hen. V. i. I. it. 

" As {f I I lov'd I my litt I le should | be dieted." 

Coriol. i. 9. 52. 

"Why, so I didst thou. I Come they | of no | ble family?" 

Hen. V. ii. 2. 129. 

" That ne I ver may | ill off | ice or | tell jealousy." 

Ib. v. 2. 491. 

" That he I suspects I none ; on I whose fool | ish honesty." 

Lear, i. 2. 197. 

" Within ! my tent | his bones | to-night | shall lie 
Most like I a sold I ier, ord | er'd hon \ (oti)rably." 

J. C. v. 5. 79. 

Compare 

"Young man, I thoucould'st | not die | more/W | (mt)rable." 

Ib. v. l. 60. 

If " ily " were fully pronounced in both cases, the repetition woul \ 
be jntqlenble in the following :- 



PROSOD Y. 

3i'> 

" C M' Bjt wMt ' is like I me for I merl ? I 

..,* . , . That>s ^rt&ilyt'Conol. iv. r 53 

The reg | lon of | my heart : | be Kent | unmannerly" 

"Look, where | he comes! I Not nor, I 

*d^_aeWBfc iii. 3! 330 P P ' Py r ' mttn ' 

" A's you | are old | and reverend, \ you should | be wise." 

"To call | for recompense: \ appedr | it to | yZ' nin^' 
"Is n6t | so &t | imable, pr6f | itab | l e tieftfe/ ' 
"Age is | . | euary. on ( my kn ^ es j f^}; * 167 ' 

Lear. ii. * 157 
' Our must | y sti \perftMy. \ S^e our | best elders." 

Coriol. \. i. 230. 

459. The Spelling (which in Elizabethan writers was more 
influenced by the pronunciation, and less by the original form and 
denvafon o the word, than is now the case) frec/ently indTcate" 

^ 65 WhlCH ^ 



460. Prefixes are dropped in the following words : 

'Metfn'Jfar "embolden'd." Hen. VIII. \. 2 . 55 
'bovefor " above. "Macbeth, iii. 5. 31. 
'fioutfor "about." Temp. i. 2 . 220. 
'fira/atfor "upbraid."/', of T. \. i. 93. 
W/for "recall." B. and F. 
'came for " became. " Sonn. 139. 
'cause for " because. "Macbeth, iii. 6. 21. 
<wj- for "concerns." 

" What 'cerns it you." r. of Sh. v. i. 77. 
'*> for " decide." Sonn. 46. 
'cital for "recital." 

" He made a blushing 'cital of himself." i //, /y m v 2 
collect for " recollect. " B. J. ^/c/j; i. ,. 
'come for "become." 

" Will you not dance ? 

iow come you thus estranged ?" Z. Z. L. T, 2. 1^ 
"encouraging/' ASCH. 17. 
Z2 



342 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" That wounds the unsisting posteni with these blows." 

M.for M. iv. 2. 92. 
This explains how we must scan 

"Prevent | it, resist ('>/) | it, let | it not | be so." 

Rich. III. iv. i. 148. 

"A sooth | sayer bids | you beware ('ware) \ the ides | of 
March." J. C. \. 2. 19. 

"Environ'd ('viron'd) \ me about | and how | led in j mine 
ears." Rich. III. i. 4. 59. 

" At an | y time | have recourse {? course) \ unto | the 
princes." Ib. iii. 5. 109. 

"Lest I' | revenge Avenge] what? | Myself) upon | my 
self?" Ib. v. 3. 185. 

The apostrophe, which has been inserted above in all cases, is 
only occasionally, and perhaps somewhat at random, inserted in the 
Folio. It is therefore not always possible to tell when a verb is 
shortened, as "comes" for "becomes," or when a verb may, 
perhaps, be invented. For instance, "dear'd" maybe a verbal form 
of the adjective "dear," or a contraction of the verb "endearM." 

" Conies (becomes) dear'd (endear'd) by being lack'd." 

A. and C. i. 4. 44. 

Sometimes, perhaps, the prefix, though written, ought scarcely to 
be pronounced : 

" How fares | the king | and 's follow | ers ? (Con) | fined | 
together." Temp. v. I. 7. 

"O (de)spiteful love ! unconstant womankind," 

T. of Sh. iv. 2. 14. 
unless the " O" stands by itself. (See 512.) 

"(Be)longing | to a man. | O be | some 6th | er man." 

R. and J. ii. 2. 42. 

461. Other Contractions are: 

h'arthoFmew (T. of Sh. Ind. i. 105); Hctrfordh\ " Haverford " 
(Rich. ///. iv. 5-7); dimple for "disciple" (B. J. Fox, iv. i; so 
SPENSER, F. Q. i. 10. 27); ignomy for "ignominy" (M. for M. ii. 
4. Ill, I Hen. IV. v. 4. 100 [Fol.]; genman (UoALL) ; gentleman 
(Ham. [1603] i. 5) ; gent (SPENSER) freq. for "gentle" (so in O. E.); 
ta:ly (CHAPMAN, Odyss. ) for "easily;" parlous for "perilous" 
(Rich. III.ii. 4. 35); inter 1 gatories for "interrogatories" (M. ofV. 
tr. I 298); canstifk for "candlestick," 



PROSODY. 343 

" I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned." 

I Hen. IV. iii. i. 131. 

Mmle (B. J. E. out &v. v. 4) for " marvel ;" whe'er for " whether " 
(O. E.) ; and the familiar contraction good-bye, " God be with you," 
which enables us to scan Macbeth, iii. i. 44. We also find in's for 
" in his ;" ttf-wert for "thou wert ;" you're for "you were; " /t'wert 
'or "he were." So "she were" is contracted in pronunciation : 

"'Twere good | she were spo | ken with: I for she I may 

strew." Hamlet, iv. 5. 14. 
Y'are for "you are ; " this' for " this is :" 

" O this'* the poison of deep grief; it springs 

All from her father's death. Hamlet, iv. 5. 76. 
" This 1 a | good block." Lear, iv. 6. 187. 
So we ought to scan 

" Lear. This is a \ dull sight. | Are you | not Kent ? | 

Kent. The same." Lear, v. 3. 282. 

" Sir, this is \ the gent | leman | I told | you of." 

T. of Sh. iv. 4. 20. 

" Sir, this is \ the house. | Please it | you that | I call?" 

Ib. 1. 

This, for " this is," is also found in M. forM. v. i. 131 (Fol. this 'a) ; 
Temp. iv. I. 143 ; T. of Sh. i. 2. 45. Many other passages, such as 
T. G.ofV. v. 4. 93, M.forM. iv. 2. 103, T. of Sh. iii. 2. 1, re- 
quire is to be dropped in reading. This contraction in reading is 
common in other Elizabethan authors ; it is at all events as early 
as Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, 233. 

Shall is abbreviated into 'se and 's in Lear, iv. 6. 246 ; R. and J. 
i. 3. 9. In the first of these cases it is a provincialism, in the 
second a colloquialism. A similar abbreviation "I'st," for "I 
will," "thou'st" for "thou wilt," "thou shalt," &c., seems to 
have been common in the early Lincolnshire dialect (Gill, quoted by 
Mr. Ellis). Even where not abbreviated visibly, it seems to have 
been sometimes audibly, as, 

" If that | be true | I shall see | my boy | again." 

K. J. iii. 4. 78. 

" I shall give | worse pay | ment." T. A T . iv. I. 21. 
" He is, | Sir John : | I fear | we shall stay | too long." 

I Hen. IV. iv. 2. 8? 
* Globe, "this U." 



342 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" That wounds the unfitting posteni with these blows." 

M.for M. iv. 2. 92. 
This explains how we must scan 

"Prevent | it, resist ('sist) \ it, let | it not | be so." 

Rich. III. iv. i. 148. 

"A sooth | sayer bids | you beware ('wart) \ the ides | of 
March." J. C. i. 2. 19. 

"Environ'd ('viron'd) \ me about | and how | led in j mine 
ears." Rich. III. i. 4. 59. 

"At an | y time | have recourse ('course) \ unto | the 
princes." Ib. iii. 5. 109. 

"Lest F | revenge Avenge) what? | Myself | upon | my 
self?"^, v. 3. 185. 

The apostrophe, which has been inserted above in all cases, is 
only occasionally, and perhaps somewhat at random, inserted in the 
Folio. It is therefore not always possible to tell when a verb ib 
shortened, as "comes" for "becomes," or when a verb may, 
perhaps, be invented. For instance, "dear'd" maybe a verbal form 
of the adjective "dear," or a contraction of the verb "endear'd." 

" Conies (becomes) dear'd (endear'd) by being lack'd." 

A. and C. \. 4. 44. 

Sometimes, perhaps, the prefix, though written, ought scarcely to 
be pronounced : 

" How fares | the king | and 's follow j ers? (Con) | fined | 
together." Temp. v. I. 7. 

"O (de)spiteful love! unconstant womankind," 

T. of Sh. iv. 2. 14. 
unless the "O" stands by itself. (See 512.) 

"(Be)longing | to a man. | O be | some 6th | er man." 

R. andj. ii. 2. 42. 

461. Other Contractions are: 

BarthoTmew (T. of Sh. Ind. i. 105); Ha'rford for " Haverford " 
(Rich. III. iv. 5. 7); dimple for "disciple" (B. J. Fox, iv. i; so 
SPENSER, F. Q. i. 10. 27); ignomy for "ignominy" (M.forM.\\. 
4. Ill, I Hen. IV. v. 4. 100 [Fol.j ; genman (UDALL) ; gentVman 
(Ham. [1603] i. 5) ; gent (SPENSER) freq. for "gentle" (so in O. E.); 
ea:ly (CHAPMAN, Odyss.} for "easily;" parlous for "perilous" 
(Rich. III. ii. 4. 35) ; inter' gatories for " interrogatories " (M. ofV. 
v. i 298) ; canstuk for "candlestick," 



PROSODY. 343 

" I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned." 

I Hen. IV. iii. i. 131. 

Maile (li. J. E. out &"c. v. 4) for " marvel ;" whe'er for " whether " 
(O. E.) ; and the familiar contraction good-bye, " God be with you," 
which enables us to scan Macbeth, iii. I. 44. We also find fit's for 
" in his ;" tKivert for "thou wert ;" you're for "you were; " h'were 
'or "he were." So "she were" is contracted in pronunciation : 

"'Twere good | she were spo | ken with: | for she | may 
strew." Hamlet, iv. 5-14. 

Y'are for "you are ; " this' for " this is :" 

" O this'* the poison of deep grief; it springs 

All from her father's death." Hamlet, iv. 5. 76. 
" 77ih' a | good block." Lear, iv. 6. 187. 
So we ought to scan 

" Lear. This is a \ dull sight. | Are you | not Kent? | 

Kent. The same." Lear, v. 3. 282. 

" Sir, this is \ the gent | leman | I told | you of." 

T. o/Sh. iv. 4. 20. 

" Sir, this is \ the house. | Please it | you that | I call?" 

Ib. 1. 

This, for " this is," is also found in M. for M. v. I. 131 (Fol. this 'a) ; 
Temp. iv. I. 143 ; T. o/Sh. i. 2. 45. Many other passages, such as 
T. G. of V. \. $. 93, M.forM. iv. 2. 103, T. of Sh. iii. 2. 1, re 
quire is to be dropped in reading. This contraction in reading is 
common in other Elizabethan authors ; it is at all events as early 
as Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, 233. 

Shall is abbreviated into 'se and 's in Lear, iv. 6. 246 ; R. and J. 
i. 3. 9. In the first of these cases it is a provincialism, in the 
second a colloquialism. A similar abbreviation "I'st," for "I 
will," "thou'st" for "thou wilt," "thou shall," &c., seems to 
have been common in the early Lincolnshire dialect (Gill, quoted by 
Mr. Ellis). Even where not abbreviated visibly, it seems to have 
been sometimes audibly, as, 

" If that I be true I I shall see | my boy | again." 

K. J. iii. 4. 78. 

" I shall give | worse pay | ment." T. N. iv. I. 21. 

" He is, | Sir John : | I fear | we shall stay | too long." 

I Hen. IV. iv. 2. 8? 

Globe, "thisi*." 



i44 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

With seems often to have been pronounced wi', and henct 
combined with other words. We have "zu'us," (B. and F. 
Folder Brother, v. l) for "with us," and "take me w' ye" (ib.) for 
"with ye." 

Beside the well-known "doff" "do-off," and "don" "do-on," 
we also find "dout" for "do-out" (Hamlet, iv. 7. 192); "probal" 
for "probable" (Othello, ii. 3. 344). 

WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 

462. Sometimes the spelling does not indicate the contracted 
pronunciation. For instance, we spell nation as though it had three 
syllables, but pronounce it as though it had two. In such cases it 
is impossible to determine whether two syllables coalesce or are 
rapidly pronounced together. But the metre indicates that one of 
these two processes takes place. 

Syllables ending in vowels are also frequently elided before vowels 
in reading, though not in writing. Thus : 

" Prosp. Against | what should | ensue. | 
Mir. I low came | we ashore ? " 

Temp. i. 2. 158. 

" You give | your wife | too unkind \ a cause | of grief." 

M. of V. v. I. 175. 
"No (i)mped | iment j between, | but that j you must." 

Coriol. ii. 3. 23:. 
"There was | a yield | ing ; this | admits | no (e)xcuse." 

/'. v. 6. 69. 
Here even the Folio reads " excuse." 

" It is | too hard | a knot | for me ! to untie." 

T. N. \\. 2. 42. 

The is often elided before a vowel, and therefore wo may either 
pronounce this is, this" (461), or write tK for the, in 

" O worthy Goth, this is the incarnate devil." T. A. v. I. 40- 
Remembering that "one" was pronounced without i& present 
initial sound of w, we shall easily scan (though "the" is not elided 
in many modern texts) 

" Th' one sweet | ly flatt | ers, M'oth | er fear ( eth harm." 

A. cfL 172. 
4v One liilf j of me | is yours, | th' other | half yours." 

M. of V. iii. 2. 16. 



WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 345 

"Ransom [ ing him (217) | or pity | ing, threate | ning 
///' other." Coriol. i. 6. 36. 

A.nd this explains 

" And of | his old | exper(i) (467) | ence t/i(e) on | ly darling.' 

A. W. ii. i. 110. 
" Has shook | and trem | bled at | the ill neigh | bourhood. " 

Hen. V. i. 2. 154. 
" Where should | thismu | sic be? | P the air, \ or the earth? 

Temp. i. 2. 387, 389. 
(Folio " i' th' air, or th' earth.") 

463. R frequently softens or destroys a following 

VOWel (the vowel being nearly lost in the burr which follows the 
effort to pronounce the r). 

" When the | aldrum \ were struck | than i | dly sit." 

Cot. it 2. 80. 



Ham, Perchance 
Hor. I warrant 



t'will walk | again. 

it will." Hamlet, i. 2. 3. 



" I' have | cast off | for ever; | thou shall, | I warrant thee. " 

Lear, i. 4. 332. 
" I bet | ter brook | than flourish \ ing peo | pled towns." 

T. G. of V. v. 4. 3. 
" Whiles I | in Ire | land n6urish* \ a might | y band." 

2 Hen. VI. iii. i. 348. 
'' Place barrels \ of pitch | up6n | the fat | al stake." 

i Hen. VI. v. 4. 57! 
" 'Tis mdrle \ he stabb" | d you not." 

B. J. E. out &c. v. 4 ; Rich. III. i. 4. 64. 
" A barren \ detest | ed vale | you see | it is." 

T. A. ii. 3. 92 ; 2 Hen. VI. ii. 4. 3. 

So "quarrel,'' Rich. III. i. 4. 209. 

I'his is very common with "spirit," which softens the following 
i. or sometimes the preceding /', in either case becoming a mono 
syllable. 

" A.nd then, | they say, | no spirit \ dares stir | abroad." 

Hamlet, i. I. 161. 
So scan 

H^vt now, | spirit, whither | wander | you?'' M.N.D.\\. J 1 
(" Whither" is a monosyllable. See 466.) 



Compare naiir-nce, mine. 



346 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

This curtailment is expressed in the modern "sprite." So in 
Lancashire, " brid " for " bird." Hence we can scan 
" In aid I whereof, I we of | the sflrit \ ualty." 

Heii. V. i. 2. 132. 

Instances might be multiplied. 

464. E, often softens a preceding unaccented vowel. 

This explains the apparent Alexandrine 

" He thinks | me now | incap | able ; | confederates." 

Temp. i. 2. Ill, iv. I. 140. 

465. ,Er, el, and le, final dropped or softened, especially before 
vowels and silent h. * The syllable er, as in letter, is easily inter 
changeable with re, as lettre. In O. E. "bettre" is found for 
"better." Thus words frequently drop or soften -er ; and in like 
manner -el and -le, especially before a vowel or h in the next word : 

(1) " Report I should rend i er him hour | ly to | your ear." 

Cymb. iii. 4. 153. 
" Into I a good I ly bulk, i Good time I encounter her." 

W. T. ii. i. 20. 

" This lett I er he ear I ly bade I me give | his father." 

R. and J. v. 3. 275. 

" You'll be | good company, | my sist | er and you." 

MIDDLETON, Witch, ii. 2. 

" Than e'er I the mast I er of arts I or giv | er of wit." 

B. J. Poetast. 

(2) " Trav<r/ you I far on, I or are I you at | the farthest?" 

T. o/Sh. iv. 2. 73. 

(3) " That made | great Jove | to numb | le him to | her hand." 

Ib. i. I. 174. 

" Gent/mien I and friends, | I thank | you for | your pains." 

Ib. iiL 2. 186. 

" I' am I a senile I man of I a com | pany." 

Hen. V iv. i. 39, 42. 

"Needle," which in Gammer Gurton rhymes with "feele,"is 
often pronounced as a monosyllable. 

" Deep clerks she dumbs, and with her need/<? (Folio) composes. " 
P.ofT.v. Gower, 5; Cymb. i. I. 168. 

* The same tendency is still more noticeable in E. E. See Essay on the 
Met 1 cs of Chaucer, by the Rev. W. W. Skeat (Aldine Seiies). 



WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 347 

" r when she would with sh arp need/,? (Folio) wound 
I he cambric which she made more sound 
By hurting it." P. of T. iv. Gower, 23. 

In the latter passage " needle wound " is certainly harsh, though 
Gower does bespeak allowance for his verse. Mr. A. J. Ellit, 
suggests '"Id " for " would," which removes the harshness. 

" And grip | ing it | the need/e \ his fing | er pricks." 

A', of L. 319. 
Their need/ | to Ian | ces, and | their gent | le hearts." 

K. J. v. 2. 157. 

'To thread | the post | ern of | a small | needtSs eye." 

Rich. II. v. 5. 17. 

" Needle's " seems harsh, and it would be more pleasing to modern 
ears to scan " the post | ern of a | small nee | die's eye." But this 
verse in conjunction with P. of T. iv. Gower, 23, may indicate that 
" needle " was pronounced as it was sometimes written, very much 
like " neeld," and the </ in " neeld " as in " vild " (vile) may have 
been scarcely perceptible. 

" A samp/,? | to the young | est, to | the more | mature." 

Cymb. i. i. 48. 

The comm | on peop/? | by numb | ers swarm | to us." 
3 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 2 ; T. A. i. I. 20 
And, even in the Sonnets : 

" And troub/r j deaf heav | en with | my boot | less cries 

" Unc/e Mar | cus, since | it is | my fa | tiler's mind." 

T. A. v. 3. 1 

" Duke F. And get | you from | our court. | 
Ros - Me, uncle? \ 

Duke f- You, cousin 1 " 

A. Y. L. i. 3. 44. 
466. Whether and ever are frequently written or pronounced 

whe'r or where and e'er. The th is also softened in either, 
hither, other, father, &c., and the v in having, evil, &c. 

It is impossible to tell in mamuof these cases what degree of 
" softening " takes place. In /other," for instance, the th is so 
completely dropped that it has \become our ordinary "or," which 
we use without thought of contraction. So "whether" is often 
written " wh'er " in Shakespeare. Some, but it is impossible to say 
what, degree of "softening," though not expressed in writing, 
seems to have affected th in the following words : 



348 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

Brother. 

"But for | our trust | y brother \ -in-law, | the abbot." 

Rich. II. v. 3. 137. 

Either. 

"Either led | or driv | en as | we point | the way." 

y. C. iv. I. 23 ; Rich. III. i. 2. 64, iv. 4. 82. 
"Are hired | to bear | their staves; | either thou, | Macbeth." 
Macbeth, v. 7. 18; M. N. D. ii. I. 32. 

Further. 

"As if | thou never (ne'er) \ walk'dst farther \ than Fins | bury." 

I Hen. IV. iii. i. 257. 

Hither. 

"'Tis he | that sent us ('s) | hither \MO\I \ toslaught | erthee." 

Rich. III. i. 4. 250. 

So the Quartos. The Folio, which I have usually followed in 
other plays, differs greatly from the Quartos in Rich. III. Its 
alterations generally tend to the removal of seeming difficulties. 

Neither. 

" Neither have | I mon | ey nor | commod | ity." 

M. of V.i. i. 178. 

Rather. 

" Rdther than | have made | that sav | age duke | thine heir." 
3 Hen. VI. i. 1. 224. So Othello, iii. 4. 25 ; Rich. II. iv. 1. 16. 

Thither. 

" Thither go | these news | as fast | as horse | can carry 'em." 

2 Hen. VI. i. 4. 78. 

Whether. 

"Good sir, | say whether \ you'll ans | wer me | or no." 

C. of E. iv. i. 60. 
Perhaps " Which he | deserves | to lose. | Whether he was 

(h' was: 461) | combined." Afacbeth, i. 3. 111. 
"But see, | -whether Brut | us be | alive | or dead." 

J. C. v. 4. 30 ; Rich. III. iv. 2. 1 20. 
"A heart | y welcome. | Whether \\\Q\\ \ beest he | or no." 

Tempest, \. i. 111. 

Whither. 

" What means | he now? | Go ask | him -Li-hither \ he goes." 

i Hen. VI. ii. 3. 28. 
" Clouc. The king | is in | high rage. I 

" Corn. Whither is | he going?" Lear. ii. -t. 29 

So scan 

" How now, | spirit ! whither \ winder | your 1 

M. N. D. ii. i. 1 



IWRD* CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 34^ 

This perhaps explains : 

"To find | the (462) other forth, | and b^ | advent | uring 

both." M. ofV.\.\. 143. 
But see 501. 

Having. 

"How could | he see | to do | them? Having \ made one." 

M. of V. iii. 2. 124. 
" Having lost | the fair | discov | ery of | her way." 

V. and A. 828 

" Our gran | dam earth | having this | distemp | eratiire." 

I Hen. IV. iii. i. 34 

So Rich. III. i. 2. 235 ; T. of A. v. I. 61 ; A. W. v. 3. 123 ; 
Cymb. v. 3. 45. 

In all of these verses it may seem difficult for modern readers to 
understand how the v could be dropped. But it presents no more 
difficulty than the v in "ever," " over." 

Evil. 

It is also dropped in "evil" and "devil" (Scotch "de'il"). 

" The eVils | she hatch'd | were not | effect | ed, so." 

Cymb. v. 5. 6Q 
" Of horr | id hell | can come | a deVil | more damn'd." 

Macbeth, iv. 3. 56. 
"Ez^l-eyed | unto | you ; y" are (461) | my prison | er, but." 

Cymb. i. I. 72. 

So Rich. III. i. 2. 76. Of course, therefore, the following is not 
an Alexandrine : 

" Reproach | and diss | olii | tion hang | eth oz/er him." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 258. 

Similarly the d is dropped in "maa?am," which is often pro 
nounced "ma'am," a monosyllable. 

The v is of course still dropped in hast for havest, has for haveth 
or haves. In the Folio, has is often written Aa's, and an omission 
In other verbs is similarly expressed, as "sit's" for "sitteth" 
(A'. J. ii. i. 289). 

467. I in the middle of a trisyllable, if unaccented, is 

frequently dropped, or so nearly dropped as to make it a favourite 
syllable in trisyllabic feet. 

{I) " Tudi | cious pdnish \ ment' 'Twas | this flesh | begot." 
Lear, iii. 4. 76 ; M. for M. i. 3. 39 



3JO SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Our rev | (e)rend cdrdi \ nal carried. | Like it, | youi 

grace." Hen. VIII. i. i. 100, 102, 105, &c. 
"With whom | the Kent | ishmen | will will \ in:;ly rise." 

3 Hen. Vf. i. 2. 41. 
" Which are | the mov | ers of | a Idnguish \ ing death." 

Cymb. i. 5. 9. 
"My thought | whose mi'ir | der yet | is but \fantdstical." 

Macbeth, i. 3. 139. 
" That lov'd | your father : | the resi \ due of \ your fortune." 

A. Y. L. ii. 7. 196. 
" Premising \ to bring | it to | the For | pentine." 

C. ofE. v. i. 222. 
So i Hen. VI. iv. I. 166. 

(2) Very frequently before fy:) 

" The mea | sure then | of one | is east \ ly told." 

L. L. L. v. 2. 190. 
" His short | thick neck | cannot | be eds \ ily harmed." 

V. and A. 627. 
" PrMly | methought | did play | the or | ator." 

i Hen. VI. iv. i. 175. 

(3) And before ty :\ 

" Such bold"] hostlli \ ty, teach | ing his('s) dii | teous land." 

i Hen. IV. iv. 3. 44. 
" Of god- | like dmi \ ty, which | appears | most strongly." 

M. of V. iii. 4. 3. 
" A'riel | and all | his qudli \ ty. 

" Prosp. Hast | thou, spirit?" Tempest, i. 2. 193. 

"Of smooth | crvili \ ty yet | am I in | land bred." 

A. Y. L. ii. 7. 96. 
Compare BUTLER, Hndibras, part ii. cant. 3. 945 : 

' ' Which in | their dark | fatdl \ ''ties lurk | ing 
At des | tin'd per | iods fall | a-work | ing." 

This explains the apparent Alexandrines : 

" Thou wilt | prove his. | Take him | to pri | son, Officer.' 1 ' 

M. for M. iii. 2. 32. 
" Some tricks | of des | perat | ion, all | but mdriners." 

Temp. i. i. 211. 
1 One dowle | that's in | my plume, | my fell | ow ministers." 

Tenip. iii. 2. 65, v. I. 28 ; M.for M. iv. 5. 6 ; Macb. i. 5. 49. 
" This is | the gent | leman | I told | your ladyship." 

T. G. of V. ii. 4. 87. 



WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 351 

" A virt | uous gent | Iew6m | an, mild | and beautiful." 

T. G. of V. iv/4. 184. 

" And te | d/ousness | the limbs | and out | wardyWm/fer." 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 91. 

Sometimes these contractions are expressed in writing, as 
"par'lous," Rich. III. ii. 4. 35. This is always a colloquial form. 

468. Any unaccented syllable of a polysyllable (whether 

containing i or any other vowel) may sometimes he softened and 
almost ignored. Thus 

a " Hold thee, | from this, | for ever. | The barb | rous 

Scythian." Lear, i. i. 118. 
" Say by | this to | ken I' | desire | his company." 

M.fofM. iv. 3. 144. 
ed "With them | they think | on. Things | without | all 

remly,/' Macbeth, iii. 2. 11. 
"Men. You must | return | and mend | it. 
Sen. There's | no rcmly." 

Coriol. iii. 2. 26 ; T. N. iii. 4. 367. 
em " All bro | ken impV | wents of | a ru | ined house." 

T. of A. iv. 2. 16 

" Join'd with | an enmiy | proclaim'd ; | and from | his coffers." 
Hen. V. ii. 2. 168; M. for M. ii. 2. 180; Macb. iii. i. 105. 
en " The mess | engers from | our sis | ter and | the king." 

Lear, ii. 2. 54. 
"'Tis done | alrea | dy, and | the mess | etiger gone." 

A. and C. iii. 6. 31 ; A. W. iii. 2. Ill 

Passenger is similarly used. 

er "In our | last conference. | pass'd in | proba | tion with 

you." Macbeth, iii. I. 80. 
es "This is | his maj | <wty, say | your mind | to him." 

A. IV. ii. i. 98. 
"1 that | am rude | ly stamped, | and want | love's maj^rty." 

Rich. III. i. I. 16. 

Majesty is a quasi-uissyllable in Rich. III. i. 3. 1, 19, ii. I. 75 ; 
Rich. II. ii. i. 141,147, iii. 2. 113, v. 2. 97, 3. 35; Macbeth, 
iii. 4. 2, 121. 

as "Our pur I pose ne'e | essary and | not en | vious. " 

J. C. ii. i. 178. 

I "L& us | be sacri/fr | ers and | not but | chers, Caius." 

lb. ii. i. 168 



?$* SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

o "The inn | ocent milk | in it | most inn | ocent mouth." 

W. T. iii. 2. 101 
"There take | an in | ventory | of all | I have." 

lien. VIII. iii. 2. 452. 
ua *' Go thou | to sanctz/rt \ ry [sanctu'ry or sanct'ry], and | good 

thoughts | possess thee." Rich. III. iv. I. 94. 
"Shall fly | out of (457 a) | itself; | nor sleep | nor sdnctuary." 

Coriol. i. 10. 19. 

' Some read | Alvar | ez' Helps | to Grace, 
Some Sanctttrt | ry of | a troub | led soul." 

COLVIL'S Whig Supplication, i. 1186 (Walker). 
"When liv | ing light | should kiss | it ; 'tis | unnatural." 

Macbeth, ii. 4. 10; Hen. V. iv. 2. 13. 
"Thoughts spec | lative | their un | sure hopes | relate." 

Afacbdh, v. 4. 19. 
"And ne | ver live | to show | the incred | lous world." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 153. 

"How you | were borne | in hand, | how cross'd, | the in 
struments." Macbeth, iii. I. 81, iv. 3. 239. 

469. Hence polysyllabic names often receive but one 
accent at the end of the line in pronunciation. 

Proper names, not conveying, as other nouns do, the origin and 
reason of their formation, are of course peculiarly liable to be 
modified ; and this modification will generally shorten rather than 
lengthen the name. 

" To your | own con | science, sir, | before | Pollxenes." 

W. T. iii. 2. 47. 

" That ere | the sun | shone bright | on. O'f | ffermwiit." 

Ib. v. i. 95. 
" The rar | est of | all wo | men. Go, | CleSmenes." 

Ib. 112. 
" To our | most fair | and prince [ ly cous | in Kdtharinc." 

Hen. V. v. 2. 4. 
" My broth | er and | thy \in | cle, called j AntSmo." 

Temp. i. 2. C6. 
"My lord | Bassan | io, since | you have found | Antonio.' 1 '' 

M. of V. i. i. 59 : so often in this play. 
" Then all | a- fire | with me | ; the king's | son Ferdinand." 

Temp. \. 2. 212. 

I rat | ify | this my | rich gift. | O Ferdinand." 7?.iv.i.8. 
" Then par | don me | my wrongs. | But how | should 
Prospero?"Ib. v. I. 119. 



WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 353 

" I'll if | ter, m6re | to be" | revenged | on E glamour." 

T, G. of V. v. 2. 51. 
" Whit it | contains. | I'f you I shall se*e | Cordelia." 

Lear, iii. I. 46. 
" Up6n | such sacr | ific | es, m^ | Cordelia." 

Ib. v. 3. 20, 2-15. 
So throughout the play. 

"When th6u | liest how | ling. What ! | the fair | Ophttia." 

Hamlet, v. I. 265. 
" At Gre | cian sword | contemn | ing. Tell | Valeria. " 

Coriol. i. 3. 46. 

" Here, if | it like | your h6n | our. See | that Cldudio." 
M.for M. ii. i. 33, iii. I. 48. 

" So then | you h6pe | of par | don fr6m | lord A'ngelo ?" 
Ib. iii. i. 1, iv. 3. 147, i. 4. 79. 
" I see | my s6n | Antiph | olus | and Dr6mio." 

C. ofE. v. i. 196. 
" The form | of death. | Meantime | I writ | to Rdmeo." 

R. andj. v. 3. 246. 
" Looks it | not like | the king? | Mark it, | Hordtio." 

Hamlet, i. I. 43. 

" They love | and d6te | on ; call | him bount | (e)ous Buck 
ingham." Hen. VIII. ii. i. 52; Rich. III. iv. 4. 508, 
ii. 2. 123. 

" Vaux. The great | ness of | his per | son. 
Buck. Nay, | Sir Nicolas." 

Hen. VIII. ii. I. 100. 
" But I' | beseech | you, what's | become | of Kdtharine ?" 

Ib. iv. i. 22. 

" Saw'st thou | the mel | anchol | y L6rd | Northumber 
land?" Rich. III. v. 3. 68. 

"Therefore | present | to her, | as some | time Mdrgaret." 

Ib. iv. 4. 274. 
" And you | our n6 | less lov | ing son | of Albany" 

Lear, i. i. 43. 
" Exasp | crates, | makes mad | her sis | ter Goneril." 

Ib.-v.i. 60. 
"' As fit | the brid | al. Beshrew | me much, | Emilia." 

Othello, iii. 4. 150. 
" Is c6me | from Cse's | ar ; there | fore hear | it, A'ntony." 

A. and C. i. i. 27, i. 5. 21. &c. 
" Than Cle | opatr | a, nor | the queen | of Ptottmy." 

Ib '. 4. 6. 
A A 



354 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" With them, | the two | brave heirs, | Warwick j and 

Mdntague." 3 Hen. VI. v. 7. 10. 
Less frequently in the middle of the line : 

" My 16rd I of Biickingham, | if m^ | weak or | at dry." 

Rich. III. Hi. I. 37. 
" Cousin I of Biick \ ingham dnd | you sage, | grave men." 

Ib. iii. 7. 217. 
" Looking | for A'ntony. \ But all | the charms | of love." 

A. and C. ii. i. 20. 
' ' Did slay | this Fortinbras ; \ who, by | a seal'd | compact 

(490)." Hamlet, i. i. 86. 
" Thrift, thrift, | Hordtio, \ the fu | neral | bak'd meats." 

Ib. i. 2. 180. 

" He gave | to Alexdnder ; \ to Pldlem \ y he | assigned." 

Ib. iii. 6. 16. 
" Thou art | Hermione; \ or path | er, thoii | art she." 

W. T. v. 3. 25. 

" To s6ft | en A'ngelo, \ and that's | my pith | of business." 

M.for M. i. 4. 70. 

Enobdrbus in A. and C. has but one accent, wherever it stands 
in the verse : 

" Bear hate | ful memo | ry, p6or | Enobdr \ bus did." 

A. and C. iv. 9. 9, &c. 

" Of your | great pre | decessor, | KingEd-ward\ the Third." 

Hen. V. L 2. 248. 

It may here be remarked that great licence is taken with the 
metre wherever a list of names occurs : 

' ' That Harry duke of Hereford, Rainold lord Cobham, 
Sir Thomas Erpingham, Sir John Ramston, 
Sir John Norbery, Sir Robert Waterton, and Francis Quoint." 
Rich. II. ii. i. 279, 283, 284. 

" The spirits 
Of valiant Shirley, Stafford, Blunt, are in my arms." 

I Hen. IV. v. 4. 41 
" Whither away, Sir John Falstaffe, in such haste?" 

i Hen. VI. iii. a. 104. 
" John duke of Norfolk, Walter Lord Ferrers." 

Rick. III. v. 5. 13. 
" Lord Cromwell of Wingfield, Lord Furnival of Sheffield." 

Ib. iv. 7. 166. 
" Sir Gilbert Talbot, Sir William Stanley." Ib. iv. 5. 10 



WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 355 

In the last examples, and in some others, the pause between two 
names seems to license either the insertion or omission of a syllable. 

470. Words in which a light vowel is preceded by a 

heavy VOWel or diphthong are frequently contracted, as power, 
jewel, lower, doing, going, dying, playing, prowess, &c. 

"The which | no soon | er had | his prowm | confirm'd." 

Macbeth, v. 8. 41. 
Comp. " And he that routs most pigs and cows, 

The form | idab | lest man | of prowess." 

Hudib. iii. 3. 357. 
Perhaps 

" Which both | thy dii | ty 6wes [ and our | power claims." 

A. W. ii. 3. 168. 

(This supposes "our" emphasized by antithesis, but "and our 
pow | er claims " (ELLIS) may be the correct scanning. ) 

Being. "That with | his per j empt6r | y "shall" | being put." 

Coriol. iii. i. 94, 2. 81. 
" The sov | ereignt^ | of ei | ther bfing \ so great." 

R. ofL. 69. 
This explains the apparent Alexandrines : 

" And being \ but a toy | that is | no grief | to give." 

Rich. III. ii. i. 114. 
" With6ut | a parall | el, these | being all | my study." 

Tempest, i. 2. 74. 

Doing. "Can lay | to bed | for ever: j whiles you, I doing\\\v&. n 

Ib. ii. i. 284. 
Seeing. " Or siting j it 6f | such child | ish friend | liness." 

Coriol. ii. 3. 183. 

" I'll in | myself | to see, | and in thee | seeing ill." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 94 

" That you | at such | times string \ me ne | ver shall." 

Hamlet, i. 5. 1?3. 

ying. " And prdph \ esying \ with ac | cents ter | rible." 

Macbeth, ii. 3. 62. 
This may explain 

" Lock'd in | her mon(u) [468] | ment. She'd | *.prtph(e}- \ 
syingK&i." A. and C. iv. 14. 120. 

So with other participles, as 

"They, knowing \ dame E'l | eanor's | aspir | ing humour. ' 

2 Hen. VI. \. 2. 7. 
A A a 



356 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

The rhythm seems to demand that " coward " should be a quasi 
monosyllable in 

" Wrong right, I base noble, | old young, | coward val I ant." 

T. A. iv. i. 29. 
" Noble" a monosyllable. (See 465. ) 

" Yet are | they pass | ing c6wardly. \ But I' | beseech you." 

Coriol. i. I. 207. 

471. The plural and possessive cases of nouns in which 
the singuIaFlmcls inj^ se, ss, ce, and ge, are frequently 

written, and "sfilTrnore" frequently pronounced, without the additional 
syllable : 

" A's the | dead cdr \ casses 6f | unbur | ied men." 

Coriol. iii. 3. 122. 
" Thinking | upon | his ser \ vices took | from you." 

Ib. ii. 2. 231. 

"Their sense \ are [Fol. sic] shut." Macbeth, v. I. 29. 
"My sense \ are st6pped." Sonn. 112. 
" These verse." DANIEL. 
" I'll to | him ; he | is hid | at Ldwr \ encc* ce"ll." 

R. andj. iii. 2. 141. 

" Great kings of France and England ! That I have laboured, 
Your might \ iness \ on both | parts best | can witness." 

Hen. V. v. 2. 28. 
" Place" is probably used for "places" in 

" The fresh | springs, brine- | pits, bar | ren place \ and 

fertile." Tempest, i. 2. 338. 
" These two | Antlph \ olus [Folio], | these two | so like." 

C.ofE.v. i. 357. 

"Are there balance?" M. of V. iv. I. 255. 
" (Here) have I, thy schoolmaster, made thee more profit 
Than 6th | er prln \ cess [Folio] can | that have | more 

time." Temp. i. 2. 173. 
" Sits on his horse back at mine hostess door." 

K. J. ii. i. 289 (Folic). 
" Looked pale I when they | did hear | of Cldr \ ence (Folio) 

death.'' Rich. III. ii. i. 137, iii. I. 144. 
Probably the s is not sounded (horse is the old plural) in 
" And Duncan's horses (a thing most strange and certain)." 

Macbeth, ii. 4. 14. 
*' Lies in their purses, and whoso empties them." 

Rich, U. ii. 2. 180. 



WORDS CONTRACTED IN PRONUNCIATION. 357 

Even after ge the s was often suppressed, even where printed. 
Thus: 

" How many ways shall Carthage's glory grow !" 

SURREY'S JEneid IV. (Walker). 

But often the s was not written. So 

" In violating marriage sacred law." 

Edward III. (1597 A.D.) (LAMB.) 
The s is perhaps not pronounced in 

"Conje'ct | (n)ra.lmdrr \ iage(s); male | ing part | ies strong." 

Coriol. i. I. 198. 
" Are bra | zen im \ ages 6f | canon (491) | iz'd saints." 

2 Hen. VI. i. 3. 63. 
" The im \ ages 6f | revolt | and fiy | ing off!" 

Lear, ii. 4. 91. 

" O'ff with | his son | George's head." Rich. III. v. 3. 344. 
" Letters | should n6t | be known, | riches pov | erty." 

Tempest, ii. I. 150. 

This may perhaps explain the apparent Alexandrines : 

" I prom | is'd you | redress | of these | same grievances." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. 2. 113. 
" This dei | ty in | my bos | om twen | ty consciences." 

Temp. ii. I. 278. 
" And straight | disclaim | their tongues ? | What are | your 

Offices?" Coriol. iii. i. 35. 
" Popfl | ius Le | na speaks | not 6f | our piir \ poses." 

J. C. iii. i. 23. 

" She lev | ell'd at | our ptir \ poses, and | being (470) royal,' 1 

A. and C. \. 2. 339. 

(or " | our piirpose(s), \ and be | ing r6yal.") 

" A thing | most bni | tish, I' | endowed j tiny purposes." 

Tempest, i. 2. 357. 
" Nor when | she purposes \ return. | Beseech | your highness." 

Cymb. iv. 3. 15. 
" As blanks, | benhio \ lences and | I wot | not what." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 250. 

" My serv \ ices which | I have ('ve) done | the Sign | iory." 

Othello, i. 2. 18. 

'* These pipes | and these | convey \ ances of | our blood." 

Coriol. v. i. 54. 
" Professes \ to persuade | the king | his s6n's | alive." 

TemJ>. ii. I. 236. 



358 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Either " whom I " is a detached foot (499) or s is mute in 

" Whom I', I with this | obeM ( ient steel, | three inches of it 
(inch of *t)." Tempest, ii. I. 285. 

472. Ed following d or t is often not written (this 
elision is very old: see 341, 342), and, when written, 
often not pronounced. 

"I had | not quoted him. | 1 fear'd | he dfd | but trifle." 

Hamlet, ii. I. 112. 
" Reg. That tended (Globe, 'tend') | upon | my father. 

Glou. I know | not, madam." Lear, ii. I. 97. 
" Since not I to be" I av6id#/ I it falls | on me." 

i Hen. IV. v. 5. 13. 
" But just I ly as I you have | exceeded \ all promise." 

A. Y. L. i. 2. 156. 
" For treas I on ex<f | cnted in | our late | king's days." 

I Hen. VI. ii. 4. 91. 
" And so, I riveWI with faith [ unto (457) | your flesh." 

M. of V. v. i. 169. 
" Be soon | collect | ed and all | things thought | upon." 

Hen. V. \. 2. 305. 
" I's to | be frighte/ | out of fear : | and in | that mood." 

A. and C. iii. 13. 196. 
" Was apt I ly titled | and nat | (u)rally | perform'd." 

T. o/Sk. Ind. i. 87. 
*' Is now | converted: | but now | I was | the 16rd." 

M. of V. iii. 2. 169. 
" W]aich I' | mistrust^ | not: fare | well there | fore, Hero." 

M. Ado, ii. i. 189. 
" All un | av6idi?</ | is the doom | of dest | iny"." 

Rich. HI. iv. 4. 217. 

but here "destiny" (467) may be a dissyllable, and -#/ sonant. 
This explains the apparent Alexandrine : 

" I thus | neglect | ing world | ly ends | all dedicated." 

Temp. i. 2. 89. 

"Shouting | their em | ula | tion. What | isgrdnted them?" 

Coriol. i. i. 218. 

So strong was the dislike to pronouncing two dental syllables 
together, that "it" seems nearly or quite lost after "set" and 
"let" in the following : 

" I numb | ly sA it \ at your will ; | but for | my mistress.' 

Cymb. iv. 3. 13. 



VARIABLE SYLLABLES. 359 

" To hfs | exper | ienced tongue ; | yet Itt it \ please both." 

Tr. and Cr. i. .3. 68. 
" Y6u are a | young hunt | sman, Mar | cus : let it alone." 

T. A. iv. 2. 101. 
" You see | is kill'd | in him : | and yet it \ is danger." 

Lear, iv. 7. 79. 
So perhaps " Of ex | cellent | dissemb | ling ; and | let it look." 

A. and C. i. 3. 79. 
But more probably, "dissembling; | and let | it look." 

473. Est in superlatives is often pronounced st after 

dentals and liquids. A similar euphonic contraction with respect 

to est in verbs is found in E. E. Thus " bindest " becomes ' ' binst," 

" eatest " becomes "est." Our "best " is a contraction for " bet-est." 

" Two of | the sweet' st \ compan | ions in | the w6rld." 

Cymb. v. 5. 349 

" At your | kind'st leisure." Macbeth, ii. I. 24. 
" The stern'st \ good night." Ib. ii. 2. 4. 
" Secret' st." Ib. iii. 4. 126. 

" This is | thy elcfst \ son's son." K. J. ii. I. 177. 
So Temp. v. I. 186. 

" Since death | of my | dear'st m6th | er." Cymb. iv. 2. 190. 
" The Uy \ al'st hus | band that | did e'er | plight troth." 

Ib. i. i. 96. 

A. W.\\. I. 163, "greafst." " The sweet'st, dear'st." W. T. 
iii. 2. 202. " Near'st" Macb. iii. I. 118. " Unpleasant' st." 
M. of V. iii. 2. 254. " Strong' st." Rich. II. iii. 3. 201. " Short st." 
Ib. v. I. 80. " Common' st." Ib. v. 3. 17. " Faithfulfst." 
T. N. v. i. 117. 
This lasted past the Elizabethan period. 

" Know there are rhymes which fresh and fresh apply'd 
Will cure the arrant' st puppy of his pride." 

POPE, Imit. Hor. Epist. i. 60. 
The Folio reads " stroakst," and " made " in 

" Thou striakedst \ me and | modest much | of me, | would" si 

give me." Tempest, \. 2. 333. 
But the accent on " and " is harsh. Perhaps " and ma | dest." 

VARIABLE SYLLABLES. 

474. Ed final is often mute aud sonant in the same 

line. Just as one superlative inflection -est does duty for two closely 
connected adjectives (398) : 



360 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" The generous and grav<?j/ citizens." M. for M. iv. 6. 13, 
and the adverbial inflection ly does duty for two adverbs (397) : 

" And she will speak most bitter^/ and strange." 

M.forM. v. r. 36. 

so, when two participles ending in -ed are closely connected by 
" and," the ed in one is often omitted in pronunciation. 

"Despttd, \ distress \ ed, hat | ed, mart | yr'd, killed." 

R. and J. iv. 5. 59. 
" We have with | a Kav \ en'd and | prepdr \ ed ch6ice." 

M.forM. i. I. 52. 
"To this | unttoKd \ for, tin \prepdr \ /p6mp." 

K. J. ii. i. 560. 
In the following the -ed sonant precedes : 

" That were | embdtt \ ailld \ and rdnk'd \ in Kent." 

K. J. iv. 2. 200, 
"We are | impress \ed dnd\ engdgd \ to fight." 

i Hen. IV. i. i. 21. 
"For this | they have | engr6ss \ ed and | pil'd up." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 71. 

"Thou chdng \ ed and | self-c6v \ er'd thing, | for shame." 

Lear, iv. 2. 62. 
At the end of a line ed is often sounded after er : 

" Which his | hell-gov | ern'd arm | hath biitc \ her&" 

Rich. Ill ,. 2. 74 

See J. C. ii. i. 208 ; iii. I. 17 ; iii. 2. 7, 10 ; iv. i. 47; v. I. 1. 
So Rick. III. iii. 7. 136 ; iv. 3. 17 ; v. 3. 292 ; M. N. D. iii. 2. 18, 
&c. This perhaps arises in part from the fact that " er " final in 
itself (478) has a lengthened sound approaching to a dissyllable. 

Ed is very frequently pronounced in the participles of words 
ending in fy, "glorify," &c. 

"Most put | rift | ed core, | so fair | without." 

Tr. and Cr. v. 9. 1. 
"My m6rt \ifi\ed spirit. | Now bid | me run." 

J. C. ii. i. 324. 
"Vaughan | and all | that have | miscdrr \ iM." 

Rich. III. v. i. 5. 
"The French | and E'ng | lish there | miscdr \ ritd." 

M. of V. ii. 8. 29. 

"That came | too lag | to see | him bd \ riid." Ib. il I. 90. 
So frequently in other Elizabethan authors. Also when preceded 
by rn, rm, "\wned," " confirmed," &c., and in " followed : " 



VAKtABLE SYLLABLES. 361 

" As they | us t6 | our trench | es/<#7 | owAt." 

Coriol. i. 4. 42. 
On the other hand, -ed is mute in 

" By what | hy-naths | and in I direct | mwfcV wj.ys." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 185. 

In " Warder. We do | no 6th | erwise | than we | are wttPd. 
Glou. Who will | ed y6u ? | Or whose | will stands | 
but mine," I Hen. VI. i. 3. 11. 

it would seem that the latter "willed" is the more emphatic of the 
two, and it will probably be found that in many cases where two 
participles are connected, the moj-e emphatic has ed sonant. Thus 
the former "banished" is the more emphatic of the two in 

' ' Hence bd n \ ishtd \ is bdnisKd from | the world. " 

R. and J. iii. 3. 19. 

475. A word repeated twice in a verse often receives 
two accents the first time, and one accent the second, 
when it is less emphatic the second time than the first. 
Or the word may occupy the whole of a foot the first 
time, and only part of a foot the second. Thus in 

" Fdre (480) | well, gen | tie mis | tress : fare \ well, Nan." 

M. W. ofW. iii. 4. 97. 
"fare (480) \ well, gen | tie cous | in. Coz, \farewtll." 

K. J. iii. 3. 17. 

"Of great | est just | ice. Wri \ ^(484), write, \ Rinaldo." 

A. W. iii. 4. 29. 
"These vi \ olent \ desires | have via \ lent ends." 

R. and J. ii. 6. 9 
" With her | that hat \ eth thee | and hates \ us all." 

2 Hen. VI. ii. 4. 52. 
Here the emphasis is on "ends" and "us all." 



"Duke. Still (486) | so cru 
Oliv. Still I so con 



el? 

stant, lord."?: N. v. I. 113. 



" Com. Know (484), | I'pray | you. 

Coriol. I' | '11 know \ no further." Coriol. iii. 3. 87. 

" Dho I late, des I olate, will | I hence | and die." 

Rich. II. i. 2. 73. 

The former " Antony" is the more emphatic in 

" But were | I Brutus 
And Bni | tus A'n \ tonji, \ there were | an A'ntony. " 

7. C. iii. 2. 231. 



362 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So, perhaps, the more emphatic verb has the longer form in 

"He rous | eth up | himself | and makes | a pause." 

R. ofL. 541. 

This is often the case with diphthongic monosyllables. See 484. 
Compare 

" Now | it schey | neth, n6w \ it reyn | eth faste." 

CHAUCER, C. T. 1537. 

476. On the other hand, when the word increases in 
emphasis, the converse takes place. 

"And let | thy blows, | dfably \ reddub \ (e)Ud." 

RUh. II. i. 3. 80. 
" Virg. O, heavens, \ O, htav \ ens. 
Coriol, Nay, | I pri | thee, woman." 

Coriol. iv. I. 12. 
"Was it | his spirit \ by spir \ its taught | to write?" 

Sonn. 86. 
" And with | her/Arow | age, her | t&Mper | sondge." 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 292. 

" Mdrcius \ would have | all from | you Mdr \ chis, 
Whom late | you have named | for consul." 

Coriol. iii. i.'195 

Even at the end of the verse Marcius has but one accent, as a rule. 
But here it is unusually emphasized. 

"And whFr \ he run | or fty | they kn6w | not whether." 

V. and A. 304. 

"King. Be pat \ tent, ge"nt | le queen, | and I' | will stay. 
Queen. Wh6 can I be pdt \ ient \ in these | extremes." 

3 Hen. VI. i. i. 215-6. 
" Yield, my 16rd I protect | m,yi \ eld, Winch | ester." 

\ Hen. VI. iii. i. 112. 
" Citizens. Yield, Mar | cius, yt I eld. 
Men. He \ ar (480) me, | one word." 

Coriol. iii I. 215. 

" A devil (466), | a bor | n (485) dl \ vil, in | whose nature." 

Tempest, iv. I. 188 

So arrange "You heavens (512), | 

Give me | that pdt \ ience, pdt \ ience \ I need." 

Lear, ii. 4. 274. 

("Patient" was treated as a trisyllable by the orthoepists of the 
time.) 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 363 

"Being had, | to tri | umph be\ ing (on the other hand) 

lack'd, | to hope." Sonn. 52. 
Similarly "Which art | my nearest \ and dtar \ est en | ernyV' 

i Hen. IV. iii. 2. 123. 

On the other hand, perhaps, "sire," and not "cowards," is a 
dissyllable in 

"Cowards fa | ther c6 wards, | and base | things si \ re base." 

Cymb. iv. 2. 26. 

So, perhaps, "Panting | he Ha \ and breath | ethva. \ her face." 

V. and A. 62. 
Here "lies" is unemphatic, "breatheth" emphatic. 

For diphthongic monosyllables see 484. 

The same variation is found in modern poetry. In the following 
line there is, as it were, an antithetical proportion in which the two 
middle terms are emphatic, while the extremes are unemphatic : 

" Tower -be | yond t6w \ er, spt \ re be | yond spire." TENNYSON. 

LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 

477. R, and liquids in dissyllables, are frequently pro 
nounced as though an extra vowel were introduced between them 
and the preceding consonant : 

' ' The parts | and gra | ces of | the wres | t(^)ler. " 

A. Y. L. ii. 2. 13 
"In sec | ond ace | ent of | his 6rd | (/)nance." 

Hen. V. ii. 4. 126. 

The Folio inserts i here, and e, Ib. iii. Prologue, 26. In the 
latter passage the word is a dissyllable. 

" If you | will tar | ry, h6 J ly pilg | (<?)rim." A. W. iii. 5. 43. 
" While she | did call | me ras | cal fid | d(<r)ler." 

T. ofSh. ii. i. 158. 
"The life | of him. | Know'st thou | this coun | t(e)rf?" 

T. N. i. 2. 21. So Coriol. i. 9. 17; 2 Hen. VI. i. i. 206 
" And these | two Drom | ios, one | in semb | (glance." 

C. ofE. v. i. 368 ; T. G. of V. i. 3. 84. 
"You, the | great toe | of this | assemb | \(e)$." 

Coriol. i. i. 159 
" Cor. Be thus | to them. | 

Patr. You d6 | the no | b(<r)ler." Ib. iii. 2. 6. 

" Edm. Sir, you | speak no | b(*)ltf. | 

Reg. Wty is | this reason'd 1 "Lear, v. I. 28 



364 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

(?) " Go search | like no | bale's, | like n6 | ble subjects." 

P. of T. ii. 4. 50. 

The e is actually inserted in the Folio of Titus Andronicus in 
"brethren:" 

"Give Mii | cius bur | ial with | his breth | <rren." 

T. A. i. I. 347. 

And this is by derivation the correct form, as also is " children." 

" These are | the par | ents 6f | these chil | dfc)ren." 

C.ofE.\. i. 360. 
"I go. | Write to | me ver | y short | (*)ly." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 428. 
" A rot | ten case | abides | no hand | (^)ling." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. I. 161. 
"The friends | of France | our shrouds | and tack | (flings." 

3 Hen. VI. v. 4. 18. 
"Than B61 | ingbroke's | return | to E'ng | (^)land." 

Rich. II. iv. i. 17. 
"And mean | to make | her queen | of E'ng | (^)land." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 263. 
SoinE. E. "England." 

" To be | in an | ger is | impi | ety" ; 
But who | is man | that is | not an | g^ry"?" 

T. of A. iii. 5. 56. 

in which last passage the rhyme indicates that angry must be pro 
nounced as a trisyllable. 

" And strength | by limp | ing sway | disa | b(*)led." Sonn. 66. 
So also in the middle of lines 

"Is Cade | the son | of Hen | (e)rf \ the Fifth?" 

2 Hen. VI. iv. 8. 36. 

This is common in Hen. VI., but not I think in the other plays 
not for instance in Rich. II. 

"That croaks | the fa | tal en | t(<?)rance | of Duncan." 

Macbeth, i. 5. 40. 
"Carries | no fa | vour in't | but Bert | (gram's." 

A. W.'\.\. 94. 
" O me ! | you jugg | (^)ler ! | you can | ker blossom." 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 282. 
"'Tis m6nst | (<)r6us. | la | go, who | began it?" 

Othello, ii. 3. 217. 
" And that | hath dazz | (<r)le"d I my rea | son's light." 

T. G. of V. ii. 4. 210. 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 365 

"Beuig | so fhis | t(<r)rate. | Tell him | he m6cks." 

A. and C. v. I. 2. 
'.Lord D6ug | (*)las, \ go y6u | and tell | him so." 

I Hen. IV. v. 2. 33. 
" Grace and | remem | b(<?)rance | be to | you both." 

W. T. iv. 4. 76. 
"Of quick | cross light | (*)ning? | To watch, | poor perdu." 

Lear, iv. 7. 35 
"Thou kill'st | thy mist | (*)ress : | but well | and free." 

A. and C. ii. 5. 27. 
"To taunt | at slack | (*?)ness. | Canid | ius we." 

Ib. iii. 7. 28. 

So also probably "sec(i?)ret," "monst(<?)rous" (Macbeth, iii. 6. 8), 
"nob(f)ly," "wit(<?)ness," T. G.ofV. iv. 2. 110, and even "captains" 
(French "capitaine:" Macbeth, i. 2. 34, 3 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 30, and 
perhaps Othello, i. 2. 53). 

Spenser inserts the e in some of these words, as "handling," 
F. Q. i. 8. 28; "entrance," ib. 34. 

478. Er final seems to have been sometimes pronounced with a 
kind of " burr," which produced the effect of an additional syllable ; 
just as "Sirrah" is another and more vehement form of "Sir." 
Perhaps this may explain the following lines, some of which may be 
explained by 505-10, but not all : 

" Corn. We'll teach | you 

Kent. Sir, \ 'I'm | too old | to learn. 

Lear, ii. 2. 135. 
(But? "I' am.") 

" Lends the | tongue vows ; | these bla | zes daugh | ter." 

Hamlet, i. 3. 117 
" And there | upon, | give me | your ddugh \ ter." 

Hen. V. v. 2. 375. 
"Bru. Spread fur | ther. \ 

Menen. One wo | rd (485) more, | one word/ 

Coriol. iii. I. 311. 
" Like a | ripe si's j ter : \ the worn | an low." 

A. Y. L. iv. 3. 88. 
"Of our | dear souls. | Meantime, | sweet sis | tfr. n 

T. N. v. I. 393. 
"I pray | you, uncle (465), | give me | this dag | gfr" 

Rich. III. iii. I. 110. 
"A broth | er's miir | der. \ Pray can | I not" 

Hamlet, iii. 3. 38. 



366 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Frighted | each 6th | er. \ Why should | he f611ow?" 

A. and C. iii. 13. 6, 
l; And so | to arms, | vict6r | ious fa | ther." 

2 Hen. VI. v. i. 211. 
"To cease. | Wast th6u | ordain'd, | dear fa | ther?" 

Ib. v. 2. 45. 
" Corn. Where hast | thou sent | the king? | 

Glouc. To DS | ver." Lear, iii. 7. 51. 

"Will I' | first work. | He's for | his mas | ter."Cymb. i. 5. 28. 
" Lear. Than the | sea-mons | ter. \ 
Alb. Pray, sir, | be patient." Lear, i. 4. 283. 

But perhaps " patient" may have two accents. In that case " ter" 
is a pause-extra syllable. 

In the two following lines s follows the r : 

"To speak | of hor | rdrs, \ he comes | before me." 

Hamlet, ii. i. 84. 
" Publius, | how now ? | How now, | my mas | ters ?" 

T. A. iv. 3. 35 ; and perhaps Macbeth, iii. 4. 133. 
"And give | him half: | and for | thy vig | 6ur." 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 2. 272. 
" Tell me, | how fares | our lov | ing moth | er ?" 

Rich. HI. v. 3. 82. 
" Cass. Good night, | my lord. | 

Brut. Good night, | good broth j er." 

y. C. iv. 3. 237. 
"He wh6m | my fath | er named? | Your E'd | gar." 

Lear, ii. i. 94. 
(? "^(484) | med? Yoti \ r (480) E'dgar.") 

"I'll fol | low y6u | and tell | what an | swer." 

3 Hen. VI. iv. 3. 55. 
"I have six | ty sail : | Cae'sar | none bet | ter." 

A. and C. iii. 7. 50 
"This wood | en sla | very, than | to siiff | er." 

Temp. iii. i. 62. 

Sometimes this natural burr on r influences the spelling. In 
Genesis and Exodus (Early English Text Society, Ed. Morris) we 
have "coren" for "corn," "boren" for "born." Thus the E. E. 
"thurh" is spelt "thorugh" by early writers, and hence even by 
Shakespeare in 

"The false | rev61t | ing Nor | mans tho I rough thee." 

2 Hen. VI. iv. I. 87. 
So M. N. D. ii. i. 3, 5 ; Coriol. v. 3. 115. 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 367 

In the following difficult lines it may be that r introduces an 
extra syllable : 



' I'gnomy | in ran | som and j free pd 
A' re of | two hou | ses, law J ful mf 



rddn 
rcy." 



M. for M. ii. 4. Ill, 112. 

It would of course save trouble to read " ignominy," against th 
Folio. But compare 

" Thy tg | nomy (Fol.) | sleep with | thee in | thy grave." 

I Hen. IV. v. 4. 100 
" Hence, brok | er lack | ey ! I'g \ nomy \ and shame." 

Tr. and Cr. v. 10. 33. 

and in T. A. iv. 2. 115 (where the Folio reads "ignominy") the i 
is slurred. 

"No man | knows whither, j I cr^ | thee */ 1 rcy." 

Kick. III. iv. 4. 515. 
"It is | my son, | young Har | ry Pl\ rcy." 

Rich. II. ii. 3. 21. 

"Thou, Rich | ard, shalt | to the duke | of NSr \folk." 

3 Hen. VI. i. 2. 38. 

So we sometimes find the old comparative " near " for the modern 
" nearer." 

"Better | far off] than near | be ne'er | the near." 

Rich. II. v. I. 88. 
"The nfar \ in blood | 
The near | er bloody." Macbeth, ii. 3. 146. 
" Nor near nor farther off. . . than this weak arm." 

Rich. II. iii. 2. 64. 
And "far" for "farther," the old "ferror." 

"Far than | Deuca | lion 6ff." W. T. iv. 4. 442. 

479. The termination " ion " is frequently pronounced as twc 
syllables at the end 'of a line. The i is also sometimes pronounced 
as a distinct syllable in soldier, courtier, marriage, conscience, partial, 
&c. ; less frequently the e in surgeon, vengeance, pageant, creature, 
pleasure, and treasure. 

The cases in which ion is pronounced in the middle of a line are 
rare. I have only been able to collect the following : 

"With 6b I serva I tidn \ the which | he vents." 

A. Y. L. ii. 7. . 



368 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Of Ham | let's trans | forma | ti6n: \ so call it." 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 5. 
"Be chosen | with pr6 | clama | ttins \ to-day." 

T. A. i. i. 190. 

Gill, 1621, always writes "ti-on" as two syllables. But there is 
some danger in taking the books of orthoepists as criteria of popular 
pronunciation. They are too apt to set down, not what is, but 
what ought to be. The Shakespearian usage will perhaps be 
found a better guide. 

Ttin, when preceded by c, is more frequently prolonged, perhaps 
because the c more readily attracts the t to itself, and leaves ion 
uninfluenced by the t. 

" It were | an hon | est act | i6n \ to say so." 

Othello, ii. 3. 145 ; Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 340. 
"Her sweet | perfect | i6m \ with 6ne | self king." 

T. N.\. i. 39. 
"Yet hive | I fierce | affect | tins \ and think." 

A. and C. i. 5. 17. 
" With s6re | distract | tin \ what I' | have done." 

Hamlet, v. 2. 241. 
" To us | in our | elect | i6n \ this day." T. A. i. i. 235. 

In " That shall | make ans | wer to | such quest | ions. 
It is enough. | I'll think | upon | the quest | tins" 

2 Hen. VI. i. 2. 80, 82. 

it seems unlikely that "questions" is to be differently scanned in 
two lines so close together. And possibly, "it is (it's) enough," is 
one foot. Still, if " questions" in the second verse be regarded as 
an unemphatic (475) repetition, it might be scanned : 

"It is | enough. | I'll think | up6n | the questions." 
The Globe has 

" Join'd in | commlss \ ion with him ; | but either (466) | 
Had borne || the action of yourself, or else 
To him || had left it solely." Coriol. iv. 6. 14. 

But better arrange as marked above, avoiding the necessity of laying 
two accents on " commission." So Folio which, however, is not of 
much weight as regards arrangement. 
/ is pronounced in "business" in 

"To see | this his \ inks. \ To-mor | row nest." 

Rich. II. K. i. 217; Rich. III. ii. 2. 144; M. of V. iv. 
I. 127 ; CorioL v. 3. 4. 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 369 

" Diviii | est crt \ attire, \ Astrae' | a's daughter." 

I Hen. VI. i. 6. 4. 
So probably 

" Than these | two ere \ attires. \ Which is | Sebastian ? " 

T. N. v. I. 231 

" But he's | a tried | arid val | iant s6ld \ ier."?. C. iv.'i. 28 
" Your sis j ter is | the bet | ter s6l \ di{r."Lear, iv. 5. 3. 
"Making | them worn | en of | good cdrr \ idge." 

R. andj. i. 4. 94 
" Mdrri \ age is | a mat | ter of | more wor | th." 

i Hen. VI. v. 5. 55, v. i. 21. 
" To woo | a maid | in way | of mdrr \ idge." 

M. of V. ii. 9. 13. 
" While I' \teydm\id\ He cheeks | do coy." 

M. N. D. iv. i. 2. 

"Young, vdl | idnt, \ wise, and, | no doubt, | right r6yal." 
Rich. III. L i. 245; Tempest, iii. 2. 27. 
" With th' dn \ citnt \ of war | on our | proceedings." 

Lear, v. I. 32. 

"You have done | our pU\ asures I much grace, I fail 
ladies." T. of A. i. 2. 151. 

So " Take her | and use | her at | your/// | asure." 

B. and F. (Walker). 

" We'll leave | and think | it is | her/// 1 asiire."Ib. 
" But 'tis | my lord | th' Assist | ant's/// | astire."Ib. 
" lie dare | not see | you. A't | his/// | astire." Ib. 
"You shall | have ransom. | Let me | have stir \ geins." 

Lear, iv. 6. 196. 
" If on | ly to go | v (484) warm | weregdrg \ eus." 

Ib. ii. 4. 271. 
"Your mind | is toss | ing on | the 6 \ cedn." 

M. of V. i. I. 8 ; Hen. V. iii. I. 14. 

"The new | est state. | This is | the ser \gednt." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 3, 

Similarly " But they | did say | their pray \ ers and | address'd 
them." Ib. ii. 2. 25 ; Coriol. v. 3. 105. 

" Hath turn'd | my feign | ed prdy \ er on | my head." 

Rich. HI. v. i. 21, ii. 2. 14. 

Even where "prayer" presents the appearance of a monosyllable, 
the second syllable was probably slightly sounded. 
For i and e sonant in " -led," see 474. 



370 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

479 a. Monosyllabic feet in Chaucer. Mr. Skeat (Essay on 

Metres of Chaucer, Aldine Edition, 1866) has shown that Chaucei 
often uses a monosyllabic foot, but the instances that have been 
pointed out are restricted to the first foot. 

"May, \ with all thyn floures and thy greene." C. T. 1512. 

" Til \ that deeth departe schal us twayne." Ib. 1137. 

" Ther \ by aventure this Palamon." Ib. 1518. 

"Now | it schyneth, now it reyneth fast." Ib. 1537. 

" Al | by-smoterud with his haburgeon." Ib. 77. 
It will be shown in paragraphs 480-6 that Shakespeare uses this 
licence more freely, but not without the restrictions of certain natural 
laws. 

480. Fear, dear, fire, hour, your, four, and other mono 
syllables ending in r or re, preceded by a long vowel or 

diphthong, are frequently pronounced as dissyllables. Thus 
"fire" was often spelt and is still vulgarly pronounced "fier." So 
"fare" seems to have been pronounced "fa-er;" "ere," "e-er;" 
"there," "the-er," &c. 

It is often emphasis, and the absence of emphasis, that cause this 
licence of prolongation to be adopted and rejected in the same line : 

Fair. " Ferd. Or night | kept chain'd | below. | 

Prosp. Fdir \ ly spoke." 

Tempest, iv. I. 31. 

(or perhaps (484) "below. | ' Fair | ly sp6ke.") 
f are ,." Poison'd, | ill fa \ re, dead, | forsook, | cast off." 

K. J. v. 7. 35. 
' Loath to | bid fa \ mvell, | we take | our leaves." 

P. of T. ii. S- 13. 
' Lucius, | my gown. | Fare \ well, g6od | Messala. " 

y. C. iv. 3. 231. 
"Died ev | ery day | she livM (Fol.). | Fdre \ thee well." 

Macbeth, iv. 3. 111. 
' ' Fdre \ well, kins I man ! I' I will talk | with you. " 

i Hen. IV. i. 3. 234. 
"For worms, | brave Per | cy. Fd\ mvell (so Folio), | 

great heart." Ib. v. 4. 87. 
"Why then \lvrl\ll (483). Fd \ rew&i, \ old G&xnL" 

Rich. II. \ 2. 44. 

So J. C. iv. 3. 231 ; I Hen. IV. iv. 3. Ill (Folio) ; M. W. of W. 
in. 4. 97 ; K. J. iii. 2. 17. (See 475.) 



OF WORDS. 371 

Ere. "For I' | intend | to have | it er \ e (e-er) long." 

I Hen. VI. i. 3. 87. 

I should prefer to prolong the emphatic here, rather than "our," in 

"What should | be sp6k | en/5/| re (he'-er) where | our fate." 

Macbeth, ii. 3. 128. 

Mere. The pause after "night " enables us to scan thus : 

" They have trav | ell'd all | the night (484). | ^Me \ rt 

fetches." Lear, ii. 4. 90. 
There. "Hath death | lain with | thy wife. | There \ she lies." 

R. andj. iv. 5. 36 

' Towards Calais ; | now grant | him the \ re, the \ re seen. " 

Hen. V. v. Prol. 7. 

(I have not found a Shakespearian instance of " Calais." Other 
wise at first sight it is natural to scan " Towards | Calais.") 

" Exe. Like mu | sic. 

Cant. The \ ref6re \ doth heav'n | divide." 

Hen. V. i. 2. 183 
Where. "I know | a bank, | where \ the wild | thyme blows." 

M. N. D. ii. i. 24C 
"Hor. Where, \ my lord? | 
Ham. I'n my | mind's eye, | Horatio." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 185. 
(But Folio inserts "Oh" before "where.") 

Rarelv."I's not | this buck | led well? | Rare \ ly, rarely." 

A. and C. iv. 4. 11. 

(The first " rarely" is the more emphatic : or? (483), " well." ) 
Dear. "As done : | persev | erance, | dear \ my 16rd." 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 150. 
"Dear \ my lord, | if you, | in your | own proof." 

M. Ado, iv. i. 46.- 
" The king | would speak | with . Cornwall : | the di \ tk 

father." Lear, ii. 4. 102. 
" Oliv. Than mu | sic from | the sphe \ res. 

Viol. Dt | ar lady." 

T. N. iii. i. 121. 
Fear. "Fear \ me not, | withdraw, | I hear | him c6ming." 

Hamlet, iii. 4. 7. 
ff ear ."Hea.r, Na | ture, ht\ ar, de\ ar God | dess, hear." 

Lear, i. 4. 297 
(The emphasis increases as the verse proceeds. ) 

Near. "Near, \ why then | an6th | er time | I'll hear it" 

T.o/A.4. a. 184. 
BBS 



37* SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Tears. "Auf. Name not | the God, | thou boy | of tl\ ars. 

Coriol. Ha !" 

Coriol. v. 6. 101. 
" Ttar | for tear, | and 16v | ing kiss | for kiss." 

T. A. v. 3. 156. 
Year. "Twelve ye" \ ar since, | Miran | da, twelve | year since." 

Tempest, i. 2. 53. 

(The repeated "year" is less emphatic than the former.) 
And, perhaps, if the line be pronounced deliberately, 

"Many | years | of hap | py days | befal." Rich.II. i. i. 21. 
It might be possible to scan as follows : 

"Well struck | in yi \ ars, fd \ ir and | not jealous." 

Rich. III. i. i. 92. 

But the Folio has "jealious," and the word is often thus written 
(Walker) and pronounced by Elizabethan authors. 
Their (?). If the text be correct, in 

" The commons hath he pill'd with grievous taxes, 
And quite lost | their hearts. | The no | bles hath | he fin'd 
For an | cient quarrels (463), | and quite I lost the" I ir 
hearts," Rich. II. ii. i. 247-8. 

it is almost necessary to suppose that the second their is more 
emphatic than the first. Else the repetition is intolerable. See 
475> 476. But even with this scansion the harshness is so great as 
to render it probable that the text is corrupt 
Hire. "A ship | you sent [ me for | to hi \ re waftage." 

C. of E. iv. i. 95. 
Sire. " And is | not like | the si \ re: h6n | ours thrive," 

A. W. it 3. 142. 
Door." And with | my sword | I'll keep | this d6 \ or safe." 

T. A.\.\. 288. 
More. "If more, | the m6 I re hast | thou wrong'd | (ed) me." 

Lear, v. 3. 168. 
(The second "more" is the more emphatic.) 

" As may | compact | it m6 \ re. Get | you g6ne." 

Ib. L 4. 362. 
" Who hddst | deserv | ed m6 \ re than | a prison," 

Temp. i. 2. 362. 

Our (perhaps) " To list | en 6u \ r pur | pose. This is (461 ) I thy 
6ffice." M. Ado, iii. i. 12. 

(" This u" is a quasi-monosyllabl* See 461.) 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 373 



me, had | not 6u \ r hap | been bad." 

C. of E. i. i. 38. 

"first Sen. Which we | devise | him. 
Corn. Ou \ r spoils | he kick'd at. " 

Coriol. iL 2. 128. 
" First " requires emphasis in 
" Sic. In 6u | r first | way. 
Men. I | '11 bring | him t6 you. 

Ib. iii. i. 334. 

Hour (often). " A't the | sixth hou | r, at | which time | my lord." 

Tempest, v. I. 4. 

Your. ' ' And so, | though y6u \ rs, not | yours* prove | it so. " 

M. of V. iii. 2. 20. 
" Lart. My horse | to y6u \ rs, n6 ! | 
Mart. 'Tis done ! | 

Lart. Agreed." 

Coriol. i. 4. 2. 
"And pun | ish them | to yoii \ r height | of pleasure." 

M. for M. v. i. 24-D. 
Unless "pleasure" is a trisyllable. (See 479.) 

" Is he pard | on'd and | for y6u \ r 16ve j ly sake." Ib. 496. 
There is an emphatic antithesis in 

" Who is | lost too. | Take y6u \ r pa | tience to you, 

And /'// say nothing." W. T. iii. 2. 232. 
"And shall | have y6u \ r will, | because | our king." 

3 Hen. VI. iv. I. 17. 

481. Monosyllables which are emphatic either (i) from their 
meaning, as in the case of exclamations, or (2) from their use in 
antithetical sentences, or (3) which contain diphthongs, or (4) vowels 
preceding r, often take the place of a whole foot. ^ This is less 
frequent in dissyllabic words. In (i) and (2) as well as (3) the mono 
syllables often contain diphthongs, or else long vowels. 

In many cases it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to determine 
whether a monosyllable should be prolonged or not. Thus, in 

" On this | un worth | y scaff | old t6 \ bring forth," 

Hen. V. Prologue, 10. 

many may prefer to scan " | -old to bri \ ng f6rth" and to prolong 
the following monosyllable rather than to accent "to ;" and in 

" Came pour | ing like | the tide \ int6 \ a breach," 

Hen. V. i. 2. 149. 
* It is a matter of taste which yours should receive the emphasis. 



374 



SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 



it is possible to prolong the preceding monosyllabkj "therf| dt 
in | to a breach." Such cases may often be left to the taste of the 
reader (but for the accent of " into " see 4570). All that can safely 
be said is, that when a very unemphatic monosyllable, as "at," 
" and," "a," " the," &c. has the accent, it is generally preceded or 
followed by a very strongly accented monosyllable, as 

" Assume the port of Mars ; and at his heels." 

Hen. V. Prologue, 6. 

It is equally a matter of taste whether part of the prolonged 
monosyllable should be considered to run on into the following foot 
or whether a pause be supposed after the monosyllable, as 

'' Girding | with griev | ous siege \ castles | and towns." 

Hen. V. i. 2. 152. 
"As kndts \ b^ the | conflux | of meet | ing sap." 

Tr. and Cr. i 3. 7 

182, Monosyllabic exclamations. 

dy. Polon. Wherefore | should y6u | do this? | 

Reg. A'y, \ my!6rd?" 

Hamlet, ii. I. 36. 

" King. Will you | be ruled | by m^ ? | 
Laert. A'y, \ my 16rd." 

Ib. iv. 7. 60. 
" A'y, | what else? | And but | I be | deceiv'd." 

T. ofSh. iv. 4. 2. 
" Vol. That brought | thee t6 | this world. | 

Vir. A'y, \ and mine." 

Coriol. v. 3. 125. 
(?)" Corn. I's he | pursti | ed (474)? 

Glou. A' \y, m^ | good lord." 

Lear, ii. I. 111. 
Way. " What says | he? Nd \y, no | thing ; all | is said." 

Rich. II. ii. i. 148. 
' ' Cor. How, trai | tor ! 

Com. } Nd | y, tern | p(e)rately ; | your promise." 

Coriol. in. 3. 67. 
Stay. " Stay, \ the king | hath thrown | his ward | er d6wn." 

Ib. i. 3. 118. 
Yea. " Yea, \ my Lord | How brooks | your grace | the air?" 

Ib. Hi. 2. 2. 
Hail." 'Gainst mf | captiv | ity 1 . | Hdil, \ brave friend." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 6. 



LENGTHFNIKG OF WORDS. 375 

0.~" Cass. O*, | 'tis true. | 

ffeti. Ho ! bid | my triim | pet s6und." 

Tr. and Cr. v. 3. 13. 
" Cleo. 0*, | 'tis trea | son. 

Charm. Madam, | I trust | not s6." 

A. and C. i. 5. 7. 
" To hide | the slain. | O", \ from this | time forth." 

Hamlet, iv. 4. 65. 
" Mir. O*, | good sir, | I d6. | 
Prosp. I pray | thee, mark me." 

Tempest, L 2. 80. 

Perhaps "Pol. The devil | himself. | 

King. &, | 'tis (it is) | too true." 

Ib. iii. i. 49, 
" Self a 1 gainst self. | (?*, | prep6s | ter6us." 

Rich. III. ii. 4. 63. 
" Their clea | rer rea | son. O*, | ' good | Gonzdlo." 

Temp. v. i. 68 

I have not found " reason " a trisyllable in Shakespeare. 

" 0*,\ my follies ! | Then E'd | gar was | abused." 

Lear, iii. 7. 9L 
" (7*, | the diff | erence | of man | and man." 

Ib. iv. 2. 26. 
1 " The heart | of w6 | man Is. | O*, [ (453) Brutus." 

J. C. ii. 4. 40. 
" Struck Cae' | sar on | the neck. | Cf, \ you flatterers." 

Ib. v. i. 44. 
Soft. " But s6 \ftl com | pan^ | is c6m | ing he"re." 

T. ofSh. iv. 5. 26, 
Come. " C6me, \ good fell | ow, put | mine ir | on 6n." 

A. and C. iv. 4. 3. 
What." Where be | these knaves? | What, \ no man | at d6or !" 

T. ofSh. iv. i. 125. 
" What, | unjust ! | Be not | so hot ; | the duke." 

M.forM. v. i. 315. 
Well. " Well, | give her | that ring, | and there | withal." 

T. G. of F. iv. 4. 89. 
" Gon. Remem | ber what | I tell | you. 
Osw. Wt | //, madam." 

Lear, i. 3. 21. 

483. Monosyllables emphasized by position or anti 
thesis. A conjunction lik " yet " or "but," implying hesitation, 



576 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

may naturally require a pause immediately after it ; and this pause 
may excuse the absence of an unaccented syllable, additional stress 
being laid on the monosyllable. 

But. " Of good | ly thous | ands. Bii \ t, for | all this." 

Macbeth, iv. 3. 44. 
" The Gods | rebuke | me bti \ t it | is tidings." 

A. and C. v. I. 27. 
Yet. " Though I | condemn | not, ye \ t, un | der pardon." 

Lear, i. 4. 365. 
" Yet (as yet), | I think, | we are | not brought | so low." 

T. A. iii. 2. 76. 
" Brut. When Cae's | ar's head | is off. | 

Cass. Yet \ I fear him." 

J. C. ii. I. 183. 

Pronouns emphasized by antithesis or otherwise, sometimes dis 
pense with the unaccented syllable. 

"Show | men du | tiful? 

Why, so didst th6 \ u. Se"em | they grave | and learned? 
Why, so didst thou." Hen. V. ii. 2. 128. 

(Possibly, however, "seem" may be prolonged instead of "thou.") 

" When you [ shall please | to play | the thieves | for wives. 
I'll watch | as 16ng | for yS \ u then. | Approach." 

M. of V. ii. 6. 24. 
" Were y6 \ u in | my stead, | would you | have heard I" 

Coriol. v. 3. 192 
You is emphatic from Desdemona to Othello in 

" Othello. 'Tis a | good hand, 

A frank | one. 

Desd. Yd \ u may | indeed | say so." 

Othello, iii. 4. 44. 

So in " How in | my strength | you please. | For yd | u, E'dmund." 

Lear, ii. I. 114. 

and in the retort of Brutus on Cassius, 

" Let me | tell yd | u, Cass | ius, you | yourself 
Are much | condemn 'd | to have | an itch | ing palm. " 

y. C. iv. 3. 9. 

Perhaps aware of Ferdinand's comment on his emotion, "youi 
father's in some passion," Prospero turns to Ferdinand and says, 
" it is you who are moved" in 

" Yo'u I do look, | my s6n, | in a | mov'd sort." 

Temp. iv. I. 146. 



LENGTHF.NTKG OF WORDS. 377 

Otherwise the reading of the line so as to avoid accenting "my" 
seems difficult. 

There is no prolongation, though there is antithetical emphasis, in 

" L6ok up | on him, \ love him, | he wor | ships you." 

A. Y. L. Y. 2. 88. 
The repeated "thence" seems to require a pause in 

" Thence to | a watch, | thence \ into (45 7) | a weakness." 

Hamlet, ii. I. 148. 

But possibly, like " ord(i)nance," "lightening", (see 477), so 
" weakness " may be pronounced a trisyllable. .. 

484. Monosyllables containing diphthongs and long 

VOWels, since they naturally allow the voice to rest upon them, are 
often so emphasized as to dispense with an unaccented syllable. 
When the monosyllables are imperatives of verbs, as "speak," or 
nouns used imperatively, like "peace," the pause which they require 
after them renders them peculiarly liable to be thus emphasized. 
Whether the word is dissyllabized, or merely requires a pause after it, 
cannot in all cases be determined. In the following examples the 
scansion is marked throughout on the former supposition, but it is 
not intended to be represented as necessary. 

A (long). " Just as | you left | them, d \ II pris | 'ners, sir." 

Temp. v. I. 8 
"Try man | y, d \ II good, | serve trii | ly never." 

Cymb. iv. 2. 373. 
"Yea, look'st | thou pd \ le? Let | me see | the writing." 

Rich. II. v. 2. 57. 
"Duke. Like the | old d \ge. 
Clown. A're | you read | y, sir?" 

T. N. ii. 4. 50. 

"Yea, his | dread tn | dent shake. | My bra \ ve spirit." 

Temp. i. 2. 206. 

4i. " 'Gainst my | captiv | ity\ | ffdil, \ brave friend." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 5. 

" I'll be | with (wi') you strdi \ ght. Go | a little | before." 

Hamlet, iv. 4. 31. 

I should prefer to avoid laying an accent on " the " in 

"To fa | *7in the [ dispos | ing of | these chances." 

Coriol. iv. J. 40. 
"Which is | mostyjf | int. Now | 'tis true 

I must | be here I confin'd | by you." Temp. Epilogue, 8 



378 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Ay. " Sdy | again, | where didst | thou leave | these varlets?" 

Temp. iv. I. 170. 
So in the dissyllable "payment." 

" He numb | ly prays | you spded | y fdy \ me"nt." 

T. of A. ii, 2. 28. 
Perhaps 

" What sd \y y6u, | my lord? | Are" you | content." 

i Hen. VI. iv. i. 70. 
Perhaps 
E. " Senators. Wt\ '11 sure | ty him. 

Com. Ag | ed sir, | ha-nds off." 

Coriol. iii I. 178. 

" Men. The con | sul Cori | olan | us 

Bru. Ht | ' consul ! " Ib. iiL i. 280. 

Ea. " Ptace, \ I say. | Good e | ven to | you, friend." 

A. Y. L. ii. 4. 70. 
" Ant6n | ius <// | ad! I'f | thou say | so, villain." 

A. and C. ii. 5. 26. 
" Doct. But, though | slow, di \ adly. \ 

Queen. 1 won | der, doctor." 

Cymb. i. 5. 10. 

" Why dost | not speak? | What, de\ of: n6t | a word?" 

T. A. v. i. 46. 
" Sptak, | Lavin | ia, what | acciirs | ed hand?" 

Ib. Hi. i. 66. 

" Which was | to/// | cue. N6w | I want 
Spirits to | enforce, | not to | enchant" 

Temp. Epilogue, 13. 

" Earth's in | crease, \ foison | plenty, 
Barns and | garners | never | empty." Ib. iv. I. 110. 

Perhaps " Glou. Alack, | the night | comes on, | and the (457) 
bU | ak winds. " Lear, ii. 4. 303. 

Perhaps "Tnily | to spt \ ak, and | with n6 | addition," 

Hamlet, iv. 4. 17. 
or "Truly j to speak, | and with no | addit | ion." 

" Be free | and he" \ althftil. \ So tart | a favour." 

A. and C. ii. 5. 38. 
" The safety and health of this whole state," 

Hamlet, L 3. 21. 

could not be scanned without prolonging both " health " and 
"whole." Such a double prolongation is extremely improbable, 
considering the moderate emphasis required More probably 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 379 

"sanity" should be read, as has been suggested, for "sanctity,' 
the reading of the Folio. 

Be. "F6rward, | not per j manent, | sw&t, | not lasting." 

Hamlet, i. 3. 8. 

" Stek I me out, | and that j way I' | am wife in." 

Hen. VIII. iii. i. 38. 

" The curt | ain'd sli \ ep witch | craft eel | ebrates." 

Macbeth, ii. I. 51. 

" Doth com | fort thee in | thy stt \ ep ; live, | and fl6urish." 

Rick. III. v. 3. 130. 
" This ig | norant pres | ent and | I ft \ el n6w." 

Macbeth, L 5. 58. 
" En6ugh | to fetch | him in. | See \ it done." 

A. and C. iv. I. 14. 
" Yet but | thrfe. \ C6me one | more, 
Two of | both kinds | make up | four. " 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 437. 
" When stl \ el gr6ws | s6ft as | the para | site's silk." 

Coriol. i. 9. 45. 

"Soft" is emphasized as an exclamation (866481), but perhaps 
on the whole it is better to emphasize " steel " here. 

" Ferd. Makes this | place Par | adise. 
" Prosp. Swlet \ now, silence." 

Temp. iv. I. 124. 

Eo. The eo in the foreign-derived word "leopard" stands on a 
different footing : 

"Or horse | or ox | en from | the // 1 opdrd" 

I Hen. VI. i. 5. 31. 
So, often, in Elizabethan authors. 

/. "Men for | their ivl \ va : wl | ves for | their husbands." 

3 Hen. VI. v. 6. 41. 
"Of great | est just | ice. Wrf \ te, write, | Rinaldo." 

A. W. iii. 4. 29. 
" Horri | ble si \ ght! Now | I see | 'tis tnie." 

Macbeth, iv. i. 122. 
" Full fif | teen hundred, | besi \ des com | mon men." 

Hen. V. iv. 8. 84. 

I know of no instance where "hundred," like (477) "Henry" 
receives two accents. Else the "be-" in "besides" might (460) be 
dropped, and the verse might be differently scanned. 



3&> SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Each man's | like mi \ ne: you | have shewn | all Hectors." 

A. and C. iv. 8. 7. 
"At a poor | man's house : | he us'd | me ki \ ndly." 

Coriol. L 9. 83. But see 477. 

Possibly "friends" may require to be emphasized, as its 
position is certainly emphatic, in 

" Till de"ath | unloads | thee. Frl \ ends hast | thou none. " 

M. far M. iii. I. 28. 
"No, sdy'st | me so, \frlend? \ What coun | tryman?" 

T. of Sh. i. 2. 190. 
"Yield, my 16rd, | protect | or yl \ eld, Win | Chester." 

I Hen. VI. iii. i. 112 
("My" is dropped, 497.) 

" Mort de | ma vl \ e! I'f | they ride | along." 

Hen. V. iii. 5. 11 

0. "Drive him | to R6 \ me: 'tis (it | is) time | we twain." 

A. and C. i. 4. 73 

" Card. R6me \ shall reme | dy this. | 
Glou. Roamthi | ther, then." 

I Hen. VI. iii. I. 51. 
"While he | himself | keeps in | the c6 \ Id field." 

3 Hen. VL iv. 3. 14 
" T6ad that | under | cold \ stone 

Days and | nights has | thirty | 6ne." Macbeth, iv. I. 6. 
So scan " Go to the | creating | a wh6 \ le tribe | of fops." 

Lear, L 2. 14. 
Oa. "Is g6 | ads, th6 \ rns (485), net | ties, tails | of wasps." 

W. T. L z. 329. 

01. "J6int | by joint, | but we | will know | his purpose." 

M.forM. v. i. 314. 
"What wheels, | racks, fires? | What flay | ing, 16 \ illngT 1 

W. T. iii. 2. 177. 
"God save | you, sir. | Where have you | been br6 \ iltng?'* 

Hen. VIII. iv. I. 56. 
"Of their | own ch6 \ ice: one | is Jun | ius Brutus." 

Coriol. L i. 220. 

"What say | you, l>6 \ys? Will | you bide | with him?" 

T. A. v. 2. 13. 

fa. "Than in | my thought | it lies. | G6od \ my 16rd." 

A. W. v. 3. 184. 

It might be thought that in the above the prolongation rests or. 
lies (lieth), but that we have also 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS 381 

" G6od | my lord, | give me | thy fav j our suil. " 

Temp. iv. r. 204 
"The g6 | od gods | will mock | me pres | ently." 

A. and C. iii. 4. 15. 
"He straight | declin | ed, drd \ op'd, took | it deeply." 

W. T. ii. 3. 14. 
"To it, | boy ! Mar | cus, 16 \ ose when | I hid." 

T. A. iv. 3. 58. 
"Hours, min | utes, n6 \ on, mid | night, and | all eyes." 

W. T. i. 2. 290. 
"But r6 | om, fai | ry, here | comes O'b | eron." 

M. N. D. ii. i. 58. 
" B6ot | less home | and weath | er-beat | en back." 

I Hen. IV. iii. I. 67. 
" Pull off \myM\ of. hard | er, hard | er, s6." 

Lear, iv. 6. 177. 
"But m6 | ody \ and dii \ II mel | anch61y." 

C. ofE, v. i. 79. 

Some may prefer to read "dull" as a monosyllable ; but 1 can 
find no instance of "melancholy" to justify such a scansion. 

In " Lear. To this | detest | ed gr6 \ om. 

Gon. A't | your choice, sir,' 

Lear, ii. 4. 220, 

either " groom " or "your " should be dissyllabized. 

"I' do | wander | every | where 

Swifter | than the | moon's \ sphere." M. N. D. ii. I. 7. 
Ou. "Which else | would free | have wr6 \ ught. All | is well." 

Macbeth, ii. r. 19. 
In "Should drink | his blood | mounts \ up to | the air." 

MARLOW, Edw. II. 

Collier (Hist, of British Stage, vol. iii. ) thinks " mounts " the 
emphatic word to be dwelt on for the length of a dissyllable. 
Ow. "Own" is perhaps emphasized by repetition (or "Are" is 
dissyllable, as "fare," "ere," "where," 480) in 

" Hel. Mine own | and not | mine 6 \ wn. 
Dem. A're | you sure ? 

M. N. D. iv. i, 189. 

Oy. The last syllable of " destroy " seems prolonged in 

"To fright | them ere | destr6 \ y. But j come in." 

Cortol. iv 5. HO 



382 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

U. It may be that "fume" is emphasized in 

"She's tick | led now. | Her fti \ me needs | no spurs." 

2 Hen. VI. i 3. 153. 

(Unless "needs" is prolonged either by reason of the double vowel 
or because "needs" is to be pronounced "needeth.") 

" Tnie | nobil | ity is | exempt | from fear." 

2 Hen. VI. iv. I. 129. 

Titania speaks in verse 'throughout, and therefore either "and" 
must be accented and "hoard" prolonged, or we must scan as 
follows : 

" The squir | rel's hoard, | and fetch | thee new \ v nuts." 

M. N. D. iv. I. 40. 

" Cord. That wants | the means | to lead it | 
Mess. News, \ madam." 

Lear, iv. 4. 20. 

485. Monosyllables containing a vowel followed by " r " 

are often prolonged. 

A. " Thyr. Hear it | apdr \ t. 

Cleo. None | but friends: | say boldly." 

A. and C. iii. 13. 47. 
" Ho j ly seems | the quarrel 
Upon | his gra I ce's/a | rt ; black | and fearful 



O'n the | oppo f ser." A. W. iii. I. 5. 

" Well fitt(ed) | in d \ rts, glo | rious | in arms." 

L. L. L. ii. i. 45. 
"Strikes his | breast hd \ rd, and | an6n | he casts." 

Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 117. 
" But could I be willing I to md \ rch 6n I to Calais." 

Hen. V. iii. 6. 150. 
"Hark | ye, 16rds, | ye see | I have given | her physic." 

T. A. iv. 2. 162. 
"Look how I he makes I to Cae's I ar, mdr \ k him." 

J. C. iii. 2. 18. 
E$. "I dreamt | last night | 6f the | three wt \ ird sisters." 

Macbeth, ii. I. 20 (Folio, " weyard"). 
" A'nd be | times I' | will to | the we 1 \ ird sisters." 

Ib. iii. 4. 133, iv. I. 136. 

Or " will " is perhaps emphasized and the prefix in " betimes " 
ignored. In either case " weird" is a dissyllable. 

" The wl | ird sis | ters hand | in hand. ". Macbeth, i 3. 32 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 383 

"A thi | rd thinks | without | expanse | at 411.' 

i Hen. VL I I. 76. 
"Of Lfon | el duke | of Clarence, | the OU \ rd s6n." 

Ib. ii. 5. 75. 

"To king | Edward | the thi \ rd, where | as he." Ib. 76. 
O. tl JSru. Spread fur | ther (478). 

Men. One w6 \ rd more, | one word." 

Coriol. iii. I. 311. 
"Make the ] prize light. | One w6r \ d more, I I charge 

thee." Temp. i. 2. 452. 
"Ham. One iv6r \ d more, | good lady. | 
Queen. What shall | I do ?" 

Hamlet, iii. 4. 180. 
" Do m6re | than this | in sf6 \ rt ; fa | ther, father ! " 

Lear, ii. I. 37. 
" Worse \ and w6rse ! | She will | not come ! | O, vile!" 

T. of Sh. v. 2. 93. 
"Not in | the w6 \ rst rank | of man | hood, sa/t" 

Macbeth, iii. i. 103. 
"Why s6, | brave 16 \ rds, when | we join | in league." 

71 A. iv. 2. 136. 
"My 16 | rd, will | it please | you pass | along." 

Rich. III. ii' i. 110. 
' ' Of good | old A' | braham. | L6rds \ appellants. " 

Rich. II. iv. I. 104. 
(" A'ppellauts " is not Shakespearian.) 

"But tell | me, is | young Ge6r \ ge Stan | ley living?" 

Ib. v. 5. 9. 
or, possibly, 

" But tell me, | 
Is young j George Stan | ley living ? " 

On. " Henry doth claim the crown from John of Gaunt, 

The f6u | rth son : | York claims | it from | the third." 

2 Hen. VI. ii 2. 56. 
So, perhaps, 

"And long | live Hen | ry f6u \ rth of | that name." 

Rich. II. iv. I. 112. 

("Four" was often spelt "fower." "Henry" is not pronounced 
" Hen(e)rf " in Richard II. ) 

" Heart," not "you," ought to be emphatic in 

" Not by | the mat | ter which | your hear \ t prompts you," 

Coriol. ill 2. 64. 



?8 4 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Probably we ought to arrange the difficult line, Mcu-beth, iv. I. 
106, thus : 

"A'nd an | etern | al cii j rse fall | on you. 
Let me know. 
Why sinks," &c. ? 

486. Monosyllables are rarely prolonged except as in the 
above instances. In some cases, however, as in "bath," "dance," 
a vowel varies very much in its pronunciation, and is often pro 
nounced (though the incorrectness of the pronunciation would now 
be generally recognized) in such a way as to give a quasi-dissyllabic 
sound. 

"You and | your crd \fts, you | have craft | ed fair." 

Coriol. iv. 6. 118. 

" I'f that | you will | Prdnce \ win, 
Then with | Scotland | first be | gin." Hen. V. i. 2. 167. 

In a few other cases monosyllables are, perhaps, prolonged : 

"You shall | read us | the wi \ II. Cae's | ar's will ! " 

J. C. iii. 2. 153 
"Cas. Cicer | o 6n \ e? 
Mas. Cic | ero | is dead." Ib. iv. 3. 179. 

"I' will | ever | be your | head, 
So be | g6ne; \ you are | sped." M. of V. ii. 9. 72. 

" Then shall | the realm | of Alb | ion 
C6me | to great | confiis | ion." Lear, iii. 2. 92. 

"For our | best act. | I'f we | shaU std \ nd stilL" 

Hen. VIII. L 2. 85- 
(Can "all" have dropped out after " shall?") 

"The thank | ings 6f \ a kl \ ng. I' | am, sir." 

Cymb. v. 5. 407. 
" Here she | c6mes, \ curst and | sad : 

Ciipid | is a | knavish | lad." M. N. D. iii. 2. 439. 

"Well" (481) is prolonged as an exclamation, and perhaps 
there is a prolongation of the same sound in 

" Milt | ed as | the snow | seems to | me now." 

M. N. D. iv. i. 163. 

So, in " The go | ds, not | the patric | ians, make | it, and," 

Coriol. i. i. 76. 

"gods" is probably prolonged by emphasis, and the second "the" 
is not accented. So " most " in 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 385 

" With Ti | tus Larcius, | a m6 \ si val | iant Roman." 

Coriol. i. 2. 14. 

" Larcius " has probably but one accent. However, "a" appears 
sometimes to have the accent. 
So, perhaps, 

" Ang. Where pray | ers cr6 \ ss. 

Isab. A't | what hour | to-morrow?" 

M. for M. ii. 2. 159. 

" Drachm" (Folio " Drachme ") is a dissyllable in 

"A't a | crack'd drdch \ m! Cush | ions, lead | en spoons." 

Coriol. i. 5- 6. 

487. E mute pronounced. This is a trace of the Early English 
pronunciation. 

Es, s. "Your grace | mistak | es: on | ly to | be brief." 

Rich. II. iii. 3. 9. 
"Who's there, | that knock | (e)s so | imper | iously?" 

i Hen. VI. i. 3. 5. 
"Well, let | them rest : | come hith | er, Cat | srbyV" 

Rich. III. iii. i. 157. 
"Here comes | his serv | ant. How | now, Cat | esb$?" 

Ib. 7. 58. 
"Till all | thy bones | with ach | es make | thee r6ar." 

Temp. i. 2. 370. 
" A'ch<?j | contract, | and starve | your sup | pie joints." 

T. of A. i. i. 257, v. i. 202. 

But this word seems to have been pronounced, when a noun, 
"aatch." At least it is made by Spenser, .57*. Cat. Aug. 4, to 
thyme with "matehe." 

"Send C6 | &vile | with his | confed | crates." 

2 Hen. IV. iv. 3. 79. 
So " Wortttf | ter, get | thee goue ! | For I' | do see." 

i Hen. IV. i. 3. 15, iii. I. 5, v. 5. 14 (Fol. omits " thee"). 
"We have; | whereupon (497) | the earl | of Wore | ter.' 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 58. 

So " Glou^Jter," I Hen. VI. i. 3. 4, 6, 62, and 



"O lov I ing \incle (465), | kind ddke | of Glou 

i Hen. Vi\ iii. i. 142 

" This is the flower that smiles on ev ?ry one 
To show I his teeth I as white | aj wha | le*s Wne." 

L. L. L v. 2. 382 
c c 



386 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

So, in a rhyming passage, 

"Whose shad | ow the" | dismiss | ed bache | lor loves 
Be'ing | lass-lorn ; | thy pole | -dipt vin | *-yard 
And thy | sea-marge, | sterile | and rock | y-hard." 

Temp. iv. i. 68. 
"She nev | er had | so sweet | a chang | fling." 

M. N. D. ii. i. 23. 

Perhaps " Fran. They van | ish'd string | Ay. 

Seb. No mat | ter, since.' 

Temp. iii. 3. 40. But see 506. 

Possibly "cradles" may approximate to a trisyllable, "crad(e)les " 
(so "jugg(e)ler," &c. 477), in 

" Does th6ughts | unveil | in the'ir | dumb c rd \ dies. " 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 200. 

The e is probably not of French but of Latin origin hi 
"statue :" 

"She dreamt | to-night | she saw | my stdt \ tie." 

J. C. ii. 2. 76. 
"E'ven at | the base | of P6m | pey's stdt \ uJ." 

(Folio) Ib. iii. 2. 192. 
Globe "statua." 

So in the plural : 

"But like | dumb stdt\ues\ of breath | ing st6nes.' 

Rich. III. iii. 7. 25 
Globe, "statuas." 

"No marble statua nor high 
Aspiring pyramid be raised." HABINGTON (Walker). 

488. The "e " in commandment, entertainment, &c., which 

originally preceded the final syllable, is sometimes retained, and, 
even where not retained, sometimes pronounced. 

" Be val | ued 'gainst | your wife's | command | (f)ment" 

* M. of V. iv. i. 451. 
"From him I I have | express | command | (/?)ment." 

* i Hen. VI. \. 3. 20. 
The e is inserted hi 

"If to women he be bent 
They have at commandnenL" P. P. 418. 

"Good sir, | you'll give | them en | tertain | (<?)ment" 

B. J. Fox, iii 2. 

a ID both cases the first folio inserts . In the fotmer the folio r*m<k 



LENGTHENING OF WORDS. 



1ST 



Perhaps an e is to be sounded between d and v in 

"A'nton | y W6od | (grille, | her br6th | er there." 

Rich. III. i. I. 67. 

489. E final in French names is often retained in sound 
as well as spelling : 

"The mcl | anch61 [ y Jdq \ ues grieves | at that." 

A. Y. L. ii. i. 26. 
"O my | ParSll \ es, they | have marr | ied me"." 

A. W. ii. 3. 289. 
"His grace | is at | Marseill \ es, to | which place." 

Ib. iv. 3. 9 ; T. of Sh. ii. I. 377. 
"Daughter | to Chdr \ lemdin, \ who was | the s6n." 

Hen. V. i. 2. 75. 
" Guienne, | Champdg \ tie, Rhe | ims, O'r | leans." 

i Hen. VI. i. i. 60. 

' ' This prince | Mont&ig \ ne, if | he be" | no more. 
"He can | not say | but that | Montdig \ ne yet" 

DANIEL (on Florio). 
"Now Esp | erdnc \ e, Per | cy, and | set 6n." 

i Hen. IV. v. 2. 97. 
"Call'd the | brave lord | Ponton | de Sdu \ trailles." 

i Hen. VI. i. 4. 28. 
"Dieu de | battdi \ lies! Where | have they | this mettle?" 

Hen. V: iii. 5. 15. 
So in "Vive :" 

" ' Vive | le roi,' | as I' | have bank'd | their t6wns." 

K. J. v. 2. 104. 

Thus, perhaps, we may explain the apparent trisyllabic "marshal" 
by a reference to "mareschal :" 

"Great mar | (e)shal | to Hen | (e)r^ (477) | the Sixth." 

I Hen. VI. iv. 7. 70. 
"With wing | ed haste | to the | lord mar | (e)shal." 

i Hen. IV. iv. 4. 2. 

On the other hand, the influence of the r (see 463) seems to make 
"marshall" a quasi-monosyllable in 

" Lord mdrshal, \ command | our 6ff | icers | at arms." 

Rich. II. i. i. 204 

The * in the French "capitaine" is invisibly active in 

" A wi'ae | stout cap \ ()tain, | and s6on | persuaded." 

3 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 30 ; Macbeth, i a. 34 
C C 2 



SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMJK. 



ACCENT. 

49C, Words in which the accent is nearer the end than 
with us. 

Many words, such as "edict," "outrage," "contract," &c., are 
accented in a varying manner. The key to this inconsistency is, 
perhaps, to be found in Ben Jonson's remark that all dissyllabic 
nouns, if they be simple, are accented on the first. Hence "edict" 
and "outrage" would generally be accented on the first, but, when 
they were regarded as derived from verbs, they would be accented 
on the second. And so, perhaps, when "exile" is regarded as a 
person, and therefore a "simple" noun, the accent is on the first, 
but when as "the state of being exiled," it is on the last. But 
naturally, where the difference is so slight, much variety may be 
expected. Ben Jonson adds that " all verbs coming from the Latin, 
either of the supine or otherwise, hold the accent as it is found 
in the first person present of those Latin verbs ; as from celebr?, 
celebrate." Without entering into the details of this rule, it seems 
probable that "edict," "precept," betray Latin influence. The 
same fluctuation between the English and French accent is found in 
CHAUCER (Prof. Child, quoted by Ellis, E. E. Pronunc. L 369), 
who uses "bataille," C. T. 990, and "batail," ib. 2099: "For 
tune," $. 917, and "fortune," ib. 927; "daunger," and "daunger." 

Abjtct (Latin). "We are | the queen's | objects, \ and must | obey." 

Rich. III. i. i. 106. 

But if the monosyllable "queen" be emphasized, we may scan 

" We are | the que | en's dbjects, \ and must | obey." 
Access (Latin). W. T. v. I. 87. 
Aspect (Latin). A. and C. i. 5. 33 ; T. N. i. 4. 28. 

Characters. "I say | without | chardc \ ters fame | lives long." 

Rich. HI. Hi. I. 81 ; Hamlet, i. 3. 69 
Commendable. 

"Thanks faith, | for silence | is 6nly | command \ able 
In a neat's | tongue dried | and a maid | not vend | ible. " 

M. of V. i. i. 111. 
This shows how we roust scan 

'"Tis sweet and (497) | commend \ able in | your na \ ture, 
Hamlet.'' Hamlet, i. 2. 87. 



ACCENT. 3X9 

But, on the other hand, 

" And power, | unto | itself | most c6m \ menddble" 

Coriol. iv. 7. 51 
Commerce (Latin). So arrange 

"Peaceful | commerce \ from di | vida- | ble shores." 

Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 10.*). 

Confiscate (Latin). C. of E. i. I. 21 ; but "c6nfiscate,"#. i. 2. 2. 

Constrt (Latin). "What say'st | thou? Wilt | thou be | of our | 

consort?" T. G. of V. iv. I.' 64. 
" Edmund. Yes, madam, 

He was | of that | consSrt. 
Reg. No mar | vel, then." 

Lear, ii. i. 99. 

Contrary ( Latin). "Our wills | and fates | do s6 | contra \ ry run." 

Hamlet, iii. 2. 221. 
Contract (Latin). 

"Mark our | contract. \ Mark your | divorce, | young sir." 
W. T. iv. 4. 428 ; A. W. ii. 3. 185 ; I Hen. VI. iii. 
i. 14S, v. 4. 156 ; Rich. III. iii. 7. 5, 6 ; Temp. 
ii. i. 151. 
Compact (Latin, noun). Rich. III. ii. 2. 133 ; J. C. iii. I. 215. 

Different (Latin). "And much | differ \ ent from | the man | he 
was." C. of E. v. i. 46. 

Here, however, by emphasizing the monosyllable "much," the 
word " different" may be pronounced in the usual way. 
Edict (Latin). 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 258, and 

"It stands | as an | edict \ in des | tiny"." 

M. N. D.\. i. 151. 
Effigies (Latin unaltered). 

" And as | mine eye | doth his | effi \ gies witness." 

A. Y. L. ii. 7. 193. 
Envy (verb ; noun, envy). 

" I's it | for him | you do | envy \ me so?" T. ofSh. ii. I. IS. 
Exectitors. Hen. V. i. 2. 203 is not an instance, for it means 
"executioners." In its legal sense, Ib. iv. 2. 51, it is accented as 
with us. 

Exile (Latin). R. and J. v. 3. 211 (frequent). 
Instinct (noun, Latin). 

"Hath, by | instinct, \ knowledge | from 6th | ere' eyes." 

2 Hen. IV. i I 8*. 



390 SHAKRSPHARTAN GKAMMAR. 

"Bf a I divine I instinct \ men's minds | mistrust." 

Rich. III. ii. 3. 42 ; Coriol. v. 3. 36. 

Int6 See 457 a. 

Misery. Some commentators lay the accent on the penultimate in 

"Of such I miser \ y d6th | she cut | me 6ff," 

M. of V. iv. i. 272. 

but much more probably "a" has dropped out after "such." 
The passage 

"And buss I thee as I thy wife. | Miser | y's love," 

K. J. iiL 4. 35. 

proves nothing. The pause-accent is sufficient to justify ' ' misery. " 
Nothing. See Something, below. 

Obdiirate (Latin). 3 Hen. VI. i. 4- 1*2 ; M. of V. iv. I. 8 ; T. A. 
ii. 3. 160 ; R. of L. 429. 

"A'rt thou I obdd \ rate, flin | ty, hard | as ste"el?" 

V. and A. 198. 

Opportune (Latin). "And most | opport \ tme to | our need | 

I have." W. T. iv. 4- 511. 
"The most I opport I une place, | the strong" st | suggestion." 

Temp. iv. i. 26. 

Outrdge.l Hen. VI. iv. I. 126. 
Peremptory (perhaps). 

"Yea, mis | tress, are | you so | peremp | tory?" 

P. of T. 11. 5- 73. 

This accentuation is not found elsewhere in Shakespeare : but the 
author of Pericles of Tyre may have used it. It is possible, however, 
to scan 

" Yea, mis | t(e)ress (477), | are you | so pe" | rempt(o)ry ?" 

Portents. "These are \portents: \ but ye"t | I hope, | I hope." 

Othello, v. 2. 45. 

So i Hm. IV. ii. 3- 65 ; Tr. and Cr. i. 3. 96. 
Hence " fear" is not a dissyllable in 

"A pr6d I igtf I of fear, | and a | portent" 

i Hen. IV. v. I. 20. 

If " and " is correct, we must probably scan as follows : 

"And these I doth she appty | for warn | ings and | portents." 

J. C. ii. 2. 80. 

Precepts (Latin). Hen. V. iii. 3. 26; but "precepts," Hamlet, 
ii. 2. 1 42. 



ACCENT. 



391 



Prescience retains the accent of science, indicating that the word 
was not familia r enough as yet to be regarded as other than a 
compound : 

"Forestall \piesci \ ence and | esteem | no act." 

Tr. and Cr. i: 3. 199. 
Record '(noun, Latin). Rick. III. iii. I. 72, iv. 4. 28 ; T. N. v. l. 253. 

Sepulchre (Latin). " Bdnish'd | this frail | sepiil \ chre 6f | our 

flesh." Rich II. i. 3. 194. 
"Or, at | the least, | in hers | septil \ chre thine." 

T. G. of V. iv. 2. 118. 
"May like | wise be | sepdl \ chred in | thy shade." 

R. of L. 805 ; and, perhaps, Lear, ii. 4. 134. 
Sinister (Latin). "'Tis no | sinis \ ter nor | no awk | ward claim." 

Hen. V. ii. 4. 85. 
So, but comically, in 

" And this | the cran | ny is, | right and | sinister, 
Through which | the fear | ful lov | ers are | to whisper." 

M. N. D. v. i. 164. 
Soj6un?d (perhaps) in . 

" My heart | to her | but as | guest-wise | sojdurrid." 

Ib. iii. 2. 171. 
But (?) emphasize "her," and scan 

"My heart | to her | * but | as guest- | wise sojourn' d." 

Something (sometimes perhaps). "My inward | soul 

At n6 | thing tremb | les : at | something \ it grieves." 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 12. 
Compare perhaps 

"And I' | nothing \ to back | my suit | at all." 

Rich. III. i. i. 236. 
But, if "I" be emphasized, "nothing" may be pronounced as usual. 

" I fear | nothing \ what may | be said | against me." 

Hen. VIII. i. 2. 212. 
But " fear" may be a dissyllable, 480. 

Sweetheart. Hen. VIII. i. 4. 94 : heart being regarded as a noun 

instead of the suffix -ard. 
Triiimphing (Latin) sometimes. 

"As 'twere | triiimph \ ing at | mine en | ernfes." 

Rich. III. iii. 4. 91. 
Unt6. See 457 a. 

Welc6me. "Nor friends, | nor foes, | to me | welcfme \ you are " 

Rich. II. ii. 3. 170. 



392 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

This particular passage may be explained hy a pause, but ' ' wel- 
c6me" is common in other authors. 

Wherefore (in some cases), though it can often be taken as "there 
fore," and explained by a preceding pause. 

"O'ft have | you (6ft | en have | you thanks | therefore)." 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 20. 

" And we | must yearn | therefore." Hen. V. ii. 3. 6. 

" Hate me ! | Wherefdre? j O me ! | what news, | my love." 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 272. 
Perhaps 

" F6r the | sound man. | Death on | my state, | wherefore ? " 

Lear, ii. 4. 113. 
But better 

" Death on my state ! (512) 

Wherefore \ should he | sit here ? | This act | persuades 
me." 

491 . -Ised, when ending polysyllables, generally has now a 

certain emphasis. This is necessary, owing to the present broad 
pronunciation of i. Such polysyllables generally have now two 
accents, the principal accent coming first. But in Shakespeare's 
time it would seem that the i approximated in some of these words 
to the French /', and, the -ed being pronounced, the /' in -ised was 
unemphatic. Hence the Elizabethan accent of some of these words 
differs from the modern accent. 

Advertised. "As I' | by friends | am well | advert \ ised." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 501. 
"Wherein | he might | the king | his lord | advertise." 

Hen. VIII. ii. 4. 178. 
"I was | advert \ ised their | great gen | eral slept." 

Tr. and Cr. ii. 2. 111. 
SoM.forM. i. i. 42. 
Chastised. "And when | this arm | of mine | hath chas \ tistd." 

Rkh. III. iv. 4. 331. 
"This cause | of Rome, | and chds \ tistd\ with arms." 

T. A. i. i. 32. 
This explains : 

Can6nized. " Candn \ iztd, \ and wor | shipp'd as | a saint." 

K. J. iii. i. 177. 
thy | can6n \ tfd b^nes, | hearsed | in death." 

Hamlet^ i 4. 47 



ACCENT. 303 

"Are bri | zen fm | age(s) [471] of | eanott \ izd saints." 

2 Hen. VI. \. 3. 63. 

Authorized. "Author \ iz'd by | her gran J dam. Shame | itself.' 1 

Macbeth, iii. 4. 66. 

"Author | izlng \ thy tres | pass with | compare." .?. 35 
"His rude | ness so | with his [ author \ iz'd youth." 

L, C. 104. 
So once : 

Solemnised. "Of Ja ques Fal | conbrfdge | solbn \ nisfd." 

L. L. L. ii. i. 42. 
But in M. of V. "solemnised." 



492. Words in which the accent was nearer the begin 
ning than With US. Ben Jonson (p. 777) says all nouns, both 
dissyllabic (if they be "simple") and trisyllabic, are accented on the 
first syllable. Perhaps this accounts for the accent on cSnfessor, &c. 
The accent on the first syllable was the proper noun accent ; the 
accent on the second (which in the particular instance of conflssor 
ultimately prevailed) was derived from the verb. 

Archbishop. "The mar | shal and | the arch \ bishop \ are strong." 

2 Hen. IV. ii. 3. 42, 65. 
Cement (noun). 

"Your tern | pies burn | ed in | their cf \ ment and." 

Coriol. iv. 6. 85. 
So the verb, A. and C. ii. I. 48 ; iii. 2. 29. 

Compelled (when used as an adjective). 

"This dm \ pell 'd for | tune, have | your mouth I fill'd up.' 

Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 87. 
" I talk | not of | your soul : | our c6m \ pell'd sins." 

M. for M. ii. 4. 57. 
C6mplete. "A maid | of grace | and c6m \plete maj | esty\" 

L. L. L. i. i. 137 
So Hamlet, \. 4. 52 ; Hen. VIII. \. 2. 118 ; Rich. III. iii. i. 189 

CSnceal'd. " My c6n \ ceaVd la | dy to | her can | cell'd 16ve." 

R. and J. iii. 3. 98. 

Conduct. The verb follows the noun " safe-c6nduct " in 

" Saft-c6n \ Jutting \ the reb | els fr6m | their ships." 

Rich. III. iv. 4- 483. 
But the noun is condtict in T. A. iv. 3. 65. 



394 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Ctnffssof.Hen. VIII. \. 2. 149 ; R. and J. ii. 6. 21, iii. 3. 49. 

" O'ne of | our c6 (sic} \ vent and | his cSn \ fess&r. n 

M.forM. iv. 3. 133 

Cdngeatd. "O'pen | their c6n \ geaFd mouths | and bleed | 
afresh." Rich. III. i. 2. 56. 

Cdnjure (in ftie sense of "entreat"). T. G.ofV. ii. 7. 2 ; frequent. 

C6nsign'd. "With dis I tinct breath, | and c6n \ sign'd kiss | es 
t6 them. ' Tr. and Cr. iv. 4. 47. 

See "distinct" below. 
Corrosive. "Care is | no cure, | but ra | ther c6r \ rostve." 

I Hen. VI. iii 3. 3 1 ; 2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 403. 

Delectable. "Making | the hard | way soft | and de \ lectdble." 

Rich. II. ii. 3. 7. 
Detestable. "And I' | will kiss | thy de\ testd \ lie bones." 

K. J. iii. 4. 29 ; T. of A. iv. I. 33. 

Distinct. "To offend | and judge | are dis \ tinct off) ices." 

See " c6nsigrid" above. M. of V. ii. 9. 61. 

Enginer. See Pioner below. 

Forlorn. "Now for | the h6n | our of | the/&- | lorn French." 

I Hen. VI. i. 2. 19. 

Hiimane. " It is | the Mm \ ane way, | the 6th | er course." 

Coriol. iii. i. 327. 
Maintain. "That here | you main \ tain sev | eral fac | tions." 

i Hen. VI. i. I. 71. 
M&ture. So apparently hi 

" Of murder | ous lechers: | and in | the md \ ture time." 

Lear, iv. 6. 228. 

This is like "nature," but I know no other instance of " mature." 
Methinks (sometimes). 

" So your | sweet hue | which ml \ thinks still | doth stand." 

Sonn. 104. 

I cannot find a conclusive instance in Shakespeare, but this word 
is often (Walker) thus accented in Elizabethan writers. 
Mtitiners. Coriol. i. I. 255. See Pioners below. 
Mfoelf (perhaps, but by no means certainly, in) 

"I mfy | selj fight | not once | in for | ty year." 

i Hen. VI. i. 3. 91. 

But certainly himself, myself, &c. are often found in Elizabethan 
authors, especially in Spenser : 



ACCENT. 395 

" Mourns inwardly and makes to Mnudfe mone. " 

SPENS. F. Q. ii. i. 42. 

The reason for this is that self, being an adjective and not a noun, 
is not entitled to, and had not yet invariably received, the emphasis 
which it has acquired in modern times. 
And so, perhaps : 

"And band | ing them \ selves in | contra (490) | ry parts." 

I Hen. VI. iii. I. 81. 

Northampton. "Last nfght | I hear | they lay j at Ndrth- \ 
amptdn" Rich. III. ii. 4. 1. 

Obscure (adj. ; as a verb, obscure). 

"To rib | her cere | cloth fn | the 6b \ scare grave." 

M. of V. ii. 7. 51. 
"His means | of death, | his 6b \ scure fii | neral." 

Hamlet, iv. 5. 213. 
Observant. "Than twen | ty sill | y duck | ing 6b \ servants." 

Lear, ii. 2. 109. 

Persever "Ay, do, \persev \ er, c6unt | erfeit | sad 16oks." 

M. N. D. iii. 2. 236 ; A. W iii. 7. 31 ; K. J. ii. r. 421 ; 
Hamlet, i. 2. 92. 

This is the Latin accent in accordance with Ben Jonson's rale. 
"Bounty, | per. sev \ (e)rance, mer | cy, low | liness.'' 

Macbeth, iv. 3. 93. 
Perspective. A. W. v. 3. 48; Rich. II. ii. 2. 18. 

The double accent seems to have been disliked by the Eliza* 
bethans. They wrote and pronounced "muleters" for "muleteers," 
"enginer" (Hamlet, iii. 4. 206) for "engineer," "pioners" for 
"pioneers." This explains : 

Pioners. "A w6rth | y pioner. I Once more | rem6ve, | good 
friends.' Hamlet, \. 5. 162. 

Plebeians (almost always). 

"The//<# | eidnt \ have g6t | your fel | low-tribune." 

Coriol. v. 4. 39 ; i. 9. 7, &c. 
This explains 

" L& them | have cush | ions by you. | You're pleb \ eidns." 

Ib. iii. i. 101. 
Exceptions : Hen. V. v. Chorus, 27 ; T. A. i. r. 231. 

So " Epicurean" in Elizabethan authors and A. and C, ii. I. 24 
The Elizabethans generally did Dot accent the e in such words. 



Jf)6 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Pursuit." Inp4r \ suit 6f | the thing | she w6uld | have stay." 

Son?i. 143 

" We tri | fle time. | I pri | thee/'r | sue sentence." 

M. of V. iv. i. 298. 

Purveyor. " To be | his fair \ veydr : \ but he | rides well." 

Macbeth, i. 6. 22. 

Quintessence. " Teaching | all that | read to | know 

The quint \ essence | of ev | ery sprite." A. Y. L. iii. 2. 147. 

Reorder (?)." To be | spoke to | but by | the re \ corder." 

Rich. III. iii. 7. 30. 

So also Walker, who quotes from DONNE'S Satires, v. 248, Ed. 
1633: 

" Recorder to Destiny on earth, and she." 
But this line might be scanned othenvise. 

Relapse-. "Killing | in re \ lapse of | mortal | ity." 

Hen. V. iv. 3. 107. 

Rheumatic. " O'erworn, | despis | ed, rheu \ matlc, \ and old." 

V. and A. 135 ; M. N. D. ii. I. 105. 

So " These frag \ matlc \ young men | at their | own weapons," 

B.J. 

Secure. " Upon | my si \ cure hour | thy un | cle stole." 

Hamlet, i. 5. 61 ; Othello, iv. I. 72. 

Sequestered. " Why^ are | you se \ quester'd \ from all | your train ?" 

T. A. ii. 3. 75. 
Successor (rare). 

" For being | not propp'd | by an | cestry | whose grace 
Chalks slice \ essors \ their way, | nor call'd | upon," &c. 

Hen. VIII. i. i. 60. 

Successive (rare). "Are n6w | to have | no succ \ esslve \ degrees." 

M. for M. ii. 2. 98. 

Towards (sometimes). 

"And shall | contin | ue our grac | es t6 \ wards him." 

Macbeth, \. 6. 30. 

"I go, | and t6 \ wards three | or four | o'clock." 

Rich. III. iii. 5. 101. 

Compare ".Should, like | a swall | ow pr^y | ing tS \ wards st6rms." 

B. J. Poetast. iv. 7. 

"O* the plague, | he's safe | from think | ing t6 \ ward London." 

B. J. Alchemist, L I. 



VERSES. 397 

So, perhaps, 

"I am | informed | that he | comes t6 \ -wards L6ndon." 

3 Hen. VI. iv. 4. 20. 
"And t6 | -ward Lon | don they | do bend | their course." 

Kick. III. iv. 5. 14. 
U'tensils (perhaps). 

" He has brave ritensils ; for so he calls them." 

Temp. iii. 2. 104. 
Without. See 4573. 

The English tendency, as opposed to the Latin, is illustrated by 
the accentuation of the first syllable of "ignominy," and its con 
sequent contraction into "tgnomy" (i Hen. IV. v. 4. 100, &c.). 

VERSES. 

493. A proper Alexandrine with six accents, such as 

"And now I by winds | and waves | my life | less limbs | are 
tossed, " DRYDEN. 

is seldom found in Shakespeare. 

494. Apparent Alexandrines. The following are Alexan 
drines only in appearance. The last foot contains, instead of one 
extra syllable, two extra syllables, one of which is slurred (see 
467-9) : 

"The mini I bers of | our host | and make | discdvery (dis- 

cov'ry). ' Macbeth, v. 4. 6. 
"He thinks | me now | incap | abl^; | confederates." 

Tempest, \. z. 111. 

"In vir | tue than | in ven | geance : they | being penitent." 

Ib. v. I. 28. 

"And more | divers | ity" | of sounds | all h6rrible" Ib. 235. 
"In bftt | erness. | The comm | on ex \ eaitioner." 

A. Y. L. iii. 5. 3. 

"I see | no more | in y6u | thanm | \h&6rdinary." Ib. 42. 
" Were rich | and h6n | ourable; | besides | ihc gentlemen." 

T. G.ofV. iii. I. 64. 

" Which since | have stead | ed much ; | so, 6f j his gentle 
ness." Temp. \. 2. 165 ; Rich. III. v. 3. 245 ; Hen. V. 
ii. 2. 71. 

For the contraction of " gentleman ' to "gentl'man," or evcu 
"genman," see 461. 



398 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

11 Are y6u | not grieved | that A'r j thur is | his prisoner 
(468)?" K. J. iii. 4. 123. 

" And I' | must fre"e | ly have | the half | of Anything." 

M.ofV. iii. 2. 251. 

"To mask | thy monst | rous visage. | Seek none | con 
spiracy" J. C. ii. I. 81. 

" Had he | been vanq | u(i)sher, as, | b^ the | same cove- 
nant." Hamlet, i. I. 93. 

"My lord, | I came | to see | your fa | ther's fiineral." 

Ib. i. 2. 176. 

"Untdint | ed, lin | exam | in'd, fre"e, | at liberty." 

Rich. III. iii. 6. 9. 

"And s6 | doth mine. | I muse | why she"'s | at liberty." 

Ib. i. 3. 305. 
So, perhaps, 

" From t6o | much li | berty, | my Lu | cio, liberty." 

M.for M. 2. 129. 
' ' AT)so | lute Mf | Ian. Me, | poor man, | my library. " 

Tempest, i. 2. 109. 
" Shall see | advdnt | agea | ble for | our dignity." 

Hen. V. v. 2. 88. 
unless " advantage | able for | . " 

495. Sometimes the two syllables are inserted at the end of the 
third or fourth foot 

"The flux | of company. \ An6n | a care | less herd." 

A. Y. L. ii. i. 52. 

"To call | for recompense; \ appear | it t6 | your mind." 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 3. 
' ' Is not | so estima \ ble, pr6 | fita | ble neither. " 

M. of V. i. 3. 167. 
"O'erbears | your 6fftct)'s; \ the rab | ble call | him lord." 

Hamlet, iv. 5. 102. 
"To me | inv 'iterate, \ hearkens | my br6th | er's suit." 

Temp. i. 2. 122. 
"With all | prerdgative. \ He"ncehis | ambit | ion growing." 

Ib. i. 2. 105. 

" In base | appUance(s) (471). | This 6ut | ward saint | ed 
deputy (468)."^. for M. iii. i. 89. 

"Than we | bring men | to comfort them ('em). \ The fault's | 
your own." Tempest, ii. I. 134-5. 



VEKSES. 399 

496. I" other cases the appearance of an Alexandrine arises from 
the non-observanse of contractions 

"I dire | abide | no 16nger (454). | WMther (466) should | 
I fty?" Macbeth, iv. 2. 73. 

"She le | vell'd at | our piir \ fose(s) (471), ind, | bng(tfo) 
roy"al." A. and C. v. 2. 339. 

" All m6rt | al cinse \ quence(s)(tfi) have | pronounced | me 
thus." Macbeth, v. 3. 5. 

" As mis | ers do | by beggars (454) ; | neither (466) gave | 
to me." TV. and Cr. iii. 3. 142. 

497. Apparent Alexandrines. The following can be ex 
plained by the omission of unemphatic syllables : 

" Hor. Hail to | your 16rdship. | 
Ham. I am (I'm) glad | to see | you well. " 

Hamlet, i. 2. 160. 
" Where6f | he is the (he's tA') he"ad; | then if | he says | he 

16ves you." Ib. i. 3. 24. 
"Thou art sworn | as deeply | to (f) effect | what we" | 

intend." Rich. III. iii. I. 158. 
"I had thought, | my 16rd, | to have learn'd | his health | 

of you." Rich. II. ii. 3. 24. 
" That trace him | in his (in's) line. | No boast | ing like 

| a fool." Macbeth, iv. I. 153. 
" In seeming | to augment | it wastes (it. Be | advis'd." 

Hen. VIII. i. i. 145. 
" When mfr(a) | cles have | by the gre"at | est be"en | denied." 

A. W. ii. i. 144. 
' Persuades I me it is (t's) 6th | erwise ; j howe'er | it be." 

Rich. III. ii. 2. 29. 
" A worth | y 6ff (i)cer \ f the war, | but in | sol<hit" 

Coriol. iv. 6. 30. 
"I promise | you I' am ('/) | afraid | to hear | you tell it." 

Ib. i. 4. 65. 
" Come, si's | ter, cousin | I would (Id) say, | pray par | don 

me." Rich. II. ii. 2. 105. 
" That made | them do it (t). \ They are (.re) wise | and 

hdn | (<?)rable." J. C. iii. 2. 218. 
" With 411 | prerogative ; | hence his | ambit | ion gr6w- 

ing." Tempest, i. 2. 105. 
" Mine eyes | even soc | iabl^ | to the sh6w | of thine." 

Ib. v. i. 63. 



400 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" As great. | tome | as late; | #</ supp6rt | able.'' 

Temp. v. i. 14tf 
unless " supportable" can be accented on the first. 

"Ostentation" is perhaps for "ostention" (Walker), and "the" 
is "th',"in 

" The ostentation of our love which, left unshown." 

A. and C, iii. 6. 52. 
" Is " ought probably to be omitted in 

" With gol | den cheru | bims (is) fretted ; | her an | dirons." 

Cymb. ii. 4. 88. 
" So saucy | with the hand | of she | here what's | her 

name?" A. and C. iii. 13. 98. 
" Come Lam | mas eve | at night | shall she. be | fourteen." 

R. andj. i. 3. 17. 
" Of 6ffic(467) | er, (465) and off | ice s-et | all hearts | in the 

(f ttt} state." Tempest, i. 2. 84. 
"Uncoup | 7^(465) in the(t tK) west | em vail | ey, let | them 

go." M. N. D. iv. i. 112. 
" Come to | one mark ; | as many | ways me'et in \ one 

town." Hen. V. i. 2. 208. 
" Verbatim | to rehearse | the meth | od of | my pen." 

i Hen. VI. iii. I. 13. 
The following is intended to be somewhat irregular : 

" Now by | mine hon | our, by | my life, | by my troth." 

Rich. II. v. 2. 78. 
We must probably scan as an ordinary line, 

" That seeming | to be most \ which we | indeed | least are," 

T. ofSh. v. 2. 175. 
since it rhymes with an ordinary line, 

" Our strength | as weak, | our weak | ness past | compare." 
The following can be explained by the quasi-omission of unem- 
phatic syllables : 

" Away ! | though part | ing be | a dread | ful corr(c)sive. " 

2 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 403. 

"Corrosive," as in I Hen. VI. iii. 3. 3, is accented on the first, 
and here pronounced "corsive." 

" But with | a knave | of comm | on hire, | a gond(0)lier. '' 
9 Othello, i I. 126. 

" Our' 1 is not a dissyllable, but " ag'd " is a monosyllable in 
" But love, | dear love, | and our j ag'd fa j ther's right." 

Lear, iv. 4. 2& 



WORSES. 401 

So perhaps 

"An &jfd | inter | preter | though y6ung | in years." 

T. of A. v. 3. 6 

498. Alexandrines doubtful. There are several apparent 
Alexandrines, in which a shortening of a preposition would reduce 
the tine to an ordinary line. "Upon," for instance, might lose its 
prefix, like '"gainst" for "against." 

" To look | upon my some | time mas | tor's roy | al face." 

Rich. II. ii. 5. 75. 
" Forbids | to dwell up \ on ; yet | rrme'Ji | her this." 

Rich. III. v. 3. 239. 
" Upon our | house('s) (471) thatch, | whiles a | more frost | y 

people." Hen. V. iii. 5. 24. 
" Upon the sis | terhood, | the vo | tarists of | St. Clare." 

M. for M. i. 4. 5. 
" Brut. "Is like | to lay upon us (on's). | 

Cass. I'm glad j that my | weak words." 

y. C. i. 2. 176. 
" Is gone | to pray | the h6 | ly king | upon his (on's) aid." 

Macbeth, iii. 6. 30. 
So "to" (or "in," 457) in "into" may be dropped in 

" Fall into | the com | pass of | a prse' | munire." 

Hen. VIII. iii. 2. 340. 
"The watches | on unto \ mine eyes | the out | ward watch." 

Rich. II. v. 4. 52. 

(?) " Rather | a ditch | in E'gypt 

Be gentle | grave unto \ me. Rdther | on Ni | lus' mud." 

A. and C. v. 2. 58. 

"Gentle" is a quasi-monosyllable, see 465 ; "rather," see 466. 
So Walker reads "to" for "unto" in 

" Unto a poor, | but worth | y gent | leman. | She's 
wedded," Cymb. i. I. 7. 

and observes, " Unto and into have elsewhere, I think, taken the 
place of to." 

Perhaps the second line of the rhyming couplet is purposely 
lengthened in 



I' am 
Un'to 



for the air; | this night | I'll spend 

a dis | mal and | a fat j al end." Macb. iii. v. 21 

In " Better to leave undone, than by our deed 

Acquire too high a fame when him we serve's away," 

A. and C iii. I. 16 
D D 



$02 SHAKESPEAK! -IN GRAMMAR 

we might arrange 

" Better leave | undone, | than by | our deed | acquire." 
Or the latter line might be (but there is not pause enough to 
make it probable) a trimeter couplet. (See 501.) 

" At Ma | rian | a's house | to-night. | Her cause | and yours," 

M. for M. iv. 3. 145. 

must be an Alexandrine, unless in the middle of the line " Mariana" 
can be shortened like "Marian, "as "Helena" becomes "Helen " 
(M. N. D. i. I. 208). Compare 

" For Mar | iana's sake : | but as | he adjudg'd | your brother." 

M.forM. v. I. 408. 

The following seem pure Alexandrines, or nearly so, if the text 
be correct : 

" How dares (499) | thy harsh | rude tongue | sound this | 
unpleas | ing news." Rich. IT. iii. 4. 74. 

" Suspic | ion, all | our lives, | shall be | stuck full | of eyes." 

I Hen. IV. v. 2. 8. 

" A cher | ry lip, | a bon [ ny eye, | a pass | ing pleas | ing 
tongue." Rich. III. i. i. 94. 

" To the | young R6 | man boy | she hath sold | me and | 
I fall." A. and C. iv. 12. 48. 

" And these | does she | apply | for warn | ings and | por 
tents." y. C. iii. i. 23. 

This is the Shakespearian accent of "portent" (490), but perhaps 
'' and" should be omitted. 

" Out of | a great | deal 6f | old fr | on I' | chose forth." 

I Hen. VI. i. 2. 101. 

It is needless to say that Shakespeare did not write this line, 
whether it be read thus or 

" Out of | a great deal | of old | iron I' | chose forth." 

In " 'Tis he | that sent | us hi'th | er now | to slaugh | ter thee," 

Rich. III. i. 4. 250. 
"hither" (466) may be a monosyllable, ana then we can read 

" 'Tis he | that sent us | ." 

The latter line in the following couplet seems to be an Alex 
andrine : 

" Of what | it is | not : then, | thrice-grac I ious queen, 
More than | your lord's | depart | ure weep | not : more'? 
| not seen." Rich. II. ii. 2. 25, v. 4. 110. 



VERSE ,: 403 

Sometimes apparent Alexandrines will be reduced to ordinary 
lines, if exclamations such as "O," "Well," &c. be considered 
(512) as detached syllables. 

" Vol. That they \ combine | not there. | 

Cor. ( Tush, tush !} 

Men. A g6od demand. " 

Coriol. iii. 2. 45. 
" Coriol. The one | by the other. | 

Com. (Well,) | O'n to | the mark | et place." 

Ib. iii. I. 112. 
" Sic. 'Tis he, | 'tis he: | (0,) he's grown | most kind | ol 

late." Ib. iv. 6. 11. 
" Upon | the Brit | ish party. | (O,) unti'me | ly death." 

Lear, iv. 6. 25. 

In the last two examples " O " might coalesce with the following 
vowel. But see also 503 and 512. 

499 Apparent Alexandrines are sometimes regular verses of 
hve accents preceded or followed by a foot, more or less isolated, 
containing one accent. 

"(Shall I) With bated breath and whispering humbleness 
Say this. || Fair sir, | you spit | on me | on Wed | nesday 

last." M. ofV. i. 3. 1-26. 

" Have I || No friend | will rid | me of | this liv | ing fear?" 

Rich. II. v. 4. 2. 

The "No" is emphatic, and there is a slight pause after " I." 
" Whip him, || Were't twen | ty of | the great | est trib | u- 

taries." A. and C. iii. 13. 96. 
" Come, c6me, || No more | of this | unprof | ita | ble chat." 

I Hen. IV. iii. I. 63. 

" There cannot be those numberless offences 
' Gainst me, || that I' | cann6t | take peace | with : n6 | 

black envy." Hen. VIII. ii. I. 85. 
" A's you | are cert | ainly | a gen | tleman, || theretd, 

Clerk-like | experi | enced." W. T. i. 2. 391. 
" Besides, \\ Hike | you not. | I'fyou | will know | my house.'" 

A. Y. L. iii. 5. 74. 
" Which to | dentf concerns | more than | avails, 

For ds || thy brat hath been | cast out | like to | itself." 

W. T. iii. 2. 87. 
" S6 it | should n6w, 

Were there | necess | ity | in your ( request, || although 
Twere need I ful I' | denied it." Ib. i. 2. 22, 
D D 2 



404 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Making | practis'd j smiles 

A's in | a look | ing glass, | and then | to sigh, || as 'tu<A-e 
The m6rt | o' the deer." W. T. i. 2. 117. 

The context might perhaps justify a pause after "well" in 

" Flor. To have | them re* | compensed | as thdught | on. 
Cam. Well, || my I6rd. ' 

W. T. iv. 4. 532. 

But better " To have them (f have 'em) re | compensed." 

" His train | ing such 

That he | may fiirn | ish and I instruct | great teachers, 
And nev | er seek | for aid | out of | himself. 
|| Yet see," &c.Hen. VIII. i. 2. 114. 

" What, girl ! | though grey 

Do some | thing ming | le with | our young | er brown, 

|| yet hd' ivt 
A brain," &c. A. and C. iv. 8. 21. 

" A certain number, 
Though thanks | to all, | must I | select | from all. \\ The 

rest 

Shall bear," | &c. -Coriol. i. 6. 81 ; i. 7. 2. 
" And the buildings of my fancy. 
Only 
There's one thing wanting which I doubt not but. " 

Ib. ii. i. 216. 

Collier transposes "only" and " but " to the respectively follow 
ing lines. The line 

" So to esteem of us and on our knees we beg," 
ought probably to be arranged thus : 

" S6 to | esteem I of us, | and on | our knees 
We beg | as re | compense | of our | dear services (471)." 

W. T. ii. 3. 150. 
So " Whom I' | with this | obe | dient steel, | three inches (471) 

of it" Temp. ii. I. 283; i.e. " three inch oft." 
So transpose " 'tis," i. e. "it is," to the preceding line in 
" York. I fear, | I fear, | 

Duik What should | you fear? | It fs 

('Tis) Nothing but j some bond | that he j is ent | er'd 
into." Rich. II. v. 2. 65. 

' I do" must be omitted (456) before "beseech you" in 

" (I do) beseech | you, par | don me, | I may | not show it 

Ib. 70. 
oo Cymti. \. 6. 48. 



VERSES. 40$ 

500. Trimeter Couplet. Apparent Alexandrines are often 

couplets of two verses of three accents each. They are often thus 
printed as two separate short verses in the Folio. But the degree 
of separateness between the two verses varies greatly. Thus 
perhaps 

" Where it | may see | itself; j| this is | not strange | at all." 

Tr. and Cr. iii. 3. 111. 

" That has j he knows | not what. || Nature, | what things | 
there are." Ib. iii. 3. 127. 

And certainly in the following : 

" Anne. I would | I knew | thy heart. || Glou. 'Tis fig | ured in | 

my tongue. 
Anne. I fear | me both | are false. || Glou. Then nev | er man J 

was true. 
Anne. Well, well, | put up | your sword. || Glou. Say then | 

my peace | is made." Rich. III. i. 2. 193. 

" Jul. I would | I knew | his mind. || Luc. Penise | this pa | per, 
madam. 



Jul. 'To Jii 
contents 



lia.' Say, | from whom? || Luc. That the 
will shew. 



Jul. Say, say, | who gave | it thee?" T. G. of V. \. 2. 33-7. 
"Luc. Go to; | 'tis well; | away! || Isab. Heaven keep | youi 

hon | our safe." M. for M. ii. 2. 156. 
"Isab. Shall I | attend | your lordship? || A. At an | y time | 

'forenoon." Ib. 160-9; ii. 4. 104, 141. 
"Ros. The hour | that fools | should ask. || B. Now fair | befall | 

your mask. 

Ros. Fair fall | the face | it covers. || B. And send | you ma | ny 
lovers." L. L. L. ii. i. 123. 

" Aug. Why dost | thou ask | again? H Prm. Lest I | might 

be | too rash. 
Prov. Repent | ed o'er | his doom. || Aug. Go to, | let that | 

be mine ! 

Ang. And you | shall well | be spared. || Prov. I crave | your 
hon j our's pardon." M. for M. ii. 2. 9-12; Othello, iii. 3. 
28-31 ; Temp. iii. i. 31, 59. 

Shakespeare seems to have used this metre mostly for rapid 
dialogue and retort. But in the ghost scene in Hamlet : 

" Ghost. To what | I shall | unfold. || 

Ham. Speak; I' | am b<5und | to b&u." 

Hamlet L C. 6. 



406 "SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

501. The trimeter COUplet, beside being frequent in dialogue, 
is often used by one and the same speaker, but most frequently in 
comic, and the lighter kind of serious, poetry. It is appropriate 
for Thisbe : 

" Most rad | iant Py | ramus, || most lil | y- white | of hue." 

M. N. D. iii. I. 94, 97. 

A nd for Pistol, when he rants : 

" An oath | of mick | le might; || and fu | ry shall | abate. '' 
Hen. V. ii. I. 70, 44 ; ii. 3. 4, 64 ; v. I. 93. 
" He is | not ve | ry tall : || yet for | his years | he's tall." 

A. Y. L. iii. 5. 118. 
" And 'I'll | be sworn | 'tis true : || travell | ers ne'er | did 

lie." Temp. iii. 2. 26. 
" Coy looks | with heart- | sore sighs ; !| one fad | ing mo- 

| ment's mirth."/: G.ofV.\. I. 30. 

" He would | have giv'n | it you,|| but I' | being in | the way 
Did in | your name | receive it : || pardon | the fault, | 1 

pray." Ib. 39, 40. 
" A free- | stone col | our'd hand ; || I ver | ily | did think." 

A. Y. L. iv. 3. 25. 
" Then let's | make haste | away, : > and look | unto | the 

main." 2 Hen. VI. i. I. 208. 
" Am I' | not witch'd | like her? [| Or thou [ not false | 

like him?" Ib. iii. 2. 119. 
" Why ring | not out | the bells || aloud | throughout | the 

town?" I Hen. VI. i. 6. 12. 
" As ^E'th | iop | ian's tooth, || or the | fann'd snow | that's 

bolted." W: T. iv. 4. 375. 
" This paus ] ingly | ensued. || Neither | the king | nor's 

heirs." Hen. VIII. i. 2. 168. 



The monk 
dang(e) 



might be | deceiv'd ; || and that | 'twas 
rous for him." Ib. 179. 



" Anon | expect | him here ; || but if | she be | obdu 
rate (490)." -Rich. III. iii. i. 39. 

This metre is often used by the Elizabethan writers in the transla 
tion of quotations, inscriptions, &c. It is used for the inscriptions 
the caskets : 

" Who choos | eth me | shall gain || what man | y men | 

desire. 

Who choos j eth me j must give H and haz | ard all | he 
hath." M. of V. ii. 7. 5. 3. 



407 

In the pause between a comparison and the fact such a couplet 
may be expected. 

" A 's J .dine | as did 

The old | Anchi J ses bear, || so from | the waves | of Tfbei 
Did I' | the tir | ed Cze'sar. " J. C. i. 2. 114. 
" To have | what we | would have, i. we speak j not what | we 
mean." M. for M. ii. 4. 118. 

Sometimes the first trimeter has an extra syllable, which takes the 
place of the first syllable of the second trim eter. 

" Shall there | by be | the sweets. || Rea | son thus I with 

lite." M. for M. iii. i. 5. 
" Envel | ope you, | good Prow.r/.< || Who I call'd here I of 

late?" Ib. iv. 2, 78. 

" Matters | of need | ful \alue. || We | shall write | to you." 

Ib. i. i. 56. 

Sometimes the first trimeter, like the ordinary five-accent verse, 
has an extra syllable. In the following examples the two verses are 
clearly distinct. They might almost be regarded as separate lines of 
three accents rather than as a couplet : 

"Hyper | ion to | a satyr. \ So lov | ing to | my mother." 

Hamlet, i. 2. 140. 
" For end | ing thee | no sooner. || Thou hast | nor youth j 

nor age." M. for M. iii. i. 32. 
" That I' | am touch' d | with madness. \\ Make not | im- 

poss | ible." Ib. v. I. 51. (But ? 494.) 
" Ariel. And do | my spirit | ing gent/y. || 
Prosp. Do so, | and after | two days." 

Tempest, i. 2. 298. 
" Below | their cob | bled shoes. || 

They say | there's grain | enough." 
Coriol. i. i. 200. 

502. The COmic trimeter. In the rhyming parts of the 
Comedy of Errors and Love's Labour Lost, there is often great irre 
gularity in the trimeter couplet. M any of the feet are trisyllabic, 
and one-half of the verse differs from the other. Often the first half 
is trochaic and the second iambic. 

"Ant. E. Wherefore? | for my | dinner: || I have | not din'd 

| to-day." C. of E. iii. i. 40. 
"Ant. E. Do you | herf, vou | minion? || You'll let | us in, ' 

I hope." /.'-. i i 



408 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR, 

In the following, the former half is iambic and the lattei 
anapastic ; 



" Thou wouldst 
thy ndme 



have chang'd | thy face \for a ndme, \ or 
for an dss/'C. of E. iii. I. 47. 

And conversely : 

" It would mdke \ a man mdd \ as a tnick || to be | so bought | 
and sold. "Ib. 72. 

There are often only five accents. 

" Bal. GSod meat, sir, | is common : | that e | very churl j 

affords. 

Ant, . And welcome | m5re commSn ; | for that | is no 
thing | but w6rds." Ib. iii. I. 24, 25. 

Sometimes it is hard to tell whether the verse is trisyllabic with 
four accents, or dissyllabic with five. 

" Have at | you with | a pr6verb | Shall I' | set in | my staff?" 

Ib. 51. 

may be scanned with six accents, but the line to which it rhymes 
seems to have four : 

" And so | tell your master. | O L6rd, | I must laugh," 

Ib. 50. 
and the following line also : 

" Have at you | with another; | that's when | can you tell," 

Ib. 52. 

and it is therefore possible that we ought to accent thus : 

" Have at you | with a proverb | Shall I s^t j in my staff?" 

503. Apparent trimeter Couplets. Some apparent trimeter 
couplets are really ordinary dramatic lines. 

For example, in the last line but two of 501 (M. for M. v. i. 51), 
"impossible" may easily be one foot with two superfluous syllables. 
It is often a matter of taste which way to scan a line, but it must 
be borne in mind, that the trimeter couplet is rarely used to ex 
press intense emotion. Hence in an impassioned address like that 
of Henry V. at Harfleur, we should probably read 

" Defy us | to our worst : | for as | I am | a soldier," 

Hen. V. iii. 3. 5. 

or, better (479), "for as 'I'm | a sol | dier." 

So " And wel | come, Somerset; | I hold | it c6w I ardice." 

3 Hen. VL iv. a. 7. 



VERSES. 409 

Or, less probably. " Somerset " may have two accents and 
"cowardice " (470) one. 

" Aschil | drenfrom | a bear, | theVols | ces shunning him." 

Coriol. i. 3. 34. 

" So ti&iously \ away. I The p6or'| condem | ned E'nglish." 

Hen. V. iv. Prol. 221 ; but ib. 28 is a trimeter couplet 
" And hiigg'd me \ in his arm | and kind | ly kfss'd j my 

cheek." Rich. III. ii. 2. 24. 
" Than that | mix'd in | his cheek. | 'Twas just | the dif- 

f(e)rence." A. Y. L. iii. 5. 122. 
" He is ( ( s) my broth I er too. I But fitt | er time | for that." 

M. for M. v. i. 498. 
" And not | the pun(i)sh. | ment; therefore, | indeed | my 

father." M. for M. i. 3. 39. 

The following are doubtful, but probably ordinary lines : 

" I know him \ as myself, \ for from | our in \ fancy" 

T. G.ofV. ii. 3. 62. 
Or "infancy" may have only one accent (467). 

" May a I free face, I put on, I derive | a liberty." 

W. T. i. 2. 112. 
1 Either " may be a monosyllable (see 466) in 

" Your sense | pursues | not mine : | either you | are ignorant. 

M. for M. ii. 4. 74. 
" For in | equal(i)ty : | but let | your rea | son serve." 

Ib. v. i. 65. 

In " Alexas did revolt ; and went to Jewry on 
Affairs of Antony," A. and C. iv. 6. 12. 

" on " may be transposed to the second line ; or, considering the 
licence attending the use of names and the constant dropping of 
prefixes, we might perhaps read "Alexas | did (re)volt | ." 

In " Calls her | a noii | pareil ; | I ne | ver saw | a woman," 

Temp. iii. 2. 108. 

though it is against Shakespearian usage to pronounce " non-pareil " 
a dissyllable, as in Dorsetshire, "a nunprel apple," yet Caliban 
here may be allowed to use this form. I believe " nonp'rel type " 
is still a common expression. 

Sometimes an exclamation, as " O," gives the appearance of a 
trimeter couplet : 

"For the | best hope | I have. | (O,) do not wish | one 

more." Hen. V. iv. 3. 33. 
See also 498 ad fin. 



410 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

504. The verse with four accents is rarely used by Shake 
speare, except when witchet. or other extraordinary beings are intro 
duced as speaking. Then he often uses a verse of four accents 
with rhyme. 

" Double, | double, | toil and | trouble, 

Fire | burn and | cauldron | bubble." Macbeth, iv. I. 20. 
The iambic metre in such lines is often interchanged with the 
trochaic : 

T , . * J "He who | the sword | of heav'n | will bear 
Should be | as h6 | ly as | severe : 



Trochaic 



Pattern | in him | self to | know, 



Grace to | stand and | virtue | go." 

M.forM. iii. 2. 274-3. 
(The last line means "he ought to have grace for the purpose of 
standing upright, and virtue [for the purpose of] walking in the 
straight path." "Go" is often used for " walk." "To" is omitted 
before "go.") 

Sometimes in the same couplet we find one line iambic and the 
other trochaic : 

" And here | the mai | den sleep | ing sound 
O'n the | dank and | dirty | ground."^/. N. D. ii. 2. 74-5. 

It would be, perhaps, more correct to say that both lines are 
trochaic, but in one there is an extra syllable at the beginning, as 
well as at the end. So apparently 

" This is | he my | master | said, 
(De)spised j the A | thenian | maid." M. N. D. 72-3 : 

but the prefix "de-" might (460) be dropped. 

So " (De)spised I in na | tiv | i | ty 

Shall up | on their | children | be."- A v. i. 420. 

There is difficulty in scanning 

" Pretty | soul, she | durst not | lie 
Near this lack-love, this kill-courtesy." Ib. 76-7. 

It is of course possible that " kill-curt'sy " may have the accent 
on the first : but thus we shall have to accent the first " this " and 
"love" with undue emphasis. It is also more in Shakespeare's 
manner to give "courtesy" its three syllables at the end of a 
line. I therefore scan 

" (Near this) lack-love, j this kill | courte | sy. " 

* The words "iambic " and "trochaic" here and elsewhtie refer to accent 
oot quantity. 



VERSES. 411 

Perhaps, however, as in Macbeth, ill 5. 34, 35, and ? 21, a verse 
jf five accents is purposely introduced. 

505. Lines With four accents are, unless there is a pause in 
the middle of the line, very rare. The following, however, seem to 
have no more than four accents : 

"Let's each | one send | unto | his wife." T. of Sh. v. 2. 66. 
" No worse | than I' | upon some | agreement." Ib.'iv. 4.38. 
"He shall | you find | ready | and willing." Ib. 34. 
"The match | is made, | and all | is d6ne." Ib. 46. 
"Go fool, | and whom | thou keep'st | command." 

Ib. ii. I. 259. 

The frequent recurrence of these lines in the Taming of the Shreu. 
will not escape notice. 

" And put j yourself] under | his shrowd." (? corrupt.) 

A. and C. iii. 13. 71. 
" A lad | of life, | an imp | of fame." 

Hen V. iv. i. 45 (Pistol). 
' ' We knew not 

The doc | trine of | ill-doing, | nor dream'd 
That any did." W. T. i. 2. 70 
"Go tell | your cousin | and bring | me word." 

I Hen. IV. v. I. 109. 
"For aught j I know, | my lord, | they do." 

Rich. II. v. i. 53. 
But perhaps the lines may be arranged : 

" Aum. For aught | I know, 

My lord, | they do. | 

York. You will | be there, | I know. 

Aum. If God | prevent | (it) net, | I purpose | so." 

"With" may be, perhaps (457), transposed to the former of the 
following verses, thus : 

" With ad | ora | tions, fer | tile te | ars, (480) ivith 
Groans (484) | that thun | der love, | with sighs | of fire." 

T. N. i. 5. 274. 

J?nt the enumerative character of the verse (509) may justify it as 
it stands. 

It is difficult to scan 

" Lock'd in her monument. She had a prophesying fear," 

A. and C. iv. 14. 120 
without making the latter portion a verse of four accents. 



412 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

(Perhaps 

" Lock'd in | her mon(u) | ment She'd | a prophe | sying fear,' 
making "sying" a monosyllable like "being," "doing." See 470.) 

"Should from | yond cloud | speak di | vine things." 

Coriol. iv. 5. 110. 
But I should prefer 

" If Jupiter 



Should, from | yond cloud, | speak di 
"Tis true,' | (507) I'd not | believe 



vine things | and say 
them more 



Than thee, | all-no | ble Marcius." 
Shakespeare would have written "things divine," not "divine 
things " at the end of a verse. (See 419, at end.) 

"Is not | muchmiss'd | but with | his friends." Coriol. iv. 6. 13. 
"Before | the kings | and queens | of France." 

i Hen. VI. i. 6. 27. 
"And even | these three | days hive | I watch'd." 

Ib. i. 4. 16. 

"Here through | this gate | I count | each one." Ib. 60. 
" Think not | the king | did ban | ish thee," 

Rich. II. i. 3. 279. 

is not found in the Folio, which also varies, ib. i. 3. 323 ; iii. 7. 70. 
Perhaps 

"They thus | direct | ed, we | will follow 
I'n the | main battle | whose puissance j on ei | ther 
side." Rich. III. v. 3. 298. 

(But the second line is harsh, and perhaps part of it ought to 
be combined with the first in some way. "Puissance" is a dis 
syllable generally in Shakespeare, except at the end of the line. 
I know no instance in Shakespeare where, as in Chaucer, 
"battle" is accented on the last. Remembering that ed is often 
not pronounced after t and d, we might scan the first line thus, with 
three accents : 

"They thus | direct(ed), | we'll follow.") 
If "ed" is not pronounced (472) in "divided," that may explain 

"The archdea | con hath | divided it." \Hen.IV.\\\. 1.72. 
The following may seem a verse of four accents : 

"Whereas the contrary bringeth bliss." I Hen. VI. v. 5. 64. 
But "contrary" is found in Hamlet, iii. 2. 221. And as "country" 
(see 477) is three syllables, so, perhaps, "contrary" is four : 



VhKSES. 413 

" Whereas | the c6nt | (e)rar | y bring j eth bliss." 
A verse of four accents is exceedingly discordant in the formal and 
irtificial speech of Suffolk, in which this line occurs. 

Somewhat similarly, Shakespeare has "cursorary"for "cursory :'' 
" I have but with a cursorary eye." Hen. V. v. 2. 77. 

In "Anthony Woodville, her brother there," Rich. III. \. I. 67. 
"Woodville" is probably to be pronounced a trisyllable, a semi 
vowel inserting itself between the d and v " Wood-e-ville. " The 
? final (see 488) wotLd not be sounded before "her." 

"Valiant" is a trisyllable in 

"Young, val | iant, | wise, and | no doubt | right royal." 

Rich. III. i. 2. 245. 

506. Lines with four accents, where there is an inter 
ruption in the line, are not uncommon, it is obvious that 

a syllable or foot may be supplied by a gesture, as beckoning, a 
movement of the head to listen, or of the hand to demand attention, 
as in 

"He's ta'en. | [Shout.} \ And hark, | they sh6ut | for joy." 

y. c. v. 3. 32. 

"Kneel thou | down, Philip. | (Dubs him knight.) \ But 

rise | more great." K. J. i. i. 161. 
"Marry | to (Enter O't/iello.) \ Come, cap | tain, will | 

you go"?" Othello, i. 2. 53. 

Here, however, as in 

"A wise | stout cap | (i)tain, | and s6on | persuaded." 

3 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 30. 
"Our cap | (i)tains, | Macbeth | and Ban | quo? Yes." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 34. 
we may scan 

"Marry | to Come, | cap(i) | tain, will | you go," 

but very harshly and improbably. 

" Cass. Flatter | ers !" (Turns t6 Brutus.) \ Now,Bni | tus, 
thank | yourself." J. C. v. i. 45. 

An interruption may supply the place of the accent : 

"And falls | on th' 6th | er (Enter Lddy Macbeth.) \ 

How now, | what news?" Macbeth, i. 7. 28. 

The interval between two speakers sometimes justifies the 
emission of an accent, even in a rhyming passage of regular lines : 



4T SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Fairy. Are" not | you he? | ' Puck. I Thoti speak'st | aright, 
I am | that mer fry wan | derer of | the night." 

M. tf. D. ii. I. 42 
"Mai. As thou | didst leave | it. ' Serg. \ Doubtful | it st6od." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 7. 
" Cass. MessA | la ! Mess. I What says | my gen | eral?" 

y. C.v. i. 70. 

' ' Dun. Who comes | here ? ' Mai. \ The worth | y thane | oi 
Rosg." M eth \. 2. 45. 

"Sic. Without | assistance. | | Men. I think | not so." 

Coriol. iv. 6. 33. 

The break caused by the arrival of a new-comer often gives rise 
to a verse with four accents. 

"Than your | good words | | But who | comes here?" 

Rich. II. ii. 3. 20. 
"Stands for | my bounty. | ' | But who | comes here?" 

Ib. 67. 
"Against | their will. | ' | But who | comes | here?" 

Ib. iii. 3. 19. 
So, perhaps, arrange 

" High be our thoughts ! 
I know my uncle York hath power enough 
To serve | our turn. | ' | But who | comes here?" 

Ib. iii. 2. 90. 

It is possible that in some of these lines "comes" should be 
pronounced "cometh." "Words," "turn," and "will" might be 
prolonged by 485, 486. 

507. Lines with four accents where there is a change 

of thought are not uncommon. In some cases the line is divided 
into two of two accents each, or into one line of three accents, and 
another of one. 

(i) Change of thought from the present to the future : 
"Haply | you shall | not see | me more; | or if, 



A mang 1 led shadow. 
You'll serve I another 



Perchance | to-m6rrow 
mister." A. and C. iv. ii. 27. 



"I'll send | her straight | away. | ' | To-m6rrow 
I'll' to | the wars : J she to | her sing | le sorrow." 

A. W. ii. 3. 313 

" Fresh kings I are come | to Troy. | ' | To-m6rr<rj) 
W must [with all | our main ] of p6wer | stand fast." 

Tr. and C>: ii. 2. 272, 



VERSED. 4$ 

(2) From a statement to an appeal, or vice -versd . 

' ' You have | not sought it. | ' | How comes | it then t" 

i Hen. IV. v. i. 27. 

Unless "comes" is "cometh." See 506 at end. 

"Lord of | his reason. | ' | Whdt though | you fled?" 

A. and C. iii. 13. 4. 

(I do not remember an instance of "re | ason." See, however, 479.) 

Perhaps "Come hith | er, count. | ' | Do yon (<f you) know I 
these w6men?" A. W. v. 3. 165. 

But possibly : 

"Come hith | er, cou | nt (486). Do | you kn6w | these 

women ? " 
" But stdy. | Here comes (Fol.) | the gar | deners." 

Rifh. II. iii. 4. 24. 
("gardeners" may have but one accent.) 

" Nhier \ believe \ me. ' \ Both are | my kinsmen." 

Ib. ii. 2. 111. 
The pause may account for 

"As he | would draw it. | ' | Long stay'd | he so." 

Hamlet, ii. I. 91. 

(As ed is pronounced after i and u, so it might be after y in 
"stayed," but the effect would be painful.) 

" Which has I no need I of you. 

Beg6ne," 
is the best way of arranging A. and C. iii. n. 10. 

"And leave | eighteen. | ' | Aids, poor | princess." 

Cymbelinc. ii. I. 61. 
"A princ | e's courage. | ' | Aw&y, \ I prithee." 

Cymb. iii. 4. 187. 
" Lt us | withdraw. \ \ 'Twill be | a storm." 

Lear, ii. 4. 290. 

(3) Hence after vocatives : 

" Titus, |'|I (am)'m c6me | to talk | with thee." 

T. A. v. 2. 16. 
" Ghitle \ men, \ imp6rt | une me* | no further." 

T. of Sh. i. i. 48. 

" Gtntle | men, ' \ that I' | may s6on | make good." Ib. 74. 
" Gfntle | men, ' \ content | ye, 'I'm | resolved." Ib. 90. 
" Gfntie | men, ' ' will yon | gr> mus | ter men ?" 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 108 



4r6 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Gtntle \ men, ' \ go mus I ter up | your men." 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 118 
"Good Mdr \ garet. \ Run | thee to | the parlour." 

M. Ado, iii. i. 1. 
Either a pause may explain 

"But tell | me, ' | is young | George Stan | ley living?" 

Rich. III. v. 5. 9 
or " George " (485) may be a quasi -dissyllable. 

508. A foot Or Syllable Can be Omitted where there is any 
marked pause, whether arising from (i) emotion, (2) antithesis, or 
(3) parenthesis, or (4) merely from the introduction of a relative 
clause, or even a new statement. 

(i) "Were't | my fitness 

To let | these hands [ obey | my blood, | ' | 
They're apt | enough | to dis | locate | and tear 
Thy flesh | and bones." Lear, iv. 2. 64. 

"O' | disloy | al thing 

That shduld'st | repair I my y6uth, | ' | thou heap'st 
A year's | age on f me." Cymb. i. i. 132. 

There is an intended solemnity in the utterances of the ghosts in 

"Let fall | thy lance. | ' | Despair | and die." 

Rich. III. v. 3. 143. 

and "Think on | lord Hastings. | ' | Despair | and die." Ib. 148. 

(2) "Scarce an | y joy 

Did ev | er so | long live. | ' | No sorrow 

But kill'd | itself | much soon | er." W. T. v. 3. 53. 



(3) "Heat* 

(Which you | knew great) 



his fort | unes here 

' I and to I the hazard." 



Ib. iii. 2. 169. 

(4) "Mark what | I say, | ' | which you | shall find." 

M.forM. iv. 3. 130. 

Perhaps "Is my kins | man, ' | wh6m \ the king | hath wrong'd," 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 114. 

in a very irregular passage, part of which is nearly prose. 

"Into | his title | 'which \ the \ we find." 

i Hen. IV. iv. 3. 104. 

"That she | did give me, | ' | whose p6 | sy was." 

M. of V. v. i. 148. 

"Call our | cares fears, | ' | which will | in time." 

Coriol. iii. I. 137 



VERSES. 417 

'"Tis sure | enough | da you | knew how." 

T. A. iv. I. 95. 

A pause may, perhaps, be expected before an oath, as in 

"As you | shall give I th' advice. | B^ | the fire 
That quick | ens E | gypt's slime." A. and C. i. 3. 68. 

(But "vice" or "by" may be prolonged.) 

"That my most jeal | ous and | too doubt | ful heart 
May live at peace. | ' | He shall | conceal it." 

T. N. iv. 3. 28 ; Macbeth, i. 5 6. 
"To watch, | poor perdu ! 

With this | thin helm. | ' | Mine ene | ray's dog, 
Though he | had bit | me, should | have stood | that night 
Against | my fire." Lear, iv. *]. 36. 
" Last night | 'twas on | mine arm. | ' | I kiss'd it." 

Cymb. ii. 3. 151, 
(Certainly not " I kiss | ed it.") 

" Would then | be nothing. | ' | Truths would | be tales." 

A. and C. ii. z. 137. 
"Point to | rich ends. | ' | This my | mean task." 

Temp. iii. I. 4. 
" Must give | us pause (484). | ' | There's the | respect." 

Hamlet, iii. I. 68. 

509. Lines With four accents are found where a number 
of short clauses or epithets are connected together in one line, and 
must be pronounced slowly : 

"Earth gapes, hell burns, fiends roar, saints pray." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 75 

"Witty, courteous, liberal, full of spirit." 

3 Hen. VI. i. 2. 43. 

The last line is very difficult. "And," or a pause equal to 
4 *and," after "witty," would remove the difficulty. 

It is remarkable that Shakespeare ventures to introduce such 
a line even in a rhyming passage : 

" Youth, beauty, wisdom, courage, atl 
That happiness and prime can happy call. " 

A. W. ii. i. 184. 
" Ho ! hearts, | tongues, figures, | scribes, bards, | poets 

cann6t 

Think, spiak, \ cast, write, \ sing num \ ber, ho! 
His love to Antony." A. and C. iii. 2. 17. 
"Is goads, thorns, nettles, tails of wasps." W. T. i. 2. 329; 



4i& SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

(Here, however, "goads" and "thorns" may be prolonged. See 
484, 485.) 

"With that | harsh, no | ble, sim | pie | nothing." 

Cymb. iii. 4. 135. 
The following occurs amid regular verse : 

"These drums! these trumpets! flutes! what." 

A. and C. ii. 7. 138. 
" When you do dance, 1 wish you 
A wave of the sea, that you might ever do 
Nothing | but that ; | move still, | still so." 

W. T. iv. 4. 142. 

Here still, which means "always," is remarkably emphatic, and 
may, perhaps, be pronounced as a quasi-dissyllable. So " til " is a 
monosyllabic foot in CHAUCER, C. T, 1137. 

510. Apparent lines of four accents can sometimes be 

explained by giving the full pronunciation to contractions, such as 
s for eth, 'd for ed, 'II for will, 've for have, 't for it, &c. ; or they are 
lines of three accents with a detached foot. 
"Silv. What'j (is) | your will? | 
Prot. That I' | may com [ pass yours." 

T. G. of V. iv. 2. 92. 
"And were | the king | on't (of it), j what would | I do?" 

Temp. ii. I. 145. 
"In what | you please. | I'll (will) | do what | I can." 

Ib. iv. 4. 47. 
" You've add | ed w6 \ rth (485) un | to it | and lustre." 

T. of A. i. 2. 154. 
" Drive him | to Ro \ me ; 't (it) | is time | we twain." 

A. and C. L 4. 73. 
"Whence com | est thou? | What would | at thou? | Thy 

name?" Coriol. iv. 5. 58. 

But the pauses between the abrupt questions may be a sufficient 
explanation. 

"And nfer (nev | er) a | true one. | In such | a night." 

M. of V. v. i. 148. 

The first "a" may be emphatic, meaning "one." Else 508. 

" Our thighs | packV (ed) | with wax, | our mouths | with 
honey." zHen.IV.\v.s > . 77 (or "thighs" a dissyllable). 
" So much | as Ian | kW (ed) not. | 'Tis pit | y of him." 

A. and C. i. 4. 71. 



VERSES. 419 

"V = "his "in 

"Vincent | i6 | 'j (his) son | brought up | in Florence." 

T. of Sh. i. I. 14. 
In " Sal. My lord, I long to hear it at full," 

2 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 6. 

"hear" is a dissyllable (485), or "the" omitted after "at." Com 
pare "atte" in E. E. for "at the." 

I feel confident that "but would" must be supplied in 

" And what poor duty cannot do, noble respect 
Takes it in might, not merit," M. N. D. v. I. 91. 

and we must read : 

"And what poor duty cannot do, but -would, 
Noble respect takes not in might but merit."* 

" And, ere our coming, see thou shake the bags 
Of hoarding abbots ; imprisoned angels 
Set at liberty. The fat ribs of peace 
Must by the hungry now be fed upon," K. J. iii. 3. 8. 

ought probably to be arranged : 

" Of hoarding abbots ; 
Imprisoned angels set at liberty. 
The fat ribs of peace 
Must," &c. 

Or (Walker) invert "imprisoned angels" and "set at liberty." 
Arrange thus : 

' ' Your Coriolanus 
Is n6t | much mlss'd, 

But with | his friends. \ The com | monwealth | doth stdnd, 
And so | would do, | were he | more ang | ry at it. " 

Coriol. iv. 6. 13. 
Similarly 

"Most clrt | ain. Sist \ er, welcome. 
Prdyyou \ (see 512) 

Be ev | er known | to pat , ience, my^ | dear's! sfster." 

A. and C. iii. 6. 97. 

So arrange 

" That won you without blows. 
Despising (499), 
For you, the city, thus I turn my back." 

Cono*. iii. 3. 133. 

I think I have met with this conjecture in some commentator. 

BE* 



120 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Cel. Look, who | comes heVe? | 

Silv. My err \ and h \ to yen ; 

Fairy6uth (512), j 
My gent I le Phoe' I be bid I me give I you this." 

A. Y. L. iv. 3. 6. 
" Got 'tween \ asleep \ and wdke. 
Well, then (512), 
Legit(i) | mate E'd | gar, I' | must have | your land. " 

Lear, i. 2. 15. 
" As pearls \from dia \ monds drSpp'd. 

In brief ($1.1}." Lear, iv. 3. 24. 
Hen. V. ii. Prologue, 32, is corrupt. 
" I live with bread like you : 

Feel-want, taste grief, need friends : subjected thus, 
How can you say to me I am a king?" Rich. II. iii. 2. 175. 

511. Single lines with two or three accents are fre 
quently interspersed amid the ordinary verses of five accents. 
They are, naturally, most frequent at the beginning and end of 
a speech. 

These lines are often found in passages of soliloquy where passion 
is at its height. Thus in the madness of Lear, iv. 6. 112-29, there 
are eight lines of three accents, and one of two ; and the passage 
terminates in prose. And so perhaps we should arrange 

" Would use his heav'n for thunder ; nothing but thunder ! 
Merciful heaven (512), 

Thou ratner with thy sharp and sulphurous bolt 
Split'st the unwedgeable and gnarled oak 
TJian the soft myrtle. 
But man, proud man, 
Drest in a little brief authority," &c. 

M.forM. ii. 2. 110-18. 
So in the impassioned speech of Silvius : 

" If thou remember'st not the slightest folly 
That ever love did make thee run into, 
Thou hast not loved," A. Y. L. ii. 5. 36. 

which is repeated in 1. 39 and 42. 

The highest passion of all expresses itself in prose, as in the 
fearful frenzy of Othello, iv. I. 34-44, and Lear, iv. 6. 130. 
Rarely we have a short line to introduce the subject 
" York. Then thus : 
Edward the third, my lords, had seven sons." 

2 Hen. VI. ii. 2. 9, 10. 



VERSES. 42J 

" Into his ruin'd ears, and thus deliver : 
'Henry Bolingbroke, 
On both his knees,' " &c. Rich. II. iii. 3. 32. 

Ross. (So) That now 
Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition." 

Macbeth, \. 2. 59. 
"For Cloten. 

There wants no diligence in seeking him." Cymb. iv. 3. 19. 

Sometimes the verse (which is often written as prose in the Folio) 

closely resembles prose. It is probable that the letter J. C. ii. 3. 

1-10 is verse, the last two words, "thy lover, Artemidorus," being 

irregular. So A. Y. L. iii. 2. 268-74. 

The irregular lines uttered by Cassius, when he is cautiously 
revealing the conspiracy to Casca, looking about to see that he is 
not overheard, and also pausing to watch the effect of his words on 
Casca, are very natural. 

' ' Unto some monstrous state. 
Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man 
Most like this dreadful night, 
That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars." 

J. C. i. 3. 71-74. 

It will also not escape notice that "now could I, Casca," and 
"that thunders, lightens," are amphibious sections. See 513. 

The following pause may be explained by the indignation of 
Macduff, which Malcolm observes and digresses to appease : 

" Why in that rawness left you wife and child 
Without leave-taking? 
I pray you (512) 
Let not my jealousies be your dishonours." 

Macbeth, iv. 3 28. 

A pause is extremely natural before Lear's semi-confession of 
infirmity of mind : 

" A'nd, to | deal plainly, 
I fear | I am | not in | my perf | ect mind. " 

Lear, iv. 7. 62. 

A stage direction will sometimes explain the introduction of a 
short line. The action takes up the space of words, and necessitates 
a broken line, thus : 

" Macb. This is a sorry sight. [Looking on his hands.] 
Lady M. A foolish thought, to say a sorry sight." 

Macbeth, ii. 2. 21 



422 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Macbeth may be supposed to draw his dagger after the short line : 

"As this | which now | I draw." Macbeth, ii. I. 41. 
So after Lady Macbeth has openly proposed the murder of 
Duncan in the words 

" Oh, never 
Shall sun that morrow see" Macbeth, i. 5. 62. 

she pauses to watch the effect of her words till she continues : 
" Your face, my thane, is as a book where men," &c. 
The irregular lines in the excited narrative of the battle 

" Like valour's minion, carv'd out his passage 

Till he faced the slave," Macbeth, i. 2. 20 (so ib. 51). 

are perhaps explained by the haste and excitement of the speaker. 
This is illustrated by 

" Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, 
Or memorize another Golgotha, 
I cannot tell. 
But I am faint, my wounds cry out for help." 

Macbeth, i. 2. 41. 

In "As cannons overcharged with double cracks ; || so they || 
Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe," Ib. i. 2. 37. 

there may be an instance of a short line. But more probably we 
must scan " As cannons | o'ercharged | ." 
Such a short line as 

" Only to herald thee into his sight, 
Not pay thee," Macbeth, i. 3. 103. 

is very doubtful. Read (though somewhat harshly) : 

" Only | to her(a)ld (463) | thee in | to 's sight, | not pay thee." 

So " Let's (us) | away ; | our tears | are not | yet brew'd," 

Macbeth, ii. 3. 129, 130. 

and the following lines must be arranged so as to make 1. 132 an 
interjectional line. 

There is a pause after ' ' but let " in 

" But let 

The frame | of things | disjoint, | both the | worlds suffer." 
Macbeth, iii. 2. 16 ; iv. 3. 97. 

and in the solemn narrative preparatory to the entrance of the Ghost : 

" Last night of all, 
When yond same star that's westward from the pole." 

Hamlet, i. I. 35. 



YERSES. 4*3 

So "And aie upon the Mediterranean flote 

Bound sadly home for Naples, 

Supposing that they saw the king's ship wreck d 

Tump. i. A 23 
So M. N. D. iii. 2. 49. 

" Lastly, 

If I do fail in fortune of my choice 
Immediately to leave you and be gone." M.ofV. ii. 9. 14 

" Yet I, 
A dull and muddy-mettled rascal, peak." 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 693 

" I, his sole son, do this same villain send 
To heaven." Ib. iii. 3. 78. 

In " Dost thou hear?" Temp. i. 2. 106. 

" thou " is unemphatic, and scarcely pronounced. Or else these 
words must be combined with the previous, thus : 

" Hence his | ambit | ion grow | ing Dost | thou hear?" 

512. Inteijectional lines. Some irregularities may be ex 
plained by the custom of placing ejaculations, appellations, &c 
out of the regular verse (as in Greek <f>eO, &c.). 

" Yes. | 

Has he | affections in him ?" M. far M. iii. I. 107. 
" Alack 
I love myself. Wherefore? for any good?" 

Rich. III. v. 3. 187. 
" What, 
Are there no posts despatch'd for (480) Ireland?" 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 10a 
So arrange 

" North. Why? 
I's he | not with | the queen ? | 

Percy. No, my | good 16rd." 

Ib. ii. 3. 512, 
"Fie, 
There's no such man ; it is impossible." 

Othello, iv. 2. 134. 

" And such a one do I profess myself, 
For, sir, 
It is as sure as you .ire Roderigo." 

Othello, i. i. 55 ; Lear, \. i. 6C 



424 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

Perhaps we ought thus to arrange 

" 0, sir. 
"it out presence is too bold and peremptory.' 

I Hen. IV. L 3. 17. 
This is Shakespeare's accentuation of " peremptory." 

"Farewell. \Exit Banquo.~\ 

Let every man be master of his time." Macbeth, iii. I. 40. 
" Sir, 

I have upon a high and pleasant hill." T. of A. i. I. 63. 
" Sirrah, 

Get thee to Flashy, to my sister Gloucester." 

Rich. II. ii. 2. 90. 
So Rich. III. i. 2. 226 ;-i. 4. 218. 
" Greaf'king, 

Few love to hear the sin they love to act." P.ofT. L 1. 91. 
" My dismal scene I needs must act alone. 

Come, vial." R. and J. iv. 3. 20. 
" Come, Hastings, help me to my lodging. O ! 

Poor Clarence." Rich. III. ii. I. 133. 
" For Hecuba! 

What's Hec | uba | to him, | or he | to Hecuba (469) ?" 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 584. 
" If thou hast any sound or use of voice, 

Speak to me." 16. i. I. 129. 

So ib. 132, 185: and "0 vengeance," ib. 610; "A scullion!" ib. 
616. 

So we should read 

" I'll wait upon you instantly. (Exeunt.) [To FLAV.] Come hither. 
Pray you, 
How goes," &C.T. of A. ii. I. 36. 

Similarly "Nay, more," C. of E. i. I. 16; "Stay," T. N. iii. i. 
149; " Who's there?" Hamlet, i. i. 1; " Begone," J. C. i. I. 57; 
" 0, Ccesar," J. C. iii. I. 281; "Let me work," J. C. ii. I. 209; 
"Here, cousin," Rich. II. iv. i. 182; " Whafs she?" T. N. i. 2. 35; 
"Draw," Lear, ii. I. 32 ; " Think," Coriol. iii. 3. 49. 

So arrange 

" Viol. Hold, || there's half] my coffer. | 
Anton. Will you ) deny" | me now?" 

T. N. iii. 4. 38. 
"&, || I am sat | isfied, | give me | a bowl | of wine." 

Rich. III. v. 3. 72. 



VERSES 425 

"Ratcliffe, \\ about | the mid | of night | come to | ray tent" 

Rick. III. 77, 209. 

The excitement of Richard gives rise to several interjectional lines 
of this kind in this scene. 

A short line sometimes introduces a quotation : 

" If Caesar hide himself, shall they not whisper, 

Lo, Ctzsar is afraid?" J. C. ii. 2. 101. 
" Did scowl on gentle Richard. No man cried 

'God save him.' "Rich. II. v. 2. 28. 

Perhaps we should arrange as follows : 

" He'll spend that kiss 
Which is my heaven to have. 
Come [applying tfie asp to her bosoni\ 
Thou mortal -wretch, 

With thy sharp teeth this knot intrinsicate 
Of life at once untie." A. and C. v. 2. 306. 

This seems better than scanning the words from "which" to 
"wretch" as one line, either (i) as an ordinary line, with "come, 
thou mor | tal wretch," or (2) as a trimeter couplet, making 
' ' come " a dissyllable. 

So it is better to arrange : 

" Buckingham, 
I prithee pardon me 
That I have giv*n no answer all this while." 

2 Hen. VI. v. i. 32 

Merely with a special view to mark a solemn pause Shakespeare 
writes : 

" So, as a painted tyrant Pyrrhus stood, 
And, like a neutral to his will and matter, 
Did nothing. 
But, as we often see," &c. Hamlet, ii. 2. 504. 

Such irregularities are very rare. 

" Sirrah, 
A word with you. Attend those men our pleasure ?" 

is the right way to arrange Macb. iii. I. 45, 46. Shakespeare could 
not possibly (as Globe) make " our pleasure " a detached foot. 
The ejaculation seems not a part of the verse in 

" Hath seiz'd | the waste | ful king..) [O,] what pit | y is it" 

Rich. II. iii. 4. 56. 



426 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

' And h | himself | nol 
See also 498, at end ; 503. 



And he" I himself I not present. I [O,] forefend | it, G6d !" 

Rich. II. iv. I. 129. 



513. The Amphibious Section. When a verse consists 
of two parts uttered by two speakers, the latter part is 
frequently the former part of the following verse, being, 

as it were, amphibious thus : 



"S. The E'ng 
M. Take thy 



lish force, | so please you. || 

face hence. || Seyton, | I'm sick | at heart." 



Macbeth, v. 3. 19. 
" M. News, my | good lord, | from Rome. || 
Ant. Grdtes me: \ the siim.\\ 

Cleo. Nay, hear | them, A'n | tony\" A. and C. i. i. 19. 
". Who's there? | 
M. A friend. || 
B. Whdt, sir, \ not yet \ at rlst ? || The king's | abed." 

Macbeth, il I. JO. 
" Kent. This off | ice to you.|| 

Gent. I' -will \ talk- fur \ ther -with || you. || 

Kent. No, | do not." Lear, iii. i. 42. 

" Gent. Which twain | have brought | her t6.|| 
Edg. Hail, gent \ le sir. \ 

Gent. Sir, speed | you, what's | your will ? " 

Lear, iv. 6. 212. 

" Prosp, Against | what should | ensue. || 
Mir. How came \ we ashore ? \\ 

Prosp. By Pro | vidence | divine." 

Temp. i. 2. 168. 

" Claud. And hug | it in I my arms. || 
Is. There spake \ my br6 } ther, || there j my fa | ther"s grave." 

M.forM. iii. I. 86. 
" E. How fares | the prince? || 

Mess. Well, mdd \ am, dnd \ in health. \\ Duck. What is | 
thy news, then?" Rich. III. ii. 4. 40. 

"Brut. That 6th I er men | begin. || 
Cos. Then leave \ him 6ut. || Casca. Indeed | he Is | not fit' 

J. C. ii. i. 153. 
Probably 

"Macb. And break it | to our hope. || I will \ not fight \ withthfe.l 
Macd. Then yield | thee, coward." Macbeth, v. 8. 22. 



VERSES. 427 

Compare also Macbeth, i. 4. 43, 44 ; ii. 3. 75, 101-2; ill 1. 18 19, 2. 
12-13, 4. 12, 15, 20, 151 ; J. C. 11. 4. 16, 17 ; Coriol. iii. 2. 6 ; 
Othello, iii. 3. 282, &c. 
In the following instance the first " still " is emphatic : 

" Oliv. As howl | ing aft | er music. || 
JQuke. Still \socrti\\ el! 

Oliv. Still | so con | stant, lord." 

T. N. v. i. 113. 

Sometimes a section will, on the one side, form part of a regular 
line, and, on the other, part of a trimeter couplet. 



" Hor. Of mine 
Hor. As thou 



own eyes. || Mar. I's it \ not like \ the king || 
art to I thyself." Hamlet, i. I. 58, 59. 
" Ofhel. In hon | oura | ble fashion. | Pol. Ay, fash \ ionydu \ 

may call it. \\ Go to, go to." Ib. i. 3. 112. 
Ham. No, it | is struck. || Hor. Indeed, \ I heard \ it n6t ; |] 
then it | draws near | the season. Ib. i. 4. 4. 

In the last example, "indeed," when combined with what follows 
is a detached interjection (512). 

514. Interruptions are sometimes not allowed to inter 
fere with the completeness of the speaker's verse. 

This is natural in dialogue, when the interruption comes from a 
third person : 

41 Polon. Pray you | be r6und | with him. | 

{Ham. \_Within\ Mother, mother, mother!) 
Queen. I'll war | rant you." 

Hamlet, iii. 4. 5, 6. 

Or, when a man is bent on continuing what he has to say : 

" Ham. Rashly and that should teach us 
There's a divinity that shapes our ends, 
Rough-hew them how we will 
(Hor. That's certain.) 
Ham. Up from my cabin," &c. 

Hamlet, v. 2. 11, 12, 
" Shy. This is (461) kind | I 6ffer 
(Bass. This were kindness.) 

Shy. This kind | ness will | I show. 

M. ofV. 13. 143. 
" King R. Ratcline | 
(Rat. My lord.) 

King R. The sun | will not | be seen | to-day/ 

Rich. III. v. 3. 281. 



*a8 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

"Brutus. Away, | slight man. | 
(Cassius. Is't possible ?) 

Brutus. Hear me, | for I' | will speak." 

y. C. iv. 3. 37, 38. 

Or, when a speaker is pouring forth his words, endeavouring to 
break through the obstacle of unintelligence, as Kent trying to make 
himself intelligible to the mad Lear : 

" Kent. No, my I good lord ; | I am | the ver | y man 

(Lear. 1 11 see that straight. ) 

Kent. That from I your first | of dif | ference and | decay 
Have foil | owd your | sad steps, | 

(Lear. You're welcome hither. ) 
Kent. Nor no ] man else." 

i.e. " I and no one else." Then, in despair of making himself 
understood, Kent continues : 

"All's cheerless, dark, and deadly." 

Sometimes the interlocutor's words, or the speaker's continuation, 
will complete the line : 

" Ccesar. So much | as lank | ed not. | (Folio has lantfd.) 
Lep. 'Tis pit | y of him. 

Ccssar. Let his | shames quickly." A. and C. i. 4. 71. 

If there are two interlocutors, sometimes either interlocution will 
complete the line : 

" Gent. Than is | his use. | 

Widow. Lord, how | we lose | our pains ! 

Helena. All's well | that ends | well yet." 

A. W. v. i. 24, 25. 

" Bru. Good Marc | ius | home | again. | 
Sic, The ve ) ry trick on'L 

Men. This is | unlikely." 

Coriol. iv. 6. 71. 

515. Rhyme. Rhyme was often used as an effective termina 
tion at the end of the scene. When the scenery was not changed, 
or the arrangements were so defective that the change was not 
easily perceptible, it was, perhaps, additionally desirable to mark 
that a scene was finished. The rhyme in T. N. ii. 2. 32 is perhaps 
a token that the scene once concluded with these lines, and that the 
nine lines that follow are a later addition. 

Rhyme was also sometimes used in the same conventional way, 
to mark an aside, which otherwise the audience might have great 



VERSES. 429 

difficulty in knowing to be an aside. Thus, in a scene where there 
are no other rhyming lines, Queen Margaret is evidently intended 
to utter Rick. III. iv. 4. 16, 17 ; 20, 21, as asides, though there is 
no notice of it. One of the lines even rhymes with the line of 
another speaker : 

" Q. Eliz. When didst thou sleep, when such a deed was 

done ? 
Q. Marg. When holy Harry died, and my sweet son." 

Rich. III. iv. 4. 24, 25. 

Queen Margaret does not show herself till line 35, as also in 
Rick. III. i. 3. till line 157, though in the latter scene the asides do 
not rhyme. 

515 a. Prose. Prose is not only used in comic scenes ; it is 
adopted for letters (M. of V. iv. I. 149-66), and on other occasions 
where it is desirable to lower the dramatic pitch : for instance, in the 
more colloquial parts of the household scene between Volumnia and 
Virgilia, Coriol. i. 3, where the scene begins with prose, then passes 
into verse, and returns finally to prose. It is also used to express 
frenzy, Othello, iv. i. 84-44 ; and madness, Lear, iv. 6. 130 ; and 
the higher nights of the imagination, Hatnlct, ii. 2. 310-20. 



SIMILE AND METAPHOR. 

516. Similarity. In order to describe an object that has 
not been seen we use the description of some object or objects 
that have been seen. Thus, to describe a lion to a person who 
had never seen one, we should say that it had something 
like a horse's mane, the claws of a cat, &c. We might say, 
" A lion is like a monstrous cat with a horse's mane." This 
sentence expresses a, likeness of things, or a similarity. 

517. Simile. In order to describe some relation that can 
not be seen, e.g. the relation between a ship and the water, 
as regards the action of the former upon the latter, to a 
landsman who had never seen the sea or a ship, we might 
say, " The ship acts upon the water as a plough turns up the 
land." In other words, " The relation between the ship and 
the sea is similar to the relation between the plough and the 
land." This sentence expresses a similarity of relations^ 
and is called a simile. It is frequently expressed thus : 

"As the plough turns up the land, so the ship acts on the 
sea." 

Def. A Simile is a sentence expressing a similarity of 
relations. 

Consequently a simile is a kind of rhetorical proportion, 
and must, when fully expressed, contain four terms : 
A : B :: C : D. 

518. Compression of Simile into Metaphor. A simile is 
cumbrous, and better suited for poetry than for prose. More 
over, when a simile has been long in use, there is a tendency 
to consider the assimilated relations not merely as similar 
but as identical. The simile modestly asserts that the re- 



SIMILE AND METAPHOR. 431 

lation between the ship and the sea is like ploughing, The 
compressed simile goes further, and asserts that the relation 
between the ship and the sea is ploughing. It is expressed 
thus ; " The ship ploughs the sea." 

Thus the relation between the plough and the land is 
transferred to the ship and the sea. A simile thus com 
pressed is called a Metaphor, i.e. transference. 

Def. A Metaphor is a transference of the relation be 
tween one set of objects to another, for the purpose of 
brief explanation. 

519. Metaphor fully stated or implied. A metaphor may 
be either fully stated, as " The ship ploughs (or is the plough 
of) the sea," or implied, as " The winds are the horses that 
draw the plough of the sea" In the former case it is dis 
tinctly stated, in the latter implied, that the " plough of the 
sea " represents a ship. 

520. Implied Metaphor the basis of language. A great 
part of our ordinary language, all that relates to the relations 
of invisible things, necessarily consists of implied metaphors; 
for we can only describe invisible relations by means of 
visible ones. We are in the habit of assuming the existence 
of a certain proportion or analogy between the relations of 
the mind and those of the body. This analogy is the 
foundation of all words that express mental and moral 
qualities. For example, we do not know how a thought 
suggests itself suddenly to the mind, but we do know how 
an external object makes itself felt by the body. Experience 
teaches us that anything which strikes the body makes itself 
suddenly felt. Analogy suggests that whatever is suddenly 
perceived comes in the same way into contact with the mind 
Hence the simile "As a stone strikes the body, so a thought 
makes itself perceptible to the mind." This simile may be 
compressed into \hefull metaphor thus, "The thought struck 
my mind," or into the implied metaphor thus, " This is a 



432 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

striking thought." In many words that express immaterial 
objects the implied metaphor can easily be traced through 
the derivation, as in " excellence," " tribulation," " integrity," 
" spotlessness," &c. 

N.B. The use of metaphor is well illustrated in words 
that describe the effects of sound. Since the sense of hear 
ing (probably in all nations and certainly among the English) 
is less powerful and less suggestive of words than the senses 
of sight, taste, and touch, the poorer sense is compelled to 
borrow a part of its vocabulary from the richer senses. 
Thus we talk of " a sweet voice," " a soft whisper," " a sharp 
scream," " a piercing shriek," and the Romans used the 
expression "a dark-coloured voice,"* where we should say 
"a rough voice." 

521. Metaphor expanded. As every simile can be com 
pressed into a metaphor, so, conversely, every metaphor can 
be expanded into its simile. The following is the rule for 
expansion. It has been seen above that the simile consists 
of four terms. In the third term of the simile stands the sub 
ject (" ship," for instance) whose unknown predicated rela 
tion (" action of ship on water ") is to be explained. In 
the first term stands the corresponding subject (" plough ") 
whose predicated relation (" action on land ") is known. In 
the second term is the known relation. The fourth term is 
the unknown predicated relation which requires explanation. 
Thus 



the plough 
Known subject. 



turns up the land, 
Known predicate. 



the ship 

Subject whose 

predicate is 

unknown. 



acts on the sea. 

Unknown 
predicate. 



Sometimes the fourth term or unknown predicate may re 
present something that has received no name in the lan 
guage. Thus, if we take the words of Hamlet, " In my 
mind's eye," the metaphor when expanded would become 

"Vox/wca." 



SIMILE AND METAPHOR. 



433 



is enlightened by the 


so 


the mind 


is enlightened by 


eye, 






a certain percep 








tive faculty 






Subject 




Known predicate. 




whose 
predicate 
is un 


Unknown predi 
cate. 






known. 





As the body 



Known subject. 



For several centuries there was no word in the Latin 
language to describe this " perceptive faculty of the mind." 
At last they coined the word " imaginatio," which appears 
in English as " imagination." This word is found as early 
as Chaucer ; but it is quite conceivable that the English Ian 
guage should, like the Latin, have passed through its best 
period without any single word to describe the " mind's eye." 

522. The details of the expansion will vary according to 
the point and purpose of the metaphor. Thus, when Mac 
beth (act iii. sc. i) says that he has " given his eternal 
jewel to the common enemy of man," the point of the 
metaphor is apparently the pricelessness of a pure soul or 
good conscience, and the metaphor might be expanded 
thus 

" As a jewel is precious to the man who wears it, so is 
a good conscience precious to the man who possesses it." 

But in Rich, II. i. i. 180, the same metaphor is expanded 
with reference to the necessity for its safe preservation : 

" A jewel in a ten-times barr'd-up chest 
Is a bold spirit in a loyal breast. " 

523. Personal Metaphor. There is a universal desire 
among men that visible nature, e.g. mountains, winds, trees, 
rivers and the like,- should have a power of sympathising with 
men. This desire begets a kind of poetical belief that such 
a sympathy actually exists. Further, the vocabulary express 
ing the variable moods of man is so much richer than that 
which expresses the changes of nature that the latter bor 
rows from the former. Hence the morn is said to laugh, 
nountains to froitm, winds to whisper, rivulets to firattle 



434 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

oaks to sigh. Hence arises what may be called Personal 
Metaphor. 

Def. A Personal Metaphor is a transference of personal 
relations to an impersonal object for the purpose of brief 
explanation. 

524. Personal Metaphors expanded. The first term win 
always be "a person; "the second, the predicated relation 
properly belonging to the person and improperly trans 
ferred to the impersonal object; the third, the impersonal 
object. Thus 

" As a person frowns, so an overhanging mountain (looks 
gloomy). 

" As a child prattles, so a brook (makes a ceaseless cheerful 
clatter)." 

525. Personifications. Men are liable to certain feelings, 
such as shame, fear, repentance and the like, which seem 
not to be originated by the person, but to come upon him 
from without. For this reason such impersonal feelings are 
in some languages represented by impersonal verbs. In 
Latin these verbs are numerous, " pudet," " piget," " tsedet," 
"poenitet," "libet," &c. In Early English they were still 
more numerous, and even now we retain not only "it 
snows," " it rains," but also (though more rarely) " me- 
thinks," " meseems," " it shames me," " it repents me." Men 
are, however, not contented with separating their feelings 
from their own person ; they also feel a desire to account 
for them. For this purpose they have often imagined as the 
causes of their feelings, Personal Beings, such as Hope, Fear, 
Faith, &c. Hence arose what may be called Personification. 

In later times men have ceased to believe in the personal 
existence of Hope and Fear, Graces and nymphs, Flora 
and Boreas ; but poets still use Personification, for the pur 
pose of setting before us with greater vividness the invisible 
operations of the human mind and the slow and impercep 
tible processes of inanimate nature. 



SIMILE AND METAPHOR. 435 

Def. Personification is the creation of a fictitious 
Person in order to account for unaccountable results, or 
for the purpose of vivid illustration. 

526. Personifications cannot be expanded. The pro 
cess of expansion into simile can be performed in the case 
of a Personal Metaphor, because there is implied a com 
parison between a Person and an impersonal object. But 
the process cannot be performed where (as in Personifi 
cations) the impersonal object has no material existence, but 
is the mere creation of the fancy, and presents no point 
of comparison. " A frowning mountain " can be expanded, 
because there is implied a comparison between a moun 
tain and a person, a gloom and a frown. But " frowning 
Wrath" cannot be expanded, because there is no com 
parison. 

It is the essence of a metaphor that it should be literally 
false, as in " a frowning mountain." It is the essence of a 
personification that, though founded on imagination, it is 
conceived to be literally true, as in " pale fear," " dark dis 
honour." A painter would represent " death" as " pale," and 
" dishonour" as "dark," though he would not represent a 
" mountain" with a " frown," or a " ship" like a " plough." 

527. Apparent Exception. The only case where a simile 
is involved and an expansion is possible is where a person, 
as for instance Mars, the God of War, is represented as 
doing something which he is not imagined to do literally. 
Thus the phrase " Mars mows down his foes " is not literally 
true. No painter would represent Mars (though he would 
Time) with a scythe. It is therefore a metaphor and, as 
such, capable of expansion thus : 

" As easily as a haymaker mows down the grass, so easily 
does Mars cut down his foes with his sword." 

But the phrase " Mars slays his foes" is, from a poet's or 
painter's point of view, literally true. It is therefore no 
metaphor, and cannot be expanded. 

F F 2 



436 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

528. Personification analysed. Though we cannot ex 
pand a Personification into a simile, we can explain the 
details of it. The same analogy which leads men to find a 
correspondence between visible and invisible objects leads 
them also to find a similarity between cause and effect. 
This belief, which is embodied in the line 

" Who drives fat oxen should himself be fat," 
is the basis of all Personification. Since fear makes mer 
look pale, and dishonour gives a dark and scowling expres 
sion to the face, it is inferred that Fear is " pale," and Dis 
honour " dark." And in the same way Famine is " gaunt ;" 
Jealousy " green-eyed ;" Faith " pure-eyed ;" Hope " white- 
handed." 

529. Good and bad Metaphors. There are certain laws 
regulating the formation and employment of metaphors 
which should be borne in mind. 

(i.) A metaphor must not be used unless it is needed for 
explanation or vividness, or to throw light upon the thought 
of the speaker. Thus the speech of the Gardener, Rich. II. 
iii. 4. 33, 

" Go then, and like an executioner 
Cut off the heads of our fast-growing sprays," &c. 

is inappropriate to the character of the speaker, and conveys 
an allusion instead of an explanation. It illustrates what is 
familiar by what is unfamiliar, and can only be justified by 
the fact that the gardener is thinking of the disordered con 
dition of the kingdom of England and the necessity of a 
powerful king to repress unruly subjects. 

(2.) A metaphor must not enter too much into detail: for 
every additional detail increases the improbability that the 
correspondence of the whole comparison can be sustained. 
Thus, if King Richard (Rich. II. v. 5. 50) had been content, 
while musing on the manner in which he could count time 
by his sighs, to say 

"For now hath Time made me his numbering clock," 



SIMILE AND METAPHOR. 437 

there would have been little or no offence against taste. 
But w hen he continues 

"My thoughts are minutes, and with sighs they jar 
Their watches on unto mine eyes, the outward watch, 
Whereto my finger, like a dial's point, 
Is pointing still, in cleansing them from tears. 
Now, sir, the sound that tells what hour it is 
Are clamorous groans which strike upon my heart, 
Which is the bell," 

we have an excess of detail which is only justified because it 
illustrates the character of one who is always " studying to 
compare,"* and "hammering out" unnatural comparisons. 

(3.) A metaphor must not be far-fetched nor dwell upon 
the details of a disgusting picture : 

" Here lay Duncan, 
His silver skin laced with his golden blood ; 

there the murderers 

Steep 'd in the colours of their trade, their daggers 
Unmannerly breech' d with gore." Macbeth, ii. 3. 117. 

There is but little, and that far-fetched, similarity between 
gold lace and blood, or between bloody daggers and breech'd 
legs. The slightness of the similarity, recalling the greatness 
of the dissimilarity, disgusts us with the attempted compari 
son. Language so forced is only appropriate in the mouth of 
a conscious murderer dissembling guilt. 

(4.) Two metaphors trnist not be confused together, par 
ticularly if the action of the one is inconsistent with tht 
action of the other. 

It may be pardonable to surround, as it were, one meta 
phor with another. Thus, fear may be compared to an ague- 
fit, and an ague-fit passing away may be compared to the 
overblowing of a storm. Hence, " This ague-fit of fear is 
overblown " (Rich. II. iii. 2. 190) is justifiable. But 

" Was the hope drunk 
Wherein you dressed yourself? Hath it slept since ?" 

Macbeth, i. 7. 36. 

* " I have been studying kow I may compare 
This prison where I live unto the world ; 
* * * * * 

I cannot do it ; yet I'll hammer it out." Rith. If, v. . 1- 



43* SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

is, apart from the context, objectionable ; for it makes Hope 
a person and a dress in the same breath. It may, however, 
probably be justified on the supposition that Lady Macbeth 
is playing on her husband's previous expression 

" I have bought 

Golden opinions from all sorts of people, 
Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, 
Not cast aside so soon." 

(5.) A metaphor must be wholly false, and must not com 
bine truth with falsehood. 

" A king is the pilot of the state," is a good metaphor. 
" A careful captain is the pilot of his ship," is a bad one. So 

" Ere my tongue 

Shall wound mine honour with such feeble wrong, 
Or sound so base a parle," Rich. II. i. I. 190. 

is objectionable. The tongue, though it cannot " wound," 
can touch. It would have been better that " honour's " enemy 
should be intangible, that thereby the proportion and the per 
fection of the falsehood might be sustained. Honour can be 
wounded intangibly by " slander's venom'd spear " (Rich. II. 
i. i. 171) ; but, in a metaphor, not so well by the tangible 
tongue. The same objection applies to 

"Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothers' sons 
Shall ill-become the flower of England's face, 
Change the complexion of her maid-pale peace 
To scarlet indignation, and bedew 
Her pastures' grass with faithful English blood. " 

Rich. II. iii. 3. 96. 

If England is to be personified, it is England's blood, not 
the blood of ten thousand mothers, which will stain her face. 
There is also a confusion between the blood which mantles 
in a blush and which is shed ; and, in the last line, instead 
of " England's face," we come down to the literal " pas 
tures' grass." 

(6.) Personifications must be regulated by the laws oJ 
personality. No other rule can be laid down. But ex 
aggerations like the following must be avoided : 



SIMILE AND METAPHOR. 459 

" Comets, importing change of times and states, 
Brandish your crystal tresses in the sky, 
And with them scourge the bad revolting stars." 

I Hen. VL i. I. 2. 

The Furies may be supposed to scourge their prostrate 
victims with their snaky hair, and comets have been 
before now regarded as scourges in the hand of God. 
But the liveliest fancy would be tasked to imagine the 
stars in revolt, and scourged back into obedience by the 
crystal hair of comets. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS.* 

MACBETH, ACT III. 
SCENE i 

LINE 

3. '' ThoMplay'dst most foully fort." Expand the metaphor into 
its simile. (Grammar, 521.) 

14. "And a//-thing unbecoming." See " All " (Grammar). What 

is there remarkable in this use of all? Comp. iii. 2. 11 
"Things without all remedy." 

15. "A solemn supper." Modernize. Trace the present meaning 

from the derivation. Compare 

" A solemn hunting is in hand." T. A. ii. I. 112. 
17. "To the which." What is the antecedent to the which? Why 
do we say the which, but never the who ? (Grammar, 
"Which," 270.) 

25. ' ' The better. " When do we add the to a comparative ? (Gram 
mar, 94.) Can the be explained here? 

44. "WMethen." (See 137.) Compare 

" He shall conceal it 
Whiles you are willing it shall come to note." 

T. N. iv. 3. 29. 

Illustrate from Greek and Latin. 

49. "To be thus thus is nothing but to be safely thus. " Explain the 
grammatical construction of the last clause. (See 385.) 

51. "Which would be feared." Modernize would. Explain (Gram 
mar, 329) the Elizabethan usage. 

" 'Tis much he dares." Is there any object to " he dares "? (244. ) 
* The numbers refer to the paragraphs of the Grammar. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS. 441 



LINK 



52. "And to that dauntless temper of his mind." Meaning of? 
(See Grammar, "To.") 

54. " None but he." Illustrate this construction by Shakespeare's 
use of except. (See Grammar, "But.") 

56. "... And, under him, 

My genius is rebuked ; as, it is said, 
Mark Antony's was by Caesar." 

See A. and C. ii. 3. 20 30. Trace the meaning of 
genius from its derivation. 

65. "For Banquo's issue have \ filed my spirit." Meaning of? 
Give similar instances of the dropping of the prefix. (See 
Prosody, 460.) 

72. " Champion me to the utterance." Meaning of? Trace the 
meaning of champion and utterance from the derivation. 
What historical inference may be drawn from the fact that 
both these words are derived from the French ? Mention a 
similar inference contained in the dialogue between Gurth 
and Wamba in " Ivanhoe." 

75. " So please your highness." Parse please. (866297.) 

81. "How you were borne in hand, howcross'd, the instruments." 
Is tliis an Alexandrine ? (See Prosody, 468 ; and compare 

" My books and instruments shall be my company." 

T. ofSh. i. I. 82.) 

"Like labour with the rest, where the other instruments." 

Coriol. i. I. 104. 
" /. But now thou seem'st a coward. 

P. Hence, vile instrument. " Cymb. iii. 4. 75. 

" Borne in hand. " Meaning? 

"The Duke 

Bore many gentlemen, myself being one, 
In hand and hope of action. " M. for M. i. 4. 52. 
We do not now say "to bear in hope," but "to keep a 
person in hope, suspense," &c. So a rich hypocrite, 
pretending illness to squeeze presents out of his expectant 
legatees, is said to 

" Look upon their kindness, and take more 
And look on that, still bearing them in hand, 
Letting the cherry knock against their lips." 

B. J. Fox, i. i. inti. 



442 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

We still say, to "bear in mind," but we generally use "a 
hand " in this sense. 

83. "To half a soul and to a notion crazed." Meaning of notion 

here ? Compare 

" His notion weakens, his discernings 
Are lethargied." Lear, i. 4. 248. 

Trace the double meaning of the word from the derivation. 

84. " M. Say 'Thus did Banquo.' Murd. You made it known 

to us. " Scan. (See 454. ) 

87. "Your patience so predominant in your nature." Scan. 

88. " Are you so gospell'd to pray for this good man." Modernize. 

(See 282.) 

91. " M. And beggarM yours for ever. Murd. We are men, mv 
liege." Scan. 

95. "The valued file. " Trace this and other meanings of file 
from the derivation. Explain the meaning and use of 
valued (374). Could we say "a valued catalogue?" 

99. " The gift which bounteous nature hath in him closed." Parse 
dosed. (866460.) Compare 

" Dance, sing, and in a well-mixed border 
Close this new brother of our order. " ROWLEY. 

What is now the difference between " I have him caught," 
and " I have caught him " ? Compare 

" And when they had this done." St. Luke v. 6. 

too. "Particular addition from the bill that writes them all alike." 
Meaning of from .' (See Prepositions.) 

103. " Not in the worst rank of manhood, say' t. " Scan. (866485.) 

1 08. " Who wear our health but sickly in his lite 

Which in his death were perfect. Murd. I am one, my 
liege. " 

What is the antecedent to "which ? Scan the second line. 

112. "So weary with disasters, tugg'd with fortune." Parse and 
explain tugg'd. How does the meaning differ from the 
modern meaning ? Compare 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS. 443 

LINE 

11 Both tugging to be victors, breast to brMst." 

3 Hen. VI. ii. 5. 12. 

and, tor the construction : 

"And, toiVd-with works of war, retired himself 
To Italy." Rich. II. iv. I. 96. 

113. "That I would set my life on any chance." Expand the 
metaphor. Compare 

" Who sets me else ? By heaven I'll throw at all." 

Rich. II. iv. I. 57. 

1 1 6. " And in such bloody distance, 

That every minute of his being thrush 
Against my near'st of life." 

Expand the metaphor. What is meant by " my near'st of 

life?" Illustrate by " home-thrust," and oi/ce7os. 
lao. "And bid my will avouch it." Trace the meaning from the 
derivation. 

121. " For certain friends." Meaning offer here? How did fot 

become a conjunction ? 

122. " Whose loves I may not drop." What is the meaning of 

may ? Derive the modern from the original meaning. 

123. " But wail his fall 
Who I myself struck down." 

What is the antecedent to -who ? What is there remarkable in 
the sentence? (Gram. 274.) 

127. " Perform what you command us. First Murd. Though our 

lives" 

What do you suppose the First Murderer intended to say ? 
Why did Macbeth interrupt him ? 

128. "Your spirits shine through you. Within this hour at most" 

Scan. 

130 "The perfect spy of. the time." Apparently in this difficult pas 
sage spy is put for "that which is spied," " knowledge." 

132. "Always thought." Parse thought. Illustrate the construc 
tion from Greek.* 

" From the palace. " From, how used ? 
* Liddell and Scott : ionw, ii. . 



444 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 



LINE 



138 " I'll come to you anon. We are resolved, my lord.", 

Perhaps ' ' t' you anon " is to be considered as one foot 
If not, how can this verse be scanned ? (See 500. ) What 
is the emphatic word in the Murderer's reply ? 

SCENE 2. 

3. " Say to the king, I would attend his leisure." Modernize the 
latter words. Trace the different meanings of attend from 
the derivation. What is the exact meaning of would ? 

9. " Lady M. 'Tis safer to be that which we derfroy 

Than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy. 

Enter MACBETH. 

How now, my lord ! Why do you keep alone?" 
Illustrate the character of Lady Macbeth from her words 
before and after the entrance of her husband. Why and 
when, for the most part, does Shakespeare use rhyme ? 
II. "With them they think on. Things without all remedy." 
Scan. What is the object of on ? (See 242.) How is all 
used? 

16. "But let the frame of things disjoint, both the worlds suffer.' 1 
Perhaps a pause is intended after "let :" "But let yes, 
even the frame," &c. In that case "But let " is an un 
finished verse, and the rest is a complete verse. In the 
Fol. 1623 the first line ends with "disjoint," containing 
four accents. When does Shakespeare use verses with four 
accents (505-9)? 

19. "That shake us nightly; better be with the dead." Scan. 
How can you justify an accent on the first syllable in the 
foot "better?" 

21. " Than on the torture of the mind to lie 

In restless ecstasy. Duncan is in his grave. " 
What suggested the expression " to lie on the torture of the 
mind "? Trace this, as well as the modern, meaning of 
ecstasy from the derivation. Compare 

"Where violent sorrow seems 
A modern ecstasy." Macbeth, iv. 3. 170. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS. 445 

UMS 

Give instances of classical words restricted in meaning by 
modern, compared with Elizabethan, usage. (See Introduc 
tion.) Scan the latter line. 

27. "Gentle my lord." Explain and illustrate the position of my. 
(See 13.) 

29. " Be bright and jovial among your guests to-night." Trace the 

meaning from the derivation. Give words similarly derived. 
Scan. 

30. "Let your remembrance apply to Banquo." Scan. (See Pro 

sody, 477.) 
38. "Nature's copy." Meaning of? Comp. T. N. i. 5. 257 . 

" 'Tis beauty truly blent whose red and white 
Nature's own sweet and cunning hand laid on." 

40. " Ere the bat hath flown 

His cloister 'd flight." 

What is alluded to ? 

42. "The shard-borne beetle." Shard is scale. Ben Jortson talks of 
" scaly beetles with their habergeons. " And in Cymb. iii. 
2. 20, "The sharded beetle " is opposed to " the full- 
winged eagle." 

46. "Seeling night." To seel was " to close the eyelids of hawks 

partially or entirely by passing a fine thread through them ; 

siller, Fr. This was done to hawks till they became 

tractable. " NARES. 
48. " Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond. " Comp. Rich. III. 

iv. 4. 77 : " Cancel his bond of life." Macbeth iv. I. 99 : 

"Shall live the lease of nature." And 

" Through her wounds doth fly 
Life's lasting date from cancelled destiny. " R. of L, 

Explain the meaning of the expression here, and trace the 
meaning of cancel from the derivation. 
54. "Hold thee still." Modernize. (See 20.) 

SCENE 3. 
3, 4. " To the direction just." Meaning of to? (See 187.) 

5. " Now spurs the lated traveller apace. " Modernize. Illustrate 
by similar instances the shortening of the word. 



446 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

LINE 

10. "Within the note of expectation." This may perhaps mean, 

" the memorandum or list of expected guests. " Compare 
"I come by note" M. of V. iii. 2. 140. 
" That's out of my note."W. T. iv. 3. 49. 

Otherwise it may mean "the boundary," "limit" 

Compare 

"Within the prospect of belief." Macbeth, i. 3. 74. 

SCENE 4. 

I. " Sit down : at first 

And last the hearty welcome." 

Compare I Hen. VI. v. 5. 102 : 

" Ay grief I fear me both at first and last" 
Meaning of? What distinction is now made between first 
and at first, last and at last ? 

5. "Our hostess keeps her state, but in best time 

We will require her welcome. " 

Show, from the antithesis implied in but, what is meant by 
' ' keeping her state. " Compare 

" The king caused the queene to keepe the estate, and 
then sate the ambassadors and ladies, as they were 
marshalled by the king, who would not sit, but walked 
from place to place making cheare." HOLINSHED, 
quoted by CLARK and WRIGHT. 

The "state " was used technically to mean "a canopy." 

11. " Be large in mirth." Modernize. Illustrate from largess. 

12. "The table round. There's blood upon thy face. M. 'Tis 

Banquo's then. " What name has been given, and why, to 
this arrangement of the parts of verses ? Compare lines 15, 
2O, 51, 69, which are similarly arranged. (See Prosody, 
5I3-) 

13. "'Tis better thee without than he within." Meaning? Com 

ment on the syntax. (See 206, 212,) 

23. " As broad and general as the casing air." Compare 2 Hen. VI. 
v. 2. 43 : 

" Now let the general trumpet blow his blast" 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS. 447 

LINE 

Meaning of general ? Modernize. What is the difference 
between " general," "universal," and "common"? 

34. " The feast is sold 

That is not often vouch'd, while 'tis a-making, 

'Tis given with welcome : to feed were best at home." 

Analyse the sentence, and show the confusion of two con 
structions. Whence arose the use of a, as in a-making f 
(See 140.) Scan the last line. 
36. "from thence." Meaning of? (See 158.) 

42. " Who may I rather challenge for unkindness." Is who 
always used for whom ? Whence arises the difference 
between may, in "may I chalJange," as here, and " I may 
challenge " ? 

57. "You shall offend him." Modernize. What is the present 
rule for the use of shall with respect to the second and 
third persons ? How did the rule arise ? (See 317.) 

61. " This is the very painting of your fear." Modernize. Trace 
from the derivation the Elizabethan meaning, and hence 
the modern meaning, as in " His very dog deserted him." 

64. " Impostors to true fear. " Meaning of to? (866187.) 

66. "Authorized by her grandam." Compare for the accent 

" His madness so with his authorized youth." L. C. 15. 
" Authorizing thy trespass with compare." Sonn. 35.* 

75. " Ere human statutes purged the gentle weal." How is gentlt 
used ? If the weal was already gentle, how did it require 
to be purged? 

79. " The times have been 

That, when the brains were out, the man would die. " 

Modernize that. Illustrate this use. (See 284.) 
8l. " With twenty mortal murders on their crowns. " Why twenty f 
(See above, line 27.) 

87. " To those that know me. Come, love and health to all. " Scar, 
this and the previous line. 

* Neither of these passages is conclusive, as authorize coming at the beginning 
of the verse may have the accent on the first syllable. Add therefore : 
" His rudeness so with his authorized youth." L. C. is. 



448 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR. 

LINK 

91. ' We thirst" Thirst is not used elsewhere by Shakespeare in 
the sense of " drinking a health. " [ ? ' ' first "] 

95. "Thou hast no speculation in those eyes." Illustrate from 
this use of speculation the general difference between the 
Elizabethan and the modern use of classical words. 
(See Introduction.) 

98. "Only." Probably transposed. (See Grammar, 420.) 
99 "What man dare." Why not dares ? Compare 
" Let him that is no coward 
But dare maintain." i Hen. VI. ii. 4. 32. 

{Dare occurs thus three times in the unhistorical plays, dares 
thirty times. In the historical plays dare eight, dares seven 
times.) 

105. " If trembling I inhabit, then protest me." No other instance 

has been given where inhabit means "linger at home," 
Shakespeare may, however, have derived this use of the 
word from oiKovptiv (" to be a stay-at-home" as opposed 
to "going out to war") through NORTH'S Plutarch, 190 : 

" The home-tamers and house-doves," &c. 

Trace this and the modern meaning of protest from the 
derivation. Comp. M. Ado, v. i. 149 : 

" I will protest your cowardice." 

1 06. "The baby oj a girl." Baby was sometimes used for " doll : " 

" And now you cry for't 
As children do for babies back again." 

B. and F. (HALLIWELL). 

109. "You have displaced the mirth, broke the good meeting." 
What is heie contrary to common usage? (See 343.) 

112. " You make me strange 

Even to the disposition that I owe. " 

Comp. C. ofE. ii. 2. 151 : 

" As strange unto your town as to your talk." 
Owe is frequently used for ow(e)n, as ope for open. Comp. 
debeo from de and habeo. 

122. Why does not Lady Macbeth continue her expostulations when 
she is alone with her husband ? 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS. 449 

tINB 

124. "Augurs and understood relations." Comp. below, iv. 3. 173 : 

*' O, relation 
Too nice, and yet too true." 

The utterances of birds are apparently called relations. 
126. " What is the night?" Illustrate this use of what. (See 2$2.) 

129. "Did you send to him, sir?" Why does Shakespeare here 
make Lady Macbeth thus address her husband ? 

133. " And betimes I will to the weird sisters. " This line must pro 
bably be scanned by pronouncing weird as two syllables. 
(See Prosody. ) In the Folio weird is spelt -weyard. Comp. 
ii. I. 20 : 

" I dreamt last night of the three weird sisters." 
138. " Returning were as tedious as go o'er." Parse returning and 

8- 

141. " You lack the season of all natures, sleep. " Illustrate from this 
and other passages the practical and unimaginative cha 
racter of Lady Macbeth, as contrasted with her husband. 
Compare with this v. I. Compare also ii. 2. 67 : "A little 
water clears us of this deed;" and v. I. 35: "Yet 
here's a spot," and, in the same scene, "What, will these 
hands ne'er be clean ?" In what sense may such lines as 
ii. 2. 67, Hi. 4. 141, be called specimens of "irony" ? 
Compare also Duncan speaking of the first (not of the 
second} Thane of Cawdor : 

' ' There's no art 

To find the mind's construction in the face. 
He was a gentleman on whom I built 
An absolute trust." i. 4. 11. 

In the same scene, 1. 58, Duncan says of Macbeth, " It is 
a peerless kinsman." 

Other instances of Shakespearian "irony" may be found 
in Rich. HI. iii. 2. 67 ; Coriol. iii. I. 19 ; I Hen. IV. 
ii. 4. 528, compared with 2 Hen. IV. v. 5. 51 ; A. and C. 
i. 2. 32, compared with Ib. v. 2. 330, T. of A. \. 2. 92, 
Rich. III. i. 2. 112, and Ib. iv. I. 82 ; Macbeth, ii 3. 
97-100, and Ib. v. 2. 22 ; Rich. III. iii. I. 110. 
o G 



450 SHAKESPEARIAN GRAMMAR 

SCENE 5. 

LIKB 

I. Why does Shakespeare make the witches speak in a different 
metre from the rest of the play ? Illustrate from the Mid 
summer Night's Dream and the Tempest. 

7 " Close contriver of all harms. " Meaning of dose? Comp. 
Cymb. iii. 5. 85 : " Close villain, I'll have thy secret." 

II. " All you have done 

Hath been but for a wayward son. " 

Illustrate this from Lady Macbeth's description of her 
husband, i. 5. Contrast the character of Macbeth with 
that of Richard III. 

24. ' ' There hangs a vaporous drop profound. " Perhaps mysterious. 

32. " And you all know security 

Is mortals' chiefest enemy." 

Trace the modern meaning of security from the derivation. 
What does it mean here ? Illustrate from Milton's Allegro. 



SCENE 6. 
2. " Only I say." Probably transposed as above. 

4. " Was pitiad of Macbeth." Modernize. Account for this use 
of of. 

8. "Who cannot -want the thought how monstrous." Scan. (See 
Prosody, 477.) Compare, for the meaning of want, 
' W. T. iii. 2. 55. 

19. "I think . . . they should find." Modernize. Explain the 
difference between the Elizabethan and the modern should, 
(See 326.) 

'MV please heaven." Explain an't. (See 101.) 
21. " He_/azW his presence." Comp. Lear, ii. 4. 143; 
" I cannot think my sister in the least 

Would fail her obligation. " 
How is fail now used when it takes an object after it ? 

87. " Received of the most pious Edward." (See line 4.) 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS. 



45> 



30. " Is gone to pray the holy king upon his aid." Unless it can 
be shown that upon is sometimes used for on, this line, as 
it stands, is an Alexandrine. 

35. ''Free from our feasts and banquets bloody knives. " Comp. 

Timon of A. v. I. : 

"Rid me these villains from your companies." 
Also perhaps Tempest, Epilogue : " Prayer which frees all 
faults." 

36. "Do faithful homage." Trace the modern and ancient mean 

ing from the derivation. 

38. " Hath so exasperate the king. " Why is the </ omitted? (See 
343-) 

40. " And with an absolute ' Sir, not I.'" Compare "an absolute 
'shall.'" Coriol. iii. I. Also, " an absolute and excellent 
horse." Hen. V. iii. 7 ; "I am absolute 'twas very 
Cloten." Cymb. iv. 2. Trace the different meanings from 
the derivation. 

(fl. "As who should say." . (Se 25?.) 



G G 2 



INDEX TO THE QUOTATIONS 

FROM SHAKESPEARE'S PLAYS. 



The references are to the numbered paragraphs, and to the scenes and lines </ tkt 
" Globe " edition. 

References marked thus (+) will not be found quoted in the paragraph referred 
to, but similar references tuill be found explaining the difficulty of the reference in 
question. 

References in parentheses thus (6) refer to the explanatory notes at the end t) 
the play. 



ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL. 




ACT I. 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


L 


192 . . 


379 


iv. 




(360 


L 


7 


172 


ii. 


73 


a 7 




7 


'1 374 


i. 


94 


477 


iii. 


131 . . 


177 


iv. 


15 


336 


ii. 


29 . 


407 


iii. 


142 . . 


480 


iv. 


27 . 


. 218 


iii. 


7i 


. 368 


iii. 


156. . 


271 


iv. 


29 . 


. 484 


iii. 


107 . 


372 


iii. 


168 . . 


470 


iv. 


30 . 


4194 


iii. 


208 . 


445 


iii. 


179 . . 


268 


V. 


43 


477 


iii. 


321 . 


279 


iii. 


185 . - 


490 


V. 


48. 


. 191 


iii. 


224 . 


. 81 


iii. 


223 . . 


64 


V. 


58. 


i 








iii. 


261 . 


208 


V. 


98 . 


335 




ACT II 




iii. 


289 . . 


489 


V. 


103 . 


"75 


i. 


6 . 


. 418 


tit. 


313 


57 


V. 


104 . 


i ,,".; 


i. 


60 . 


97 








vi. 


24 . 


. 278 


L 


98 . 


. 468 




ACT III. 




vi. 


27 


12 


i. 


no . 


. 462 


i. 


5 


485 


vi. 


109 . 


405 


i. 


in . 


p. 16 


ii. 


108 . . 


434 


vi. 


"5 


. 200 


i. 


124 . 


434 


ii. 


in . . 


468 


vi. 


117 . 


243 


L 


134 


349 









vii. 


3" 


. 128 


i. 


144 . 


497 


iv. 


i . . 


331 


vii. 


3i 


492 


i. 


163. 


473 


iv. 


a . . 


32 


vii. 


32 


363 


i. 


184 . 


509 


iv. 


6 . . 


203 


vii. 


70 . 


127 



ACT IV. 
Sc. Line 



3 
9 

114 
1 16 

158 
285 
298 
299 

3 
46 



Par. 

88 

202 
247 
129 

489 
400 

400 

434 
301 
400 
357 

{ 

an 

87 



ACT V. 
24 5M 



1 54 








INDEX 










Sc. 


Line 


Par. Sc 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Pat 


iii. 


i . 


172 






. ^ 


iii. 


"3 


. 466 


iii. 


198. 


"43 


iii. 


4 


45 


iii. 


79 


\2SO 


iii. 


'34 


145 


iii. 


201 . 


425 


iii. 


27 . 


3'S 


iii. 


85 . 


294 


iii. 


165. 


S7 


iii. 


220 . 


' 434 


L 


47 


376 


iii. 


86 . 


277 


iii. 


181 . 


IS* 


iii. 


237 


M5 


iii 


48 . 


492 


iii. 


"3 


. 226 


iii. 


184. 


.484 








ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA. 




ACT I 




iv. 


42 


. 302 


ii. 


129 . 


364 


vii. 


'34 


y 








iv. 


43 


374 






(299 


vii. 


I 3 8 - 


509 


L 


19 . 


5'3 


iv. 


44 


. 460 


ii. 


i37 


'is8 








L 

it 
L 

i. 


27 
3 1 
43 
56 . 


. 469 
443 
. 128 
. 193 


iv. 
iv. 


46 . 
7' 


33 
(174 

'GM 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


144 . 
160 . 
169. 


. 89 


i. 


ACT III 
15 


/208 

\498 


L 

ii. 


62 . 

38 


. 12 


iv. 

V. 


73 
7 


(484 

'\Sio 

. 482 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


192 . 
215 . 
226 . 


i79 
43 
. 326 


L 
1. 

ii. 


33 

35 


434 

45 


ii. 
ii. 


115 
127 . 


337 
. 252 


V. 
V. 


17 

21 . 


479 
. 469 


iii. 
iii. 


22 . 
26 . 


24 
. 168 


ii. 
iii 


29 
14 . 


492 

2IO 


iii. 


i . 


'{34? 


r. 


33 


49 


iii. 


3 6. 


. \V> 


iv. 


15 - 


484 


iii. 


8 . 


244 


V. 


59- 


{298 
\4Si 


iv. 


2 . 


. 203 


iv. 




.285 


Hi. 


it . 


434 








V. 


21 . 


339 


vi. 


28 . 


. 166 


iii. 


23 . 


. 191 








V. 


26 . 


. 484 


vi. 


3 


404 


iii. 


29 . 


.263 




ACT 


II. 


V. 


27 


477 


vi. 


3 1 


. 468 


iii. 


36 . 


. 12 








V. 


38. 


484 


vi. 


52 


497 


iii. 


41 . 


/3l 

\ 3 68 


i. 
i. 


8 . 

20 . 


. 178 
.469 


V. 

V. 


44 . 
78. 


25 

364 


vi. 
vi. 


76. 
97 


. ii 
. 510 


iii. 


48 . 


4'2 


i. 


24 


. 493 


V. 


94 


133 


vii. 


28 . 


477 


iii. 


55 


. 290 


L 


31 


405 


V. 


106 . 


13 


vii. 


40 


. 460 


iii. 


68 . 


. 508 


> 


38 


434 


ri. 


30. 


. 158 


vii. 




. 478 


iii. 


73 


363 


i. 


48 . 


492 


vi. 


38. 


. 460 


xi. 


3 


. 460 


iii. 


79 


472 


i. 


SI 


. 204 


vi. 


60 . 


45 


xi. 


10 


5^7 


iii. 


95 


. 384 


ii. 


25 


364 


vi. 


78 . 


. 2^6 


xi. 


48 


'24 


iii. 


97 


293 


ii 


30 . 


44 


vi. 


86 . 


. 382 






(200 


iii. 


100 . 


43 


ii 


53 


. in 


vii. 


18 . 


. 200 


xi. 


53 


"(220 


iv. 


6 . 


.469 


ii. 


79 


. 360 


vii. 


29 . 


. 221 


xi. 


54 . 


. 460 


iv. 


20 . 


. 198 


ii. 


98 


i 


vii. 


83 


385 


xi 


58 . 


326 


Jr. 


> 


433 


ii. 


124 


423 


vii. 


122 . 


3 S 4. 


xi 


68. 


453 



INDEX. 



455 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


xii. 


12 . 


377 


ii. 


3 


. 420 


iz. 


9 


.469 


i. 


47 


442 


xii. 


36. 


3'5 


ii. 


7 


. 241 


xi. 


i . 


. 124 


L 


48. 


449 


xiii. 
liiL 


4 
6 . 


57 
.478 


ii. 


27 


/ 64 
(387 


xii. 
xii. 


i . 

48. 


. 76 
.498 


i. 
i. 


Si 

58 . 


4M 
397 


xiii. 


10 . 


294 


ii. 


28 . 


57 


xiv. 


19 . 


435 


i. 


68 . 


3'S 


xiii. 


27 . 


. 381 


iv. 


3 


. 482 


xiv. 


22 . 


. 243 


i. 


69. 


. 3 


xiii. 


47 


485 


iv. 


ii . 


. 480 


xiv. 


72 


494 


ii. 


58 . 


498 


xiii. 
xiii. 


7' 
77 


. 505 

372 


vi 
vi. 


3 

12 . 


53 


xiv. 


12O . 


'1505 


ii. 
ii. 


8s - 
103 . 


. 291 
. 126 


xiii. 
xiii. 


96. 
98. 


499 
fai, 
1497 


vi. 

vi. 


30 

39 


I' 8 
I 92 

4*3 


xiv. 

XV. 


33 

59 


. 230 
. 241 


ii. 

ii. 
ii. 


140 . 
166 . 
216 . 


377 
338 


xiii. 


99 


. 132 


viL 


5 


344 




ACT V 




ii. 


2*5 


. 290 


xiii. 
xiii. 


138 
196. 


. 290 
472 


vii. 
viii. 


16 . 

i . 


. 212 
364 


. i. 


a . 


477 


ii. 


236 . 


I 85 

\422 




ACT IV. 


viii. 


7 


.484 


i. 


3 


3>5 


ii. 


240 . 


43 








viii. 


21 . 


499 


i. 


21 . 


. 20 


ii. 


291 . 


364 


i. 


'4 


484 


viii. 


22 . 


. 1 66 


i. 


27 . 


. 126 


ii. 


306. 


5'2 


ii. 


34 


. 356 


viii. 


3 1 


419* 


i. 


3* 


193 


ii. 


339 


/47J 
'V496 


AS YOU LIKE 


IT. 










ACT I 




ii. 


121 . 


t359 


iii. 


f66| 


.tab 


ii. 


*3 


477 


i. 


2 . 


85 


ii 


134 


.1269 


iii. 


75 


. t6g 


iii. 


7 


.tz8i 


i. 
L 


3 
20 . 


399 
. 198 


n. 


KS 


t244 


iii. 


76. 


. 81 


iii. 


8 . 


(2) 


L 


46. 


. 208 


ii. 


i6 5 . 


t2Q S 


iii. 


117 . 


. 287 


iii. 


ft} 


4M 


i. 


/79\ 
\8o/ 


. 832 


ii. 
ii. 


J9 6. 
220 . 


t223 
(0 


iii. 
iii. 


118 . 

122 . 


. 202 

455 


iii. 


27 . 


t494 


1. 


115 


tsss 


ii. 


240 . 


.t322 


iii. 


124 . 


.t226 


iii. 


{30} 


t232 


1. 


121 . 


. 87 


ii. 


254 


9 




ACT II 




iii. 


42 


43 


i. 


129 . 


. 81 


ii. 


12601 


t494 


' 


i . 


t490 


iii. 


50 . 


.t4<>6 


i 


*34 


3'5 




1270) 




i. 


6 . 


. 113 


iii. 


58 . 


34' 


L 


139 


. 196 


ii. 


272 . 


.+136 


i. 


8 . 


t2 7 2 


iii. 


69. 


. 231 


i. 


*54 


.t230 


ii. 


2 7 8 . 


(2) 


i. 


33 


. 270 


iv. 


10 . 




L 


172 . 


.f2o6 


ii. 


279 . 


. 216 


i. 


49 


tsoi 


iv. 


35 


457" 


ii 


6 . 


t9i 


iii. 


35 


(3) 


i. 


52 - 


495 








ii 


30 


.ti96 


iii. 


44 


.465 


i. 


/68\ 


.+500 


iv. 


I 39 i 


. 511 


ii 


{94j 


347 


iii 


fcf) 


.l87 


ii. 


5 


433 


iv. 


40 . 


t343 



INDEX. 



Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


iv. 44 . . 178 


vii. 172 . 4356 


iii. 51 . . 64 


iii. 53 . 4490 


iv. {} . 93 


vii. 193 . . 490 


iv. P'}. . 260 


iii. 76 { * 01 


IS 1 * 


vii. 196 . . 467 


152* 


*t45 


iv. 69 .. 484 


fioSl 


v. 3 . . 494 


iii. 88 . . 478 




vii. \ * r. 423^ 






iv. 75 403 


IIQQ) oj 


v. 5 . . 291 


iii. no . 4264 


v. 88. .{"54 


ACT III. 


V. 6 . . I2O 


iii. 117 . . 326 


13'5 
v. 5 ^364 


i. 2 . . 202 
i. 4 . . 380 


fl2l f26o 
V ' {IS/' 1264 


iii. 119 . . 115 
iii. 123 . .+494 


V. 26 . .t244 


i. 18 . . (5) 


v. 16 . 4103 


iii. 124 . . 460 


v. 33 . 4i37 


/ 2 


v. 42 .. 494 


iii. 132 . . 264 


v. 34 .* 200 


10 ' '(224 


v. 48 .. 440 


iii. 150 . 4i6i 


v. 36 .. t3 


ii. -P 2 > t4oi 


v. 49 458 


iii. | l6l \. 4513 


vi. n .. t59 




v. 53 .. 247 


1 I 62/" 


vii. i . . 299 


ii. 33 .. (6) 


v. 60 . 4405 




vii. 3 . . 138 


ii. 50 . . 125 _ 


v. 61 . 4201 


ACT V. 


vii. 4 . . 178 


ii. 54 . . +69 


v. 62 .. 356 


ii. 3 -t378 


vii. 31 . . 2 


ii. 62 . . tn 


v. 74 .. 499 


ii. 7 . 4225 


vii. 48 . . 196 


ii. TOO . . ts 


v. 94 . 4287 


ii. 88 . . 48; 


vii. 52 . . 83 


ii. 127 . . tig 


v. 118 . . 501 


ii. 91-94. 4500 


vii. 68 . . t8g 


ii. 144 . . BIT 


. 122 . 4494 


ii. no . . 356 


vii. 73 (4) 


ii. 147 . . 492 


ACT IV. 


ii. 115 . 4274 


vii. 75 . 4287 


ii. 162 . -| 2I g 




iii. 15 . . t8i 


vii. 83 . 4456 


ii. 163 . . 443 


1 7 . . (9) 


iv. 5 . 4490 

{nvl 


vii. 88. {{343 


ii. 182 . . 328 


. . (i) 


IIY ' 4* 


vii. 96 . . 467 


ii. 187 . 4284 


i. 52 . 4170 


iv. 56 . . 174 


rii. 99 . 4474 
vii. 101 . . (i) 


ii. 188 . . 271 
ii. 196 . 4193 
ii. 236 . 4194 


i. 60 . 4372 
i. 100 . 4243 


iv. 63 . 4221 
iv. 72 . 4113 

iv. 108 . . +92 


vii. 104 . . too 
vii. 119 . . 270 


ii. 261 . 4329 
ii. 268-74 . 511 


111. 6 . . 5^0 
iii. 10 . 4178 


iv. 125 . 4469 
iv. 140 . 4189 


>7u. 132 . . 4 




in. 12 . .115 




vii. 139 . . 407 
vii. 143 . 4471 


ii. 269 . 20, n. 
ii. 320-2 . . ( 7 ) 
ii. 330 . 4274 


iii. 16 . . 382 
iii 21 . 4457 
iii. 25 . . 501 


iv. 150 . 4474 
iv. 167 . . 400 
iv. 170 . 4403 


vi! - {i48T ' 8 3 


ii. 362 . . (8) 


iii. 34 . . 430 


iv. 171 . . 354 


vii 159 . . 90 


ii. 411 . . 224 


iii. 36 . 4468 


iv. 178 . n 


V "' {lot}' >t513 


iii. 3 . . 92 
iii. 10 . . 294 


iii. {}. . 4 


iv. 201 . t5i3 
iv. ai8 . .367 


(i) Folio, " and." (2) Compare iv. i. 20. (3) Hamlet, i. 2. 182 
(4) Wearer's " for " weary." (5) Kkh. III. i. 2. 217. (6) See i. 2. 52 
(7) Rich. II. v. 5. 55 (8) Ib. v. i. 21L f Q ) Macbeth, iv. 3. 17f 



INDEX. 



457 



COMEDY OF EBRORS. 



ACT! 


Sc. Line Par. Sc. Line Par. Sc. Line Par 


Sc. Line Pur. 


ii. i So 


. . 158 


i- 39 


319 


i. 79 


. . 484 


i 16 
! 33 


. . 512 
. . 216 


ACT 


III. 


i. 60 

i. 63 


. . 466 
456 


i. 138 
> 'S3 


4'7 

. . ! 7 8 


39 


. . 480 


- 7 


. . 382 


i. 95 


. . 480 


i. 170 


24 


1. 52 


. . 280 


{I* 


( 52 


ii. 7 


. . 406 


i. 181 


. . 29 


53 


. . 271 


i. 40 


. . 502 


ii. {* 2 } 


. . 460 


i. 196 


469 


L 64 


434 


i. 47 


. . 502 


\43> 




i. 198 


. . 216 


i. 85 


. . 251 


i. 50 


. . 502 


iv. 3 


. . 460 


i. 222 


467 


i. 86 


202 






iv. 66 


. . 226 








" " 


i- 5i 


. . 502 






i. 230 


. . 270 


i. 105 


344 


i. 52 


. . 52 


iv. 152 


329 


L 268 


. . 196 


i. 151 


453 


i- 54 


. . 502 






i. 8? 


349 


ii. 2 


490 


i. 72 


. . 52 


ACT 


V. 


i. 283 


244 


ii- 37 


a( ' J 


i. 74 


43 






1. 308 


344 


ii. 42 


17 


i. 90 


57 


1. 10 


. . 20 


i. 313 


343 


ii. 46 


344 


ii. 30 


'75 


i. ii 


354 


- 357 


. . 471 


ACT 


II. 


ii. 186 


. 422 


J- 25 


349 


i- 358 


477 


i- 33 


. ii 






i. 46 


490 


i. 360 


477 


ii 43-45 


75 

. 263 


ACT 

L 12 


IV. 
-361 


i. 69 


(" 22 

-333 
v430 


379 
i. 388 


299 

343 






CORIOLANUS. 






ACT 


I. j i. 108 


4'9 


i. 200 


. 501 


1. 231 


tigS* 




fV>2 *' " 5 


-t497 


i. 201 


.1467 


' 255 


492 


i. 18 


'1367 


i. 118 


. .tsia 


i. 207 


47 




!t48 2 


37 


t2 5 2 


i. 123 


. .t28 7 


i. 209 . 


24 


i. 356 


or 


i. 40 
i. 74. . 


. 420 
.t 4 6 7 


i. 124 
i. 126 


. .1460 
. . ta&4 


i. 215 . 


ft p. 17 

I (2) 


i. 263 . 


tsia 
356 


i- 75 


. 486 


i. 144 


. . 287 


i. 217 . 


tio 7 


i. 272 . 


|tp.i3 


1. 82 


95 


i. 158 


t2O2 


i. 218 . 


472 




' (3/ 


i. 98 

'. 101 . 


(tioi 
i d) 


> 159 
i. 179 


477 

244 


i. 220 . 
i. 223 . 


484 
386 1 


i. 276 

i. 283 . 


{'";; 

. t30 




* 


i- 193 


ti7l 


i. 230 . 


458 






i. IO7 . 


442 


195 


t32I 


i. 231 . 


t*44 


ii. 2 . 


U295* 


L 105 . 


/ '34 
1+494 


i. 197 


.t S oi 


i. 236 . 


. 206 


ii. 4 . 




L 107 . 


a 


i. 198 
i. 199 


47' 
290 ) 


i. 247 . 
i. 248 . 


. 386 


ii. 14 . 
ii. 92 . 


. 486 



458 



INDEX 



Sc Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


i 34 . . 29 


vi. 55 -+423 


i. 188 . .+458 


iii. no . .t4oi 


ii 30 . .+513 


vi. 60. {3S 


i. 202 . . 182 


Hi. 128 . . 456 


ii. 31 . .tsia 


I.T457 


L 216 . . 499 


iii. 131 . .+462 


iii. 22 . .+322 


Vi. 70 . . + 200 


1. 22 . . + 221 


iii. 147 . . 404 


iii. 30 . . *tf> 


vi. 72 . .1285 


i. 235 . . 386 


( TO 

in. 157 . .! W 


iii. 32 . . 41 


vi. 81 . 499 


i. 344 . .+414 


* 45 


iii. 34 . . 503 


vii. a . . 499 


! 357. .f35o 


iii. 163 . . 343 


iii. 40 . . 420 


rii. 6 .1512 


i. 262 . . 187 


iii. 167 . .f494 


iii. 44 . .t494 


viii. 7 . 4500 


i. 269 . .+497 


iii. 183 . . 470 


iii. 46 . . 469 


viii. 8 . . 430 


i. 284 . .+469 


iii. 184 . .+281 


iii. 65 . . 400 


ix. 6 . . 374 


ii. 16 . . .t399 


iii. 190 . . + 198 


Hi. 69. \ 


ix. 7 . . 492 
ix. 17 . . 477 


ii. {'91. {36i 

|20/ \ 408 


iii. 192 . .+492 
iii. 314 . . 27 


iii. 72 . ,fi82 


ix. 36 .. 219 


ii. 29 .. 384 


iii. 215 . . 175 


iii. 92 . .1339 


ix. 43 . .t 49 7 


ii. 30 . . (8) 


ii'- {"*} 383 


ii! / XI ^\ + 


ix. 45 . . 484 


ii- 35 -t44a 


\* 1 5) 


\I2O/' *' 31 






111. 2l6 . . 471 




ix. 50 . .tsu 


ii. 41 . . 174 




iii. 122 . . 144 


ix. 52 . . 458 


.. ffaiS 


iii. 231 . . 471 


iy. 2 . . 480 


ix. 55 .- (5) 


\ (9) 


iii. | 2 33l 4s6 


iv. 6 . .f497 
iv. 8 . .tsoo 
iv. 9 . . 460 
iv. 12 . . 294 
iv. 23 . .fis6 


ix- 57 458 
ix. 58 . .t497 
ix. 78 . .t3is 
ix. 83 . . 484 


ii. 80 . , 463 
ii. 85 . . i8a 

ii. 93 . .4 43 
I 77 

ii. 98 . . 20 


iii. 238 . . 141 
iii. 242 . 4349 
iii. 244 . . 23 
iii. 357 . . 290 


iv. 42 . . 474 

iy- 43 343 
iv. 57 . 4187 
iv. 58 .+457 
v. 5 486 


x. 13 .. 134 
x. 19 .. 468 
x. 30 . .1512 
x- 33 -t35 


ii. 100 . . 312 

ii. 107 . . 45 

ii. 117 . . (10) 


iii. 259 . .tsoo 
iii. 262 . . 63 
iii. 263 . . J62 
iii. 266 . .tisg 
iii. 268 . . 513 




ACT II. 


ii. 128 . . 480 




V - {23}- 23 


i. 8 . . 274 


ii. 129 . . 419 


ACT III. 


vi 3 . -t45i 


i. 18 . . 407 


ii. 136 . . (n) 


i. 10 . .tisi 


**' l6 ' (+5i 5 


i. as . . (6) 


iii. i . . 57 


1- ii . 4295 


vi. 19 . .1283 
vi. 22 . .+107 ' 


*VS 


iii. 12 . . 270 
iii. 16 . . 244 


i. 23 . .+223 
33 -ti59 


vi. 36 . .I 2 '?" 
1462 


L 9 '- (39^ 


iii. 47 145 


i- 35 < 47' 
i. 70 . .+497 


vi. 42 . .t494 
vi. 46 .. 64 


i. 105 . .f379 
i. 143 (0 


iii. 89 . . (i) 


' 63- .1- 


. (CQ\ 


i. 152 . .+343 


iii. 107 . . 56 


' 94 470 


vi {5}. +St3 


- t&o . . * , 


iii. 109 . . t 


i. * .i, 9 



INDEX. 



45$ 



i Line Pai. 


Sc. Line Par. 


'ACT IV. 


Sc. Line Par. 
vi. 13 . . 3S 


L 101 . 492 

1 103 . -t37 
L 112 . . 498 


ii. 44 ia 
ii. 50 . .1287 
ii. 5' 29 


Sc. Line Par. 
i. 3 . . 295 


vi. 30 . 497 
vL 33 5 06 


L 132 > 363 


ii. 52 . . 204 


i. {>. . 333 


vi. 34 . . 219 


i. 137 508 


ii. g}. . ,45 


i. 13 .. 476 

L 14 -t494 


vi. 35 4" 
vi. 39 . .+244 


L 144 \t s oi 


ii. 54 -. 485 


i. 21 . . 319 


vL 40 \ilgl 


i. 146 . .t243 


ii. 55 . . 279 


i. 27 . .t495 


vi. 45 . . 440 


i. 161 . .ti5 


ii. 7' 54 


L 47 . . 143 


vi. 53 348 


L fi6i\ >4400 


ii. 75 453 


i. S3 78 


vi. 63 .. S 


1162) 


ii. 76 . .t494 


i. 55 87 


vi. 68 . .t473 


i. 170 . 4" 


ii. 81 . . 470 


ii. 2 . . 410 


vi. M. .514 


i. 195 47 6 


ii. 83 .. 216 


ii. 5 . .ti4 


l7 J > 


i. 202 . .t5i3 
i. 206 . . (13) 
i. 208 . .ti3 
i. 215 . 476 


ii. 91 . .+159 
ii. 105 . . 278 
ii. 116 . .+365 
ii. 119 . . 264 


ii. 13 . .+287 
ii. 31 -t342 
ii. 36 . .t53 
ii. 48 .. 188 


vi. 73 * * 9 
vi. 79 . t5 I 3 
vi. 85 .. 492 
vi. 103 . 4251 
vi. 104 . .tsS 


> { 21 fiV ' 8l 


ii. 125 . . 316 


((M) 


(H2\ 


i. 221 . .+494 


ii. 138 . .ts 


iii. 9 --{295 
1296 


vL W' ' 3<Sl 


i. 235 . .t5o 


ii. 142 . .t5'3 


iii. 13 . -t335 


vi. 118 . . 486 


1. 251 . -U66 


iii. 2 . .1467 


iii. 48 . .(13) 


vi. 131 . 164 


i. 259 . .t399 


iii. 4 * 382 


v. 14 -('5) 


vi. 139 . .t5i3 




... g ft494 


v. 58 Sio 


vi. 148 . ( 215 


i. {362}' * 2 * 


\tsi3 


v. 63 . .1349 




i. 280 . . 484 


iii. 8 . .t494 


v. 98 .. 287 


vii. 4 . 9 
vii. 8 . . t" 


i. 298 . tn8 


iii. 19 . . 202 


v. 99 . .t28s 


vii. 14 . 479 


i. 301 . 4242 


iii. 49 . . 5" 


v. no . . 55 




(478 


iii. 62 . . 63 


V. 113 . -t203 


v"- 40 1 4 | 4 


' 3" -\ 4 85 


iii. 67 . . 482 


v. 133 . 187 


vii. 41 . .tij6 


i. 319 343 


iii. 87 .. 475 


v. 149 . 484 


vii. 51 . . 49 


i. 3 2 7 492 


iii. 93 I5 1 


v. 156 -t344 


vii. 57 . -t473 


i. 329 . .+469 


iii. 96 . .t3 


v. 157 . 46 




i- 334 -480 


iii. 97 . 54 


v. 174 > 182 


ACT V. 


( 477 


iii. 104 . . 430 


fp 13 


i. 3 -t46 






v. 197 iV-(p 




ii. 12 . .fi2g 


iii. 122 . . 471 
iii. Z24 . .+442 


v. 203 . . 181 


L {I}- - 290 


ii. 26 .. 468 


iiJ 127 . .457" 


v. 205 . . t9 


L 34 . . 434 


(+500 




v. 214 . -t43 


i. 39 ^506 


ii. 39 \ or 


iii- 133 { 4 ~< 


vi. n .408 


i, 46 . t28o 


"494 


, 







INDEX. 



Sc. 


i-ins 


Par. 


Sc. 


Lint 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


P&i. 


i. 
i. 


54 
62 . 


471 

.(17) 


iii. 
iii. 


21 . 

{$ 


.ti6i 
49 


iii. 


G3- 


* 


vi. 


M. 

Us/ 




K. 


5 


t494 




135' - 




iii. 


{I*?}- 


457 


vi. 


23 . 


t494 


ii 


8 . 


'3 


iii. 


( 54 V 


+44 


iii. 


154 


t497 


vi. 


35 


.t448 


U. 


18 . 


458 




"73J 




























iii. 


170 . 


. 460 


vi. 


40 . 


. 2gC 


ii. 


22 . 


. t9 


iii. 


67. 


.469 


iii. 


186 . 


.419* 


vi. 


41 . 


t495 


ii. 


41 . 


. 183 


iii. 


82 . 


tp-'3 


iii. 


189. 


. ti 


vi. 


43 




ii. 


65 - 


(15) 


iii. 


95 


423 


iii. 


192 . 


.483 


vi. 


44 


. 227 


ii. 


77 


.t2I2 


iii. 


96. 


t49<> 


iv. 


39 




vi. 


61 . 




ii. 


89 . 


. 294 


iii. 


100 . 


t349 


iv. 


55 


.t 4 69 


vi. 


69 . 


.462 


ii. 


90 . 


. +16 


iii. 


05 . 


479 


iv. 


64. 


143 


vi. 


71 


t479 


ii. 


95 


.ti S i 


iii. 


108 . 


t494 


vi. 


4 


. 238 


vi. 


78. 


. 420 


iii. 


4 


479 


iii. 


"5 


.478 


vi. 


5 


. 208 


vi. 


IOI . 


. 480 


iii. 


Is}' 


t279 


iii. 


X2I . 


455 


vi. 


ii . 


T440 


vi. 


128 . 


tp.13 


iii. 


ii . 


. 290 


iii. 


125 . 


. 482 


vi. 


15 


. 166 


vi. 


138. 


t457 



(i) Folio, "and." (2) AT. for M. iv. 6. 13. (3) J. C. iii. 2. 16. 

(4) Othello, i. 2. 22. (5) A. and C. i. 4. 40. (6) See above, i. i. 272. 

(7) See A. y. L. ii. 2. 8. (8) Hamlet, v. 2. 96. (9) M. of V. iv. i. 406. 
(10) Hamlet, i. 1. 162. (n) Conversely, i Hen. VI. v. 4. 7. 

(12) M. of V. i. i. 98. (13) Tempest, i. 2. 200. Ref. 

(14) Folio, "appeared." (15) J. C. iv. 3. 138. 

(16) J. C. iii. 3. 22 (17) 3 Hen. VI. iii. 2. 46 



CYMBELINE. 





ACT L 




iv. 


36. 


. 389 


v. 


44 


.356 


vi. 


209 


. . i 


L 


4 


81 


iv. 


39 


405 


vi. 


6 . 


3o4 




ACT 


II. 


i. 


48 . . 


465 


iv. 


53 


427 


vi. 


8 . 


337 


i. 


61 


507 


i. 


65 . . 


"79 


iv. 


IOI . 


434 


vi. 


36- 


375 


iii. 


24 


247 


L 


72 . . 


466 


iv. 


112 . 


. 90 


vi. 


40 . 


. 224 


iii. 


29 


i 


L 


96- 


473 


iv. 


118 . 


. 189 


vi. 


48 . 


499 


iii. 


59 


297 


i. 


105 . . 


244 


iv. 


125 . 


. 368 


vi. 


59 


f S3 


iii. 


68 


13 


i. 


124 . . 


382 


v. 


9 


. 467 






I 85 


iii. 


80 


. 76 


I 


132 . . 


508 


v. 


10 . 


. 484 


vi. 


66 . 


. 290 


iii. 


IOI 


.4190 


i. 


168 . . 


465 


v. 


17 


37 


vi. 


84 . 


244 


iii. 


in 


. 148 


ii. 


7 


453 


v. 


25 


93 


vi. 


116 . 


. 8 


iii 


, SI 


. 508 


ii. 


29 . . 


224 


v. 


28 . 


. 478 


vi. 


117 . 


247 






fiiS 


IV. 


16 . . 


158 


v. 


32 


. 21V 


vi.(FoI.)M7 


34 


iii. 


153 ' 




iv. 


17 . . 


413 V. 


4' 


93 


vi. 


165 , 


18 it. 


19 . 


434 



INDEX. 



461 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Liine Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


iv. 


57 . 


336 


V. 


148 


. . 290 


ii. 


229 . 


435 


iv. 


149 . 


. 404 


IV. 


88 . . 497 
ACT III. 


vi. 
vi. 


17 


351 


ii. 

ii. 


333 
252 . 


. 12 


iv. 


179 . 


/95 
(367 


| 


38 


357 


vi. 


ai 


336 


ii. 


354 


74 


iv. 


209 . 


i54 


i. 


73 


. 356 


vi. 


25 


35i 


ii. 


283. 


335 


V. 


2 . 


. 230 


ii. 


65 


429 


vi. 

vi. 


42 

4 S 


. 3i 

. . 360 


ii. 

ii. 


33i 
347 


7 
34' 


V. 
V. 


41 . 

Si 


. 120 
, 326 


ii. 


79 


'1352 


vi. 


63 


295 


ii. 


37 


335 


V. 


60 . 


. 466 


iii. 


28. 


333 


vi. 


70 


. . 126 


ii. 


373 


484 


V. 


85 


. 8 4 


iii 


71 . 


144 


vi. 


92 


i?4 


iii. 


9 


453 


V. 


139 . 


356 


iii. 


99 


336 




ACT 


IV. 


iii. 


13 


472 


V. 


169 . 


. 28 


iii. 


102 . 


. 198 


i. 


16 


. 256 


iii. 


IS 


47i 


V. 


186 . 


2 3 8 


iii. 


(Fol.) 103. 340 


ii. 


26 


-476 


iii. 


19 . 


5" 


V. 


228 . 


215 


iii. 


85 


. 226 


ii. 


35 


333 


iii. 


20 . 


297 


V. 


230 . 


. 238 


iv. 


135 . 


- 509 








iii. 


21 . 


. 400 


V. 


233 


335 


iv. 


'43 


t335 


ii. 


47 


. .J2g6 


iv. 


6 . 


433 


V. 


252 . 


4'9 


IV. 


144 . 


12 






HII 


Iv. 


IS 


. 161 


V. 


2SS 


. 291 


T. 


148 . 


J 2 9S 
(296 


ii. 

ii. 


55 
67 


453 
347 


iv. 
iv. 


23 
35 


403 
. 86 


V. 
V. 


297 . 
311 . 


230 
. 182 


iv. 


'53 


- 465 


ii. 


7i 


74 


iv. 


48. 


174 


V. 


338. 


. 280 


iv. 


160 . 


. 228 


ii. 


97 


. . 16 




ACT 


V. 


V. 


343 


4'3 


iv. 


187 . 


57 


ii. 


129 


'Si 


i. 


8 . 


327 


V. 


349 


473 


V. 


21 . 


343 


ii. 


146 


47 


ii. 


22 . 


336 


V. 


406 . 


344 


V. 

V. 


3 2 
58. 


. 220 

. 368 


ii. 


190 


(89 
-J347 
M73 


iii. 
iv. 


45 
60 . 


.466 
. at 


V. 
V. 


407 . 


. 486 
. 158 


V. 


7i 


. 285 


ii. 


207 


. . 86 


iv. 


120 . 


295 


V. 


464 . 


249 


V. 


83- 


45 


ii. 


223 


. . 246 iv. 


147 . 


. 290 


V. 


469- 


434 










HAMLET. 












ACT I 




i. 


45 


.t39 


i. 


77 


.^312 


i. 


1 08 . 


299 


i. 


i . 


5" 


i. 


53 


.1458 


i. 


81 


t 130 


i. 


"4 


. 8 


i. 


6 . 


. 191 


i. 


SS 


. . 181 


i. 


84 


. 92 


i. 


"5 


.+468 


i. 
L 


26 . 
31-33 


3 

(tab 

\ 252 


1. 
i. 


56 
57 


. . 312 
3 


f- 


86 


{469 
H49 


I 
i. 


n6 . 
117 . 


3<>4 
"3 


i 


33 
35 


5" 


i. 


at 

159 


'. 5*3 


i. 


93 


ftS3 

I 494 


i. 
i. 


119 . 

123 . 


. 304 





40 . 


tS'3 


i. 


70 


-to 


i. 


98 


431 




(129) 




1 


IS' 


. 469 


L 


73 


. . 290 


i. 


(iai\ 
UoSI 


. 127 


i. 


|>3 3 [ 


5" 



462 



INDEX, 



Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Lil* Pat. 


i. 136 . . 429 


ii. 140 . . 501 


iii. 63 . 4242 


v. 60 . 176 


M3 -t47 


ii- 141 . . 312 


iii. 66 . 4470 


v. 61 . ./ 


i. 154 . p. 13 


ii. 142 . . 349 


iii. 70 . 4276 


\(6) 


i. 158 . . 142 


ii. 151 . . 194 


iii- 73 245 


v. 65 .. 189 


i. 161 . . 463 
i. 168 . .1364 


ii. 159 . 4364 
ii. 160 . . 497 


iii- 74 (5> 
iii. 85 . 4501 


v- 90 . .J 29 

U442 

v. 120 . 451' 


ii. ii . . (i> 


ii. 171 . 4277 


iii. 89 . . 457 


v. 139 . . 149 


ii. 14 . .ti8g 


ii. 172 . . 443 


iii. 95 . . i&g 


v. 163 . . 492 


ii. 17 . . 244 


ii. 176 . . 494 


iii. 101 . { f S*3 


v. 173 . . 47 o 


ii, 20 . . 342 


ii. 179 . . 192 


I 453 


v. 175 . . 178 


ii. 21 . . p.i6 
ii. 22 . 4242 


ii. 180 . . 469 
ii. 183 . .tisi 


iii. 112 . . 513 
iii. 117 . . 478 


v. 178 . 4350 
v. 180 . . 17 


<i. 23 . . p.i6 


ii. 184 . 4506 


iii. 119 . . 164 




ii. 27 . 4343 


ii. 185 . . 480 


iii. 126 . . 5 


v. 186 . Jj 501 
IT297 


ii. 35 148 


ii. 193 . 4307 


iii. 131 . . 57 




ii. 37 . . 186 


ii. 198 . . 450 


iii. 133 . . 22 


ACT II. 


ii. 38 . . 412 


ii. 207 . . 3 


iv. 3 . 4297 


i- ii .. ii 


ii. 42-9 . 235 


ii. 216 . . 304 


iv. {*}. .513 


3 482 


ii. 68 .. 294 


ii. 217 . 4107 


iv. 6 . . 5 


i. 42 .. 208 


ii. 78 . {* P ', 12 , 


ii. 218 . . ts8 


iv. 18 . 4170 


5- 58. .{ 4 


ii. 81 . . 460 


ii. 219 . 4339 
ii. 22? . 4343 


iv. 21 . 90 
iv. 30 .. 3 


> 64 .. 168 


ii. 87 . .490 






i. 82 .. 275 


ii. 90 .. 246 


ii- I 228 }- 4513 

\230/ T5 IJ 


iv- 35 4315 


J. 84 .. 478 


- " -eg 


ii. 232 . . 468 


iv. 47 . . 491 
iv. 51 . 4307 


9i . . 507 


ii. 95 . .1880 


iii. 2 . . 109 


iv. 52 . . 492 


' {93}' 178 


ii. 99 . .419(1 


iii. 8 . . 484 


iv. 54 . . 216 


95 4109 


ii. / S> 8 } .t2 S2 
lioij- T ^" 


iii. 17 . 4376 


iv. 57 75 


. 112 . . 472 


ii. {j*}. tSSa 


iii. 21 . .{f 4J 


iv. 73 . .( 20 
U23 


i. 114 . ti6 


ii. 105 . . 206 


iii. 24 . . 497 


v. 6 . . 500 


i- {iJ 9 }- 390 


ii. xii . . 82 


iii. 30 . . 199 


V. II .. 149 


ii. 2 . . 50 


ii. 112 . . 149 


iii. 43 . . 82 


v- '3 -t343 


. 5 . 479 


ii 119 / 4s6 


iii. 45 . 4315 


v. 18 . . 356 


ii> 7 -.. 325 


' '^469 


iii- 47-51 . 415 


v. 19 . . 24 


ii. 10 . 179 


ii. 120 . 4315 


iii. 51 . . 200 


v. 21 . p. 16 


ii. ii . . 167 


ii. 124 . . 188 


( .100 


v. 32 . 4322 


ii. 12 .. 132 


ii. 126 . . 123 

ii. 137 IS 


111. 59 . ji*go 
iii. 62 . . 95 


v. 48 .. 277 
v. S3 4>7 


* * (r;g 



INDEX. 



46J 



Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line i>., r . 


a. 27 .. 174 


a. 584 . . 512 


a. 28 .. 165 


iii. 62 . . 95 


a. 36 .. 434 

a. 42 . . 69 


ii. 590 . . (6a) 
ii. 593 . . 511 


a. (33. .300 


ai. 75 f . ^25 
iii. 78 .. 511 


ii. 67 . .t399 


ii. 601 . . 220 


a. 53 .. 97 


iii. 91 . . 24 


u 71 . .U68 


u. 605 . . 122 


a. 68 . . 229 


iv. 3 . .+285 


ii. So . 4297 


a. 607 . . 22 


a. 69 .. 174 


iv. 5 . .+513 


ii. 81 . . 374 


ii. 610 . . 512 


ii. 71 . . + 164 


iv. 7 . . 200 


u. 83 . .t343 


a. 622 . 4366 


u. 73 . . (9) 


iv. 25 . .+513 


a. 91 .. 467 

ii. 100 . .1404 


ACT III. 


a. 93 . .ti37 

a. 98 .. 177 


iv. {$. . 279 


u. 113 . .ti59 


i. 8 . . 399 


a. in . . 229 


iv. 50 . . 143 


a. 127 . . 145 


i /io . (+513 
l - til . 1+468 


a. 131 . . 58 


iv. 51 . . 430 


a. 139 . . 60 


L 13 . . 173 


a. 176 . . +55 


iv. 66 .. 355 


a. 140 . . 438 




a. 177 . . 336 


iv. 94 . 4498 


a. 148 . . 483 


*' U4/' '* SI3 


a. 178 . .3881 


iv. 95 . .+159 


a. 151 . . 940 


i. 29 .. (7) 


ii. 184 . . 355 


iv. 98 . . (13) 


a. 154 . .1284 


i. 33 -t47 


a. 190 . .+364 


IV. 122 . . 24 


Miss}' -371 


i. g}. .+35 


a. {*^}. 4>s 


-CI3- - 500 


a. 176 . .+275 


i. 38 . .+368 


a. 207 . . 194 


iv. 144 . . fSo 


a. 196 . .+274 


i. 44 . . i So 


a. 214 . -{/^ 


iv. 173 . . 297 


a. 206 . .+276 


L 49 . . 482 


.. 


iv. 180 . . 485 


a. 287 . . 128 


1 < r . 187 


a. 220 . . 339 


iv. 195 . .ti59 




jt-'aj *"/ 


a. 221 . . 490 


A__. 


a. 301 . . 174 

u. 305 439 
a. 343 . 37 


i. 68 .. 508 
i. 89 . .+469 


a. 227 . .1364 
a. 252 . . 216 


IV. 202 T335 
iv. 206 . . 492 
iv. 207 . . 342 


ii. 398 . . 297 


i. 91 .. 346 
i. 119 . .ti2i 


a. 268 . i/5 


iv. 209 . . 143 


a. 402 . . 42 


i. 124 . 4223 


U. 312 . .+439 




a. 463 . .+472 


i. 102-58 .+515" 


a. 317 . . 354 


ACT IV. 


a. 504 . . 512 
a. 508 . . 22 
a. 510 . . 24 


i. 163 . . 342 

i. 164 . . 22 

i. 168 . . (8) 


ii. 350 . . 423 
". 377 425 
ii. 394 . . +89 


i. io . .1399 

u 12 I f 35 6 
u - " ' \+i 7 o 


> {^}- 37' 


i. 173 2 4 


a. 408 . .tsoi 


ui. 7 . |J4 


U. 537 . .1164 


L 174 . . 45* 


ui. 3 . . 425 


U497 


u. 549 . .1230 


i. 175 . 4152 


ui. 14 . .{^ 


- --U 3 ? 


a. 567 . . 331 


i. .181. . 68 


iii. 20 . .+272 


iii. 46 . . 143 


U. 578 . .tiag 


i. 182 . . 337 


ai. 33 "65 


ill \5 r. * 14^ 


a. 580 . . 229 


u. 3 . . 221 


* 


\6o| 4J 


ii. 581 . .+490 


ii. 2j . . 158 


ui. 38 . .{4*5 


iu. 70 37 



464 



INDEX. 



Sc. Line Par. 
iv. 9-12 . .tsoo 


Sc. Line Par. 
vi. ii . ^349 


ACT V. 
Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 
ii. g . . 81 


iv. f 17 }. . 484 


vi. 13 .. 405 


i. 81 . . 184 


ii. 108 . .(15) 


iv. 39 . .t466 


vi. 25 . .f244 


i. 85 .. 263 


ii. 120 . . 128 


iv. 44 . .t359 
iv. 65 . . 482 


vii. 13 . . 273 
vii. 16 . .fi45 
vii. 17 . .460 


i. 87 .. 329 
i. 100 . . 93 


ii. 162 . .t3M 
ii. 183 . . 319 
ii. 206 . .tz8s 


v- 3 -t3ig 




Il3i/' '' yy 




* 5 - + 335 


vii. \ll}. . 425 


i 2 ( 228 


ii. 226 . . 460 


. 76 .. 461 


vii. 28 . . t89 


i. 252 . 4322 


ii. 241 . . 479 


v. 83 . .tsoi 

* 8 4 . H 469 

4 U497 


vii. 48 .. 6 
vii. 50 . .+325 
vii 55 -tsi3 


i. 253 -tuS 
i. 258 . .t S i 3 
i. 261 . . 430 


ii. 258 . . 316 
ii. 266 . 4494 


V ' \g8J- ' tsi3 


vii. 59 . .tut 


i. 265 . . 469 


ii. 270 . .tsis 


T. 99 . .ti?8 


vii. 60 . . 482 


i. 268 . . 360 


ii. 276 . .1297 


v. 102 . . 495 


vii. 61 . .1133 


i. 281 . .t5*3 


ii. 277 . . 81 


v. 125 . . 187 


vii. 63 . { " s 


i. 296 . . t8g 


ii. 307 . .t479 


v. 128 . . 146 


lT2o5 


. 


ii \ f. . c 1 4 


v. 129 . .tsi3 


vii. 85 .. 307 


i. 298 . . 241 
i. 317 . . 162 


ii. 337 (16) 


v. 133 . . 187 


Vii. 120. {* 


ii. i f. 5M 


ii. 341 . . 238 


v. 141 . .tsoi 


vii. 132 . .1244 




ii. 342 . . 166 


r / I 43"4\ feu 


. ~ 


ii. 27 .. 414 


ii. 343 . .tgi3 


U52-3/' 


vii. {jfoj- -+285 


ii. 28 . .tsu 


ii. 347 . .no 


T. {^}. . 181 


vii. 159 . .tuo 


ii. 29 . .1438 


" 373 -tsi3 


, 


vii. 178 . . 202 


ii. 51 . . t8g 


ii. 406 . . 180 


213 . .^ ga 


vii. 179 . tp- 13 


ii. 63 . .{ 2 4 
1297 


ii. 409 . .+360 


v. 217 . . 283 


vii. 181 . .t495 


ii. 64 . .f2i6 


ii. 411 . . 364 



(i) W. T. v. 2. 82. (a) Macbeth, iii. i. 15. (3) Rich. III. L a. 3. 

(4) Folio, "sanctify :" probably "sanity." 

(5) Perhaps a corruption arising from a repetition of " oft " misspelt " oft," " ost * 
1 most." 

(6) Macbeth, iii. 5. 32. (6a) Compare "free," Hamlet, iii. a. 252. 

(7) Macbeth, iii. 5. 7. (8) Macbeth, iv. 3. 170. (o) Folio, "hath" 
(to) Folio, "favourites." (n) Hamlet, iv. 7. 145. 

(12) Folio, "depends and rests." (13) Rich. III. iii. i. 82. 
(14) Folio, "it," not "its." (15) L. L. L. v. i. U*-4. 

(16) Above, 283. Macbeth, ii j. 56-7. 



INDEX. 



465 









i 


HENRY IV. 




ACT 


I. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 








iii. 


65 


490 






( 73 


iii. 


92 . 


. <6o 


Be 
i. 


Line 

21 . 


Par. 

474 


iii. 


{!5~} ' 


23* 


i. 

i. 


177 . 
257 


. 466 


iii. 
... f( 


104 . 


.508 


i. 


28 . 


. 87 


iv. 


127 . 


175 


ii. 


56 


419 




"i 1 


. 480 


ii. 


S3 


237 


iv. 


166 . 


178 


ii. 


60 . 


243 


iv. 


2 . 


.489 


ii. 


65 


419 


iv. 


182 . . 


301 


ii. 


88 . 


. 24 


iv. 


27 


97 


ii. 


'57 


419 


iv. 


3M . . 


24 


ii. 


100 . 


. 168 








ii. 


174 . 


. 23 


























iv. 


233 


220 


ii. 


118 . 


. 231 




ACT V 




iii. 


15 


. 48? 


iv. 




220 


ii. 


ISO . 


. 168 








iii. 
iii. 
iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


125 . 
146. 

159 
183 


5" 

. 105 
. 426 
349 
374 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 
iv. 
iv. 


2 7 8 . . 
300 . . 

3" 
411 . . 

442 . . 


409 
216 
363 
363 


ii. 

ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


124 . 
141 . 
149 . 


f2l6 

l476 
. 368 

43 1 
67 


i. 
i. 
i. 
i 
i. 


20 . 

27 . 
50 . 
65 - 
72 . 


49 
507 
255 

. 22 

342 


iii. 
iii. 


234 
271 . 


. 480 
457 


iv. 


573 


*99 


ii. 
iii. 


168 . 
50 . 


. 276 
(198* 

\ 220 


i. 
i. 
i. 


90 . 
109 . 
116 . 


a 
' 505 
. 92 










ACT III 




iii. 


180 . 


. 301 


ii. 


8 . 


. 498 




ACT 


II. 


























i. 


5 


487 








ii. 


30 . 


338 


L 


6 


'{411 


i. 


17 . . 


343 








ii. 


33 


477 


i. 


n 


. 400 


L 


34 


4 66 




ACT IV. 


ii. 


62 . 


(271 


i. 


12 . 


99 


i. 


48. . 


220 


i. 


24 . 


. 200 


ii. 


71 


. 181 


i. 


34 


. 183 


i. 


60 . . 


363 


i. 


52 . 


. 98 


ii. 


97 


. 489 


L 


59 


. 337 


i. 


63. . 


499 


i. 


no . 


. 290 


iv. 


5 


. 362 


i. 


80 


{23 
200 


i. 


67. . 


484 


i. 


127 . 


346 


iv. 


41 


469 


ii. 

ii. 


M 

28 


. 122 

333 


i. 
L 
L 


72 . . 
74 

100 . . 


505 
44 

no 


ii. 
ii. 
iii. 


56 . 
83- 
38 . 


. 24 
. 4 6l 
. 124 


iv. 


87 . 

IOO | 


. 480 
^61 
92 


ii. 


30 


. 24 


i. 


131 


461 


iii. 


44 


.467 


iv. 


125 . 


. 270 


iii. 


28 


. 219 


i. 


133 


55 


iii. 


68 . 




V. 


13 


472 


iii. 


/43- 
167 . 


. 331 


L 


152 


374 


iii. 


75 


. 320 


V. 


14 . 


.487 








3 


HENRY IV. 




ACT 


I. i. 


99 


260 


i. 


209 . 


17 


ii. 


212 . 


. 68 


Ind. 


37 


a 


i. 


in . 


339 


ii. 


23 


319 






a 7* 


i. 


4 


295 


i. 


138- 


425 


ii. 


66 . 


254 


ii. 


213 . 


43 


1. 


86 


49 


i. 


193 . 


130 


ii. 


8s - 


335 


ii. 


245 


230 


L 


?7 


195 


L 


199 . 


343 


ii. 


130 . 


53 i 


'7 


. 863 














11 H 







466 



INDEX. 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par 


iii. 


39 


354 


iv. 


35 


199 


i. 


98 . 


35 


V. 


77 




iii. 


59 


260 




ACT III 




L 


107 . 


35 


V. 


91 . 


. 198 


iii. 


80 . 


37i 


i. 


20 . 


89 


L 


"7 


. 284 


V. 


126 . 


. 202 


iii. 


91 . 


. 87 


i. 


22 . 


264 


i. 


161 . 


477 


V. 


153 


. 468 




ACT II 




ii. 


57 


39 


i. 


183 . 


. 81 


V. 


165 . 


343 


i. 


70 . 


. 187 


ii. 


199 . 


335 


i. 


198 . 


383 




ACT V 




i. 


186 . 


295 


ii. 


206 . 


132 


i. 


225 


(202 








i. 


191 . 


30 


ii. 


213 


32 


ii. 


"3 


47i 


i. 


84 


. 202 
28 


i. 
ii. 


200 . 

59 


378 


ii. 
ii. 


300 . 

34 


330 
. 220 


iii. 
iii. 


79 
1 20 


487 
. 264 


ii. 


24 
66 . 


371 


iii. 


42 . 


492 


ii. 


310 . 


45 


iv. 


20 


37 


ii. 


83 


. 301 


iii. 


65 


49 




ACT IV. 


iv. 


39 


377 


ii. 


128 . 


'1264 


iv. 


83 


335 


i. 


32 


287 


iv. 


in 


51 


iii. 


93 


. 128 


iv. 


174 


. 268 


i. 


71 


' I7 


V. 


7 


474 


iii. 


98 . 


343 










HENRY V. 












ACT t 




ii. 


21 . 


.+4*0 


ii. 


165 


.446 


ii. 


2 . 


315 


ProL 


{,3- 


.481 


ii. 
ii. 


58 

66 . 


. t8g 
419 


ii. 
ii. 


167 
172 


. 486 


ii. 
ii. 


2 3 . 
3' 


.'! 


" 


12 . 

16 . 


. 450 


ii. 


le 5 } 


4265 


ii. 


183 


. 480 


ii. 


43 


ti? 


" 




y 




l9' 




ii. 


199 


4467 


ii. 


44 


. (s) 





18 . 


t3 


ii. 


75 


489 


ii. 


203 


49 


ii. 


70 . 




L 


i . 


. t20 


ii. 


8} 


t479 


ii. 


208 


497 


fi. 




.1468 


i. 
i. 
i. 


9 
IS 

35 


. 419 

. 89 


ii. 
ii. 


19 J 

88 . 
93 


. 217 
4223 


ii. 
ii. 


248 
256 


.469 

/t349 
1 tt 3 69 


ii. 
ii. 


f 72 }. 
91 . 


.+236 
.1270 


i. 


43 


t*99 


ii. 


94 


t44 


ii. 


263 


-t244 


ii. 


95 


t442 


i. 


47 


{ 28 1 


ii. 


98 . 


+343 


ii. 


270 


(2) 


ii. 


too . 


. 39 






3 


ii. 


/ I0 sl 


. 457 


ii. 


292 


.t 4 6o 


ii. 


IO9 . 


. (6) 


i. 


53 


4>4 




llI2/ 




























ii. 


305 


472 


ii. 


103 . 


. 56* 


i. 


57 v 


43 


ii. 


108 . 


ti37 


ii. 


37 


. . 203 


ii. 


104 . 


. 321 


i. 


72 . 


458 


ii. 


no . 


. 89 




ACT 


II 


ii. 


116 . 


t47O 


i. 


75 


.t 4 68 


ii 


114 . 


154 


Prol 


. 18 


349 


ii 


123 . 


+45 


i, 


81 . 


.tigS 


ii 


132 . 


. 463 


m 


26 


(3) 


ii. 




483 


i. 


86 . 


433 


ii 


145 . 


- +69 


lt 


32 


<**) 


ii. 


129 . 


458 


ii. 


12 . 


. 136 


ii 


/i49l 
US*/' 


. 481 


i. 


9 


. . 64 


ii. 


132 . 




ii. 


16 . 


\ 342 


ii 


153 


.t28 3 


i. 


66 


. .428 


ii. 


i39 


-398 


u. 


28 


{ 


ii 


154 


f 462 
U343 


i. 
i 


104 
107 


. .+216 
(4) 


ii. 

ii. 


'59 


!*m 



467 



Sc Line Par. 


i>c. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


ii 159 . ^467 


i. 14 . . 479 


( 1 9l 


vi. 3 . .t 4 68 


ii. 1 68 . ..468 


iii. S 53 


L jjftk .t378 


vi. 9 . . (9) 


ii. 181 . . (7) 


iii- 9 -t474 


i. 197 . . 417 


vi. 12 . .{440 


iii. 6 . . 490 


iii. 12 . . t8g 




vi. 18 . . 344 


" " -{^ 


iii. 26 . . 490 


'' Izs?!' <t469 


vi. 24 . . t66 


iii. 12 . . 38 


iii. | 28 }. . 174 


i. 305 . . 315 


vi. 37 364 




43 


i. 319 . . tog 


vii. 58 .. 347 


IT. i . . 335 


iii. 46 .. 176 


ii. 13 . .^468 


vii. 76 . . 2oe 


iv. 20 . .fio7 


V. 11 .. 484 


ii. 23 . .fsoi 


vii. 81 . . t&9 


iv. 25 . .tsoi 


V. 12 . ,fl26 


ii. 32 . .t359 


vii. 88 .. +87 


iv. 31 . .364 


V. 22 .. 89 


ii. 62 . .fiso 


vii. 121 . .1364 


iv- I* 6 }. . 415 


v. 24 .. 498 


iii. 2 . . 343 


f!27\ 


iv. 50 . . 225 


v. 35 . .tz8s 
v. 60 . .+148 


iii. 9 . .1469 


"' * I3 '' ' (< 


Hr. 53 .. 51 




iii 18 J*254 


YU 1 31 1+0 A(\ 




vi. 157 . - 249 


\tsoo 


\T 4V 


iv. 64 . . 225 
iv. {$. .414 


vi. 165 . . 203 
vi. 179 . .1492 


iii. 26 .. 297 
iii. 33 .. 503 


*1S w 


iv. 80 . .{460 


vii. 9 . .+,171 


iii- {p}- 415 


VI 74/ 
vii. 142 . .+.158 


iv. 85 . .490 




iii. 42 .. 24 


vii. 184 . .tin 


iv. 90 .. 349 


ACT IV. 


iii. 44 . . 348 


vii. 188 . . 377 


iv. 101 . .{f.g 


Prol. 8 . . 450 


iii. 55 . . 453 


vii. 189 . .1399 


iv. 103 . . 350 


,, 21 .. 264 


" 59 -t474 


viii. 44 . . (4) 


iv. 105 . . t95 


28 . . 251 


iii. 63 . . 290 


viii. 84 . . (10) 


iv. 120 . . (4) 
iv. is2 . .+468 


36 .. 440 
., 38 - 374 


"{& 


viii. 116 . .1462 
viii. 122 . . (4) 


iv. 124 . . 450 


48 .. t66 


iii. 77 . . 297 




iv. 126 . . 477 


i. 1 6 . .+297 


iii. 84. .| 348 


ACT V. 




i. 26 .. 303 


14'4 


. . 


ACT III. 


i. 29 . .tsi3 
i. 38 . .4573 


iii. 86 . . 451 
iii. 95 87 


P'ol-U}. -+462 


Prol. 6 . .457 
10 .. 444 


L . . 465 


iii. 107 . . 492 
iii. 113 . . 319 


^17 . . 287 
34 . . 202 


ii . ^193 


i. 45 . -t55 


iii. 120 . . 315 


41 . . 429 


18 . . 89 


i. 89 . .^299 


iii. 131 . .1513 


45 . .ti4i 


si . .1466 


i. 113 . . 300 


iii. 132 . . 146 


i. 3 1 353 


30 . .ti8<; 


i. 118 . . 276 


IT. 23 . .1201 


i. 93 - 5i 


32 . .teg? 


L 126 . . ^87 


iv. 76 .. 248 


ii. 4 - 469 


I. 9 . -+4<X> 


i. 128 . .t28i 


iv. 81 . .4172 


ftzSs 


L 13 . .t228 


L 181 . . 429 


v. 17 .. 290 


'* ' 1 4" 



H H 2 



468 



INDKX, 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


S<5 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. Sc. 


Line 


Pa? 


ii. 


18 . 


47i 


ii.' 


73 


. 440 


ii. 


138 . 


.ts6i 


ii. 


375- 


. 47 S 


ii. 


l34\ 

w 


. 287 


ii. 

ii. 


78 . 
88 . 


.+361 
494 


ii. 


{$}' 


.315 


ii. 
ii. 


39' 


458 


ii. 


68 . 


329 


ii. 


92 . 


ti 3 


ii. 


298 . 


432 


Epil 


ii . 


93 



(i) Folio, " makes." (2) Perhaps, " hence," from home. Macbeth, iii. 3. 36 

(3) Macbeth, ii. 2. 56-7. (4) Folio, "and." (5) Macbeth, iii 5. 32 

(S<i) Malone, "while we force." Perhaps, more probably, " we'll " is to be repeated 
(6) J. C. i. 3. 22. (7) Hamlet, i. 2. 182. (8) A. Y. L. iii. i. 18 

(9) A. W.\. 3. 297. (10) Perhaps " sides" (486) is prolonged. 



i HENRY VI. 





ACT 


I. V. 


31 . . 


484 i. 28 


. . 414 > 


173 


47 








V. 


36 . . 


295 


i. 34 


. . I2O 


iii. 


33 


170 


i. 


2 


529 


vi. 


4 


479 


i- Si 


. . 484 


iii. 


46. . 


170 


L 


60 


489 


vi. 


12 . . 


501 


i. 81 


492 


V. 


i, 51 


231 


' L 


71 


. . 492 


vi. 


16 . . 


348 


i. 112 


. .484 


V. 


3 


319 


i. 


76 


-485 


vi. 


26 . . 


425 


i. 142 


.487 


vi. 


6-9. . 


231 


L 


M 
193) 


456 


vi. 


27 


55 


i- 143 


. . 490 


vii. 


34 


172 


i. 


"5 


. . 440 




ACT II. 




ii. g 


335 


viL 


70 . . 


489 


L 


126 


tP- 34 


i. 


30 . . 


362 


ii. 25 


. . 150 


vii. 


72 . . 


a 


ii. 
ii. 

ii. 


i 
19 
54 


. . 217 
492 
. . 156 


i. 
i. 
i. 


46 . . 
53 
70 . . 


299 
275 
178 


ii. 104 
ii. 123 
ii. 124 


. . 469 

/2I7 

'1335 
. . 24 


i. 
iii. 


ACT V. 

21 . . 

41 . . 


479 


ii. 
ii. 


74 

77 


. . i 

. . 89 


i. 
iii. 


71 . . 
28 . . 


325 
466 


iii. 3 
iii. 20 


. . 492 
. . 92 


ii!. 


82 . 


{230 


ii. 


IOI 


. . 498 


iii. 


58 . . 


321 


iii. 31 


. . 92 


iii. 


9 8. 


5' 


iii. 


5 


487 


iv. 


15 


10 


iii. 72 


. .418 


iii. 


177 . . 


47 


iii. 


ii 

< 


474 


iv. 


91 . . 


47 


iv. 17 


. . in 


iii. 


I8 3 . 


3* 


iii. 


20. 


488 


iv. 


98 . . 


371 


iv. 29 


. . 178 


iv. 


8 . 


295 


iii. 


52 


320 


V. 


37 - 


3" 






iv. 


22 . 


168 


iii. 


87 


. . 480 


V. 


55 


244 


ACT 


IV. 


iv. 


=5 


13 


iii. 
iii. 


9 
91 


382 
492 


V. 


fe) 


485 


i. 28 
i. 38 


. . 287 

'7 


iv. 
iv. 


57 
75 


463 
105 


iv. 


10 


ts 


V. 


89 . . 


360 


i. 70 


. . 484 


iv. 


156- 


49<> 


iv. 


16 


. . 55 


V. 


96. . 


349 


i. 113 


. . 348 


V. 


18 . . 


122 


iv. 


28 


489 




ACT III. 




L 126 


. . 490 


V. 


55 


479 


iv. 


54 


43 


i. 


'3 


497 


i. 166 


. . 467 I v 


fi 


y>s 











INDEX. 






469 








2 


HENRY VI 










ACT I 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


So. Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 








iv. 


25 


251 


i. 17 . 


20 


i. 


113 . 


175 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


iv. 


3i 


382 


i. 254 . 


264 


i. 


117 . 




L 
i. 


19 . 
61 . 


45 1 
247 
. 168 


iv. 


78 . 
ACT II. 


466 


i. 301 . 
i. 348 


337 
463 


i. 

i. 


129 . 


484 
443 




150 . 


. 296 


i. 


3 


{347 
(411 


ii. 3 . 


405 


ii. 


59 


402 


i. 


166 . 


376 


L 


22 . 


226 


ii. ii . 


335 


ii. 


96 . 


178 


L 


183 . 


. 121 


i. 


68 . 


{335 


ii. 31 . 
ii. 84 . 


190 
343 


ii. 
vi. 


103 . 
3 . 


169 
168 


i. 


206 . 


477 


i. 


88 . 


168 


ii. 89 . 


156 


vi. 


2 3 


268 


i. 


208 . 


. 501 


i. 


93 


86 
























ii. 100 . 


1117 


vii. 


in . 


'93 


i. 
i. 


225 . 
233 


. 289 
. 280 


i. 
i. 


94 .. 
99 


349 
128 


ii. 119 . 


501 


viii. 


36 . . 


477 


















ix. 


X . 


84 


i. 


247 . 


333 


i. 


109 . 


220 


ii. 139 . 


45i 








ii. 


17 , 


. 363 


ii. 


6 . 


510 


ii. 178 . 


3 


ix. 


33 


'93 


ii. 
ii. 


36- 
57 


. 89 
. 289 


ii. 
ii. 


U- 

55 


5" 
485 


ii. 257 . 
ii. 258 . 


160 
490 


i. 


ACT V. 

16 . 


168 


ii 


58 


.I" 6 
U35 


iii. 


20 . 


456 


ii. 286 . 

ii. 295 . 


40 
298 


i. 


32 


512 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


69. 
79 
80-2 . 
97 


. 209 

. 89 

479 
. 470 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 


3 
52 
63- 
ACT III 


463 
475 
446 


ii. 365 
ii. 401 . 

ii. 403 . 


460 

158 
(492 
1497 


i. 
i. 
i. 
i. 


60 . 
M3 

196 . 


335 
432 
264 
352 








i. 


9 


132 


ACT IV 




i. 


211 . . 


478 


iii. 


63 


M7i 


i. 


66 . 


57 


i. 3 . . 


260 


ii. 


45 


478 


iii. 


'S3 


484 


i. 


126 . 


326 


i. 85 . 


338 


ii. 


86 . 


s'5' 


iii. 


167 . 


409 


i. 


160 . 


451 


i. 87 .. 


478 


iii. 


i . 


241 


3 HENRY VI. 




ACT I 




iv. 


10 . 


226 


i. So . 


43 


V. 


42 . 


y* 


i. 


215 . 


. 476 


iv. 


103 . 


460 


i. 83 . 


247 


x V. 


60 . 


381 


i. 


224 . 


. 466 


iv. 


115 


218 


i. 106 . 


295 


vi. 


42 


229 


ii. 


38 . 


. 478 


iv. 


142 . 


490 


i. no . 


451 


vi. 


56. 


4190 


ii. 


41 


. 467 


iv. 


150 . 


126 


ii. 142 . 


428 


vi. 


86 . 


244 


ii. 


43 


59 




ACT II. 




ii. 157 . 


156 








ii. 


47 


{ 3 ?7 


i. 


2 . 


295 


iii. 27 . 


192 




ACT III 




ii. 


73 


f6 
'(289 


i. 


16 . 


263 


iii. 40 . 
iii. 56 . 


423 


i. 


10 . 


(348 


iv. 





*43 


i. 


46 . 


U8<) 


T 3 . 


178 


i. 


II . 


ac 



470 



INDEX. 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 




ACT IV. 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Pai. 


i. 


Si 


. 189 


Sc. 
i. 


Line 


Par. 
480 


iv. 

V. 


26 . 

2 . 


492 
355 


iv 
ir. 


18 . . 

34 - 


477 

37 


ii. 
ii. 


92 . 
'37 


40 

. 194 


i. 
i. 


92 . . 
US 


45i 
25 


vii. 


30 . 


(477 
-489 
(506 


iv. 

V. 


35 
9 


{4" 
251 


ii. 


M3 


. 223 


i. 


131 


45* 


vii. 


S 2 


. 170 


V. 


38 . . 


13 


iii. 


4 


394 


ii. 


a . . 


fMS 




ACT V. 


vi. 


40 . . 


43 


iii. 

iii. 


25 

87 . 


. 265 


ii. 


7 . . 


503 


i. 
i. 


20 . 
57 


45* 
430 


vi. 
vii. 


41 . . 
6 . . 


484 
148 


iii. 


189 . 


.{440 


iii. 


a . . 


220 


i. 


97 


373 


vii. 


7 


"3 






Uoo 


iii. 


M 


484 


ii. 


45 


. 3" 


vii. 


10 . . 


469 


iii. 


225 . 


. 226 


iii. 


SS 


478 


iii. 


8 . 


. 198 


vii. 


21 . . 




iii. 


226 . 


. 291 


iv. 


12 . . 


146 


iii. 


M 


,98, 


vii. 


34 


289 


HENRY VIII. 




ACT I 




iii. 


SO- 


24 


iv. 


49 


. 18 


ii. 


405 . . 


90 


I. 


18 . 


. 228 


iv. 


57- 


455 


iv. 


86 . 


. 187 


ii. 


431 . . 


1 68 


i. 


60 . 


492 








iv. 


112 . 


295 


ii. 


435 


424 


'Ii 


100-5 


. 467 




ACT II. 




iv. 


144 . 


9 


ii. 


438- - 


424 


L 


,. 


(164 
.^164 
U97 


i. 
i. 


33 
42 . . 


341 

376 


iv. 
iv. 


153 
I 7 8. 


I 18 

1344 
. 491 


ii. 
ii. 


447 


455 
4SS 


i. 


159 


i 


i. 


52 . . 


469 


iv. 


204 . 


395 


ii. 


452 


468 


i. 


179 . 


. 200 


i. 


67. . 


455 


iv. 


242 . 


. 90 








b 


196. 


394 


i. 


85 . . 


499 














ii. 


18 . 


. 420 


i. 


97 


455 




ACT III. 




ACT IV. 




ii. 
ii. 


55 


.460 
.460 


i. 
i. 


100 . . 
122 . . 


469 
455 


i. 


38 


484 


i. 


/Order oft 
\ Coron. I 302 


ii. 


85 


.486 


i. 


I2 7 . . 


455 


i. 


45 


2 


i. 


22 . . 


469 


ii. 


86 . 




iii. 


S 


290 


i. 


103 . 


. 236 


i. 


5 . 


484 


ii. 


95 


u 


iii. 
iii. 


16 . . 
37 


397 
226 


i. 
i. 


134 
141 . 


.419* 
342 


i. 
i. 


88 . . 
91 . . 


"3 
376 


ii. 


114 . 


. 499 


iii. 


59 


455 


ii. 


117 . 


485 


ii. 


S 3 


200 


ii. 


118 . 


492 


iii. 


87 . . 


492 


ii. 


160 . 


325 


ii. 


43 


*73 


ii. 
ii. 


140 . 
149 . 


MS 
. 492 


iv. 


f Stage 
\ Dirctn. 




ii. 
ii. 


249 . 
34 


433 

498 


ii. 
ii. 


51-80. . 

55 


455 
301 


ii. 


168 , 


. 501 


iv. 


M 


350 


ii. 


347 


93 


ii. 


96. . 


180 


ii. 


179 . 


. 501 


iv. 


30 . . 


343 


ii. 


360. 


. 87 


ii. 


126 . . 


95 


ii. 


197 . 


399 


iv. 


V 


301 


it- 


368. 


424 


ii. 


148 , . 


9* 



INDEX. 



ACT V. 


Sc 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. Line 


Par. 


i. 


106 . 


.381 


ii. 


126 . 


244 


iii. 


168 . 


.456 


i. 19 . 


. 414 


i. 


126 . 


55 


iii. 


18 . 


419 


iii. 


'73 


43 


i. 34 


. 400 


i. 


169 . 


356 


iii. 


66 . 


364 


iii. 


175 . 


.338 


L 50 . 


. 400 


i. 


174 


405 


iii. 


131 


. 216 iv. 


i . 


. 320 








KING JOHN 










ACT i. 




i. 


37i . 


294 


iv. 


29 . 


492 


ii. 


258. 


390 


i. 119 . 


. 269 


i. 


396. 


92 


iv. 


35 - 


49 


iii. 


94 


36 


i. 134 


350 


i. 


421 . 


492 


iv 


55 . 


. 166 


iii. 


95 


35* 


i. 144 . 


. 185 


i. 


47i 


294 


iv. 


78 . 


.461 








L 161 . 


. 506 


i. 


512 . 


. 267 


iv. 


123 . 


494 




ACT 


V. 


i. 183 . 
i. 242 . 


. 87 
. 261 


i. 
i. 
L 


560 . 
567 
568 . 


474 
'93 
. 216 


iv. 


MS 


. 220 


ii. 
ii. 


39 
42 


350 
337 






L 


S7 


399 




ACT 


IV. 


ii. 


46. 


447 


ACT 11 




i. 


57S 


. 228 


i. 


61 . 


343 


ii. 


83 


457 


33 


348 


i. 


597 


. IQI 


i. 68-70 . 
i. 86 . 


326 
. 158 


ii. 
ii. 


91 . 
104 . 


. 236 

489 


t- 34 
> 73 
i. 109 . 
i. 177 . 

i. 216 . 


7 
34 2 
. 267 
. 473 

/247 
U'S 


i. 
i. 
i. 
i. 


ACT III. 
39 -269 
92 . . 128 
177 . . 491 
395 4" 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


27 
3 2 
33 
5 
75 


. 422 
. 178 
. 164 
214 
. 252 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 
iv. 
iv. 


138 . 
146. 
157 . 
7 
5 


350 
. 294 
465 
433 
. 126 


i. 220 . 

i. 250 . 


439 
. 415 


i. 
i. 


299 . 
327 . 


39 
. 196 


ii. 


148. 


/i56 
'(260 


vi. 
vi. 


26 . 
44 


. 1 86 
'3' 


i. 264 . 


394 


iii. 


8 . 


. 510 


ii. 


165. 


. 410 


vii. 


22 . 


. 264 


i. 271 . 


417 


Hi. 




(475 


ii. 


189. 


. 200 


vii. 


35 


.480 


L 289 . 


f 4 66 
'l47i 


iii. 


3* 


52 


ii. 
ii. 


199 . 
200 . 


87 
474 


vii. 
vii. 


55 

60 . 


. 226 
243 


358- 


> 433 


iii. 


53 


374 


ii. 


257 


447 


vii. 


61 . 


. 81 


JULIUS CESAR. 


ACT I 




i. 


{ 5 }- 


. 329 


i. 


79 


.t26 3 


ii. 


4i. 


. 16 


3 


349 




152J 




ii. 


i . 


t49 


ii. 


48 . 


343 


L <i; 


, 232 


i. 


/55l 
\56J- 


. 218 


ii. 
ii. 


9 
19 . 


t3'5 
. 460 


ii. 
ii. 


7' 
7 . 


. 180 

. 26 


L 43. 


. t8 5 


i. 


57 


512 


ii. 


28 . 




ii. 


TI . 


. 229 


L 48. 


. 129 


L 


63- 


. 22 




(->?} 




ii. 


I TO . 




L 50- 


.283 


L 


66 . 


.t66 


ii. 


$ 


. 280 


ii. 


114 . 


SO' 



472 



fNDEX. 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 1 


ii. 


124 . 


.t228 


iii. 


120 . 


257 


i. 


3 r 3 


. 382 


i. 


159 


ii. 


142 . 


?25 


iii. 


124 . 


2 


i. 


326. 


t359 


i. 


171 -t 


ii. 


160 . 


p. 16 


iii. 


i34 


. 240 


i. 


33 1 


. 208 


i. 


173 - -t 


ii. 


162 . 


tss 


iii. 


138 . 


t335 


ii. 


37 


t494 


i. 


196 . . 


ii. 


173 . 


?5 


iii. 


144 . 


. 128 


ii. 


38 


.+349 


i. 


208 . . 


ii. 


174 


. 280 


iii. 


148 . 


t335 


ii. 


42 . 


.+322 


i. 


209 . . 


ii. 


181 . 


tigS* 


iii. 


154 


333 


ii. 


76 . 


.487 


i. 


215 . . 


ii. 
u. 


197 . 


.ti?6 
. d) 




ACT II. 


ii. 


80 . 


f 490 

U497 


i. 
i. 


231 . .+ 
268 . .t 


ii. 

ii. 


205 . 

208 . 


. 421 
. 144 


i. 





73 


ii. 

ii. 


IOI . 

114 . 


5" 
+344 


i. 
i. 


2 74 -t 
281 . . 


ii. 


212 . 


. 421 


i. 


50 . 


343 


ii. 


117 . 


65 


i. 


289 . . 


ii. 


231 


. 12 


i. 


75 


t37 


ii. 


119 . 


.+356 


i. 


295 -t 


ii. 
K. 


28 4 . 


. 90 
ftl02 
I {2) 


i. 
i. 
i. 


81 . 

83 
91 . 


494 
. 290 


ii. 
iii. 


129 . 

a 


235 


ii. 

ii. 


U- 

29 . .t 














iv. 




. (5) 








(io6\ 




i. 


106 . 


. 112 











/7^X 


ii 

a. 

ii. 


312 . 


233 
244 


i. 
i. 
i. 


108 . 
"3 

125 . 


378 
253 
390 


iv. 

iv. 



{$ 


t333 
513 


ii. 

ii. 


\73/' ' 
84. . 

96 . . 


ii. 


3 i6. 


279 


i. 


135 










ii. 


115 


iii. 


4 


t442 


i. 


136. 


37 




ACT III. 


ii. 


121 . ,f 


iii. 


14 . 


. 6 




/ J 5 2 l 




i. 


17 


474 


ii. 


125 . .t 


iii. 


21 . 


. 264 


i. 


ussr 


t5i3 


i. 


18 . 


.485 


ii. 


I8 7 . . 


iii. 


22 . 


(3) 


i. 


157 . 


. 172 


i. 


23 


47 


ii. 


192 . . 


iii. 


39 


45 


i. 


160 . 


. 00 


i. 


30 . 


247 


ii. 


231 . . 


iii. 
iii. 


42 . 
47 


. 86 
.1223 


i. 





.468 


i. 


So}' 


. 281 


ii. 
ii. 


254 
266 . .t 


iii. 
iii. 


60 . 
64 . 


V/8 


i. 
i. 


194 . 
196. 


4466 
. 158 


i. 


W 


t2 79 


ii. 
iii. 


275 
13- -t 


iii. 


65 


. 290 


i. 


208 . 


474 


i. 


92 


t28 7 


iii. 


2O . . 








i. 


209 . 


. 512 


i, 


95 


.tn8 






iii. 


IT])' 


5 


i. 


216 . 


. 263 


i. 


100 . 


.t20 4 




ACT IV. 


iii 


77 


tp- 13 


i. 


224 . 


397 


i. 


121 . 


. ii 






iii. 


82, 


.fi 37 


i. 


230 . 


43 


i 


137 


.1469 


i. 


2 . .t 


iii. 


87 


3*5 


i. 


238. 


343 


i 


I 4 . 


fti 33 
U349 


i. 
i. 


12 . . 
23 


iii. 


\92j' 


236 


L 


285. 


(t497 

L or 


i. 


M3 


. 189 


i. 


28 . . 




<TOll 








\*5oi 


i. 


144 . 


t^Q 


i. 


41 . . 


iii, 


I02f 


(4) 


i. 


291 . 


tSi3 


i. 


'55 


t28o 


i. 


47 


iii. 


"7 


279 


i. 


309 


A *44 


i. 


S7 


236 


ii. 


5 



INDEX. 



47J 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line Par. 


ii. 


26 . 


.t29I 


iii. 


201 


.+47 


j 


( 35 1- 


tS!3 


iii. 


32 


. . 506 


ii. 


Si 


+494 


iii. 


231 


. . 480 




\36/ 




iii. 


38 


. . 178 


iii. 


9 


483 


iii. 


237 


478 


i. 


44 


. 482 


iii. 


(46 
\ 


.+513 


iii. 


to . 


+356 


iii. 


241 


295 


i. 


45 
f . \ 


. 506 


iii. 


85 


. . 212 


ii.:. 


19 . 


. 217 


iii. 


255 


. 51 


i. 


J47l 

w 


+5'3 








iii. 


(37} 

loRf* 


514 


iii. 


261 


-t3 2 3 


i. 


60 . 


2 


iii. 


96 


I 16 




(jBU 




iii. 


|2j' 


513 


i. 


70 . 


. 5 06 


iii. 


97 


. .U6 


iii. 


16sf* 


t*44 








i. 


72 . 


. J.IA 


iii. 


99 


13 




WD* 




iii. 


270 


. .|28i 




t, . 


1.4- 








iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


73 
95 

102 . 
Ill) 


350 
. 24 

(9) 

(+263 


iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


271 
273 
280 


.363 
.456 
(10) 


i. 
i. 


So . 
83 . 


234 

379 

. + 263 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 
v. 


12 

3 
32 

3 


. . 420 
. . 4 6fi 
-+295 
. -ti 3 6 


in. 


II2/ ' 


>t264 








i. 


87 . 


.tic? 


v. 


M 


. .t28 3 


Hi. 


142 . 


t497 




ACT 


V. 


i. 


96. 


.+442 


V. 


22 


. .t 4 i4 


iii. 


153 


.t469 


i. 


i 


474 


i. 


108 . 


.tsoo 


V. 


33 


. 232 


iii. 


I 5 6. 


. 380 




/26\ 




i. 


in . 


+5I3 


V. 


35 


. . 123 


iii. 


157 


.+466 


" 


\2?J 


-+5J3 


iii. 


7 


.+495 


V. 


38 


-457< 


iii. 


179 . 


. 486 


i. 


33 


. . 412 


iii. 


25 


295 


V. 


69 


. . 118 


(i) 


i Hen 


. IV. iii. 2. 16. 
(4) Play on " 


(2) Folio, "and." 
bond." Macbeth iii. 2. 49 ; 


(3) Rich. III. 
Rich. HI. iv. 4. 77. 


v. 3. 156. 


(0 


Rich. 


///. iv. 4. 444. 




(6) M. of V. iii. 


2.61. 


(7) A. 


y. L 


. i. 3. 35. 


(8) 


Perhaps i. 2. 156. 


(9) Folio, "Pluto's." 


See Introduction, p. 


1 6, note. 



(10) Temfest, i. 2. 213. 



LEAR. 



ACT A. 




( 87) 




i. 


150 . .tsoi l. 


205 . 


(I) 






i \ QAr 


+468 












1. 36. 


+3I5 


' \I26J 




i. 


153 -+3 6 4 


i. 


207 . 


294 


i. M. 


469 


i. 99 . 


384 


i. 


{isl}- -*458 


i. 


213 . 


t 4 oi 


l7J 








; 


162 .t^i^ 


i. 


i 21 ( 


. tn 


i. 46 . 


tsoi 


. 


.tsoo 


' 






UI9J 




i. 50 . 


I 


_ 




i. 


163 . . 2CX3 


i. 


217 . 


t3S 


i- 54 
i. 56 
i. 74 . 
L 77 . 


.tsia 


i. {i34j-. 

tosv 

137 


(+497 
i Of 


i. 
i. 
i. 
i. 


178 . .tsSi 
181 . .1469 
183 . .taia 

{l^}' <ta47 


i. 
i. 
i. 


223 . 

32$ . 
226 . 


ft2 79 
1+290 

458 
XUol 


i. 78. 


.t 4 69 


i. 139 . 


+497 


i. 


198 . .t49 


i. 


827 . 


387 


\. 89, 


. tu 


i. 147 . 


458 


i. 


*>3 . .tao? 





788. 


+501 



474 


INDEX. 


Sc. 


Line Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. Line 


Par. Sc 


Line 


Par. 


i 


{220} 


.+252 


iv. 


194 . 


.+203 


i. 


63 




iii. 


21 . 


tss 


i. 


39 


t343 


iv. 


197 


(4) 


i. 


68 . 


t439 


iv. 


2 . 


.+468 








IV. 


204 . 


. 213 


i 


72 . 


294 


iv. 


2 7 


377 


L 


Uso/' 


.+469 


iv. 


223 . 


jt434 


i. 


| 72 }. 


t25i 


iv. 


35 


87 


i. 
i. 
L 


251 
262 . 
264. 


.+287 
375 
77 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 


224 . 
225 . 
336 . 


457 
.+360 
. 228 


i. 
i. 
i. 


77 
91 . 

94 


.t36 
.+401 
.478 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 


42 . 
64. 
65. 


. 401 
t37 
(4) 


L 


271 . 


13 














IV. 


68 . 


.+188 


L 


272 . 


4M 


iv. 
iv. 


242 . 
261 . 


. 418 


i. 


97 


TOO 


iv. 


90 . 


.480 


L 


304 
4 > 


t442 
456 


iv. 


26; . 


tsei 


l - 


IS" 


490 


iv. 
iv. 


91 . 

101 . 


47' 
t5i3 








iv. 


270 . 


439 


i. 


100 . 


301 








ii. 


>4 


\t93 


iv. 


272 . 


/3S4 
'1438 


i. 


in . 


. 482 


iv. 
iv. 


102 . 
107 . 


. 480 
. 69 


U. 


'5 


It 5 " 


iv. 


283 . 


.+223 


i. 


113 . 


ti74 


iv. 


Ill . 


. til 






' 








i. 


114 . 


483 








a. 


f S- 


.+232 


iv. 


283 . 


/478 
tt S i3 


L 


126 . 


.+468 


iv. 


W' 


490 




(125) 




iv. 


297 . 


. 480 


i. 


isg 


t479 


iv. 


'34 


490 


ii 


44 


((2) 


iv. 


299 . 


.t s 


ii. 


54 


. 468 


iv. 


'45 


. 366 


ii. 
ii. 


77 
87 . 
89 . 


.381 
.+348 
. 134 


iv. 
iv. 

iv. 


305 . 
306. 
324 


439 
423 
-438 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


So . 
82 . 
86 . 


24 

. 12 

.ts 


iv. 


148 . 
'57 


tSi3 
45 


ii. 
Ii. 


93 

106 . 


343 

.+220 


iv. 


328. 
332 . 
347 


463 
tsoi 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


88 . 

106 . 
107 . 


. 2OO 

(4) 
4" 


iv. 
iv. 


aio . 
215 


+95 
.4I7 


ii. 


161 . 


^ $ 


iv. 


349 


440 


ii. 


109 . 


492 


iv. 


220 . 


484 


ii. 


164. 


. 419 


iv. 


362. 


. 480 


ii. 


113 . 


.+49 


iv. 


{245}- 


458 


ii. 


197. 


458 


iv. 


365 . 


483 


ii. 


f!2 7 | 

Ii28/- 


t37 


iv. 


251 . 


457<* 


iii. 


i . 


. I 7 8 


iv. 


366. 


437 


ii. 


128 . 


. 290 


iv. 


253 


t5i3 


iii. 


21 . 


. 482 


v. 


14 


.+401 


ii. 


. _ 




iv. 


254 


t494 


iii. 
iv. 


*3 
26 . 


+50I 

t2?4 


V. 
V. 


35 
36. 


+3*9 

. 299 


ii. 
ii. 


139 
ISO . 


. 290 
tg 


iv. 
iv. 


255 
271 . 


.+128 
479 


iv. 


40 . 


.+281 


V. 


5i 


t329 


ii. 


53 


t494 


iv. 


274 . 


47 


iv. 


{64}' 


. 280 


ACT II. 


ii. 


54 


399 


iv. 


'277} fc 


1. 247 


iv. 
hr. 


in . 

112 . 


. 81 

/ (4) 
jtioi 


i. 
i. 


28 . 
32 . 


.+469 
5" 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


172 . 
177 . 


. tn 
458 
.+468 


iv. 
iv. 


279 
290 . 


.+281 

507 


IT. 


114 . 


\ 363 
. 182 


i. 
i. 


37 - 
41 . 


485 
. 178 


iii. 
iii. 


5 

7 . 


t37 
. ii 


IV. 


293 


f 400 


iv. 


115 


33 


i. 


47 


.287 








iv. 


303 


i 484 


iv. 


131. 


4 


i. 


57 


t<36 


ui. 


So}' 


t<68 


iv. 


309 


.t479 



INDEX. 



475 



ACT III 
Sc. Line 


Par. 


Sc. Line 
"& 


Par. 
. 260 


Sc. 
ii. 

ii. 


Line 
62 . 

63 


Par. 

474 
438 


Sc. 
vi. 

vi. 


I.ii c 
196. 

212 . 


Par. 

479 
45'3 


i. 


a . 


t494 


v. 


8 . 


34 


ii. 


64 . 


. 508 


vi. 


214 . 


P- 13 


i. 


5 


t399 


V. 


33 


.t433 


ii. 


79 


443 


vi. 


319 . 


. 287 


L 


ii . 


434 


V. 


40 . 


. 290 


ii. 


M- 


t5i3 


vi. 


2241 


| 




i 




vi. 


96 . 


. 191 




193J 






225.1' 




i. 


{24}' 


266 


vi. 


105 . 


. 290 


ii. 


94 


t494 


vi. 


226 . 


372 


L 


33 


t9Q 


vi. 


117 . 


294 


iii. 


8 . 


t374 


vi. 


229 . 


.ti8 9 




. 










iii. 


16 . 


. 364 








j. 


i If- 


tz8i 


vi. 


131 . 


254 








vi. 


246 . 


.(3*5 




l3* 




vii. 


17 . 


. tgo 


iii. 


24 


. 510 






UDI 


i. 


38 . 


438 


vii. 


3 


fol. 335 


iii. 


41 . 


t68a 


vi. 


253 


43*9 


1 


S3 > 


. 460 


vii. 


45 


. 290 


iii. 


44 


t458 


vi. 


256 . 


498 


i. 
i. 


42 


5i3 


vii. 


{} 


478 


iv. 

iv. 


8 . 
9 


307 
93 


vi. 
vi. 


259 
266 . 


tsi3 
(337 






U9 


vii. 


54 * 


. (8) 


iv. 


i? > 


.428 






''395 


i. 


52 . 


. 186 


vii. 


61 . 


. 428 


iv. 


20 . 


. 484 


vi. 


382 . 


492 


i. 


M- 

\55> 


. (6) 


vii. 


65- 


433 


iv 


26 




vi. 


284. 


294 


ii. 


5 


4S7 


vii. 


69. 


.+319 


iv. 


28 . 


497 


vi. 
vii. 


288 . 

4 * 


t342 
395 


ii. 


8 . 


. (?) 


vii. 


/89l 
IpoJ 


. 260 


v. 


3 > 


479 


vii. 


9 




ii. 
ii. 


54 
59 


4190 

. + 201 


vii. 


9* 


. 483 


v. 


13- 


f 4 6o 
'U94 


vii. 


i? 


430 


ii. 


61 . 


ti 3 


vii. 


103 


4457 


V. 


24 


t47 


vii. 


35 


477 


ii. 


64 . 


. t" 




ACT IV. 


vi. 


3 . 


. 3 


vii. 


36. 


{433 


;i 


65 


/ *38 








vi. 


8 . 


. 232 


vii. 


52 . 


.f 4 8o 


ii. 
ii. 


74 
92 . 


. 96 
. 486 


i. 
i. 


47 
5* 


457* 
-t2?4 
f 460 
' U457 


vi. 
vi. 

vi. 


14 . 

21 . 


t275 

375 
232 


vii. 
vii. 
vii. 


62 . 
65 
67. 


5 
4468 
4406 


iii. 


14 


. 290 










HI/' 










iii. 


19 . 


. in 


i. 


53 


. . x8a 


vL, 


33 


. 411 


vii. 


78. 


4457 


iii. 


22 . 


4343 


i. 


54 


. . 226 


vi. 


38 


. 446 


vii. 


79 


ft7<5 


iv. 
iv. 


12 . 
IS 


.1468 


i. 
i. 


73 
78 


. -t322 

. 4129 


vi. 
vi. 


4i 
45 


. 212 
. 145 


vii. 


83- 


4513 


iv. 


35 


t244 


ii. 


a 


35 


vi. 


54 


3*4 


ACT V, 


iv. 


59 


4 


ii. 


6 


. 4494 


vi. 


58 


. 24 


i. 


3O 


J223 


iv. 


61 . 


33 


ii. 


10 


395 


vi. 


61 


.f2OO 






U38 


iv. 


65 .fol. 335 


ii. 


f22 
\23 


235 


vi. 


68 


.t 4 68 


i. 


26 . 


290 


iv. 


76. 


467 


L 


26 


. .482 


vi. 


7 


44 


i. 


28 . 


477 


iv. 


92 . 


+93 


iL 


32 


. . 328 


vi. 


77 


4'7 


i. 


32 


479 


iv. 


105 . 


-+230 




f S I 




vi. 


112-31 . 511 


i. 


45 


4i73 


iv. 


112 . 


.tl3 7 


ii. 


\53 


>. . 260 


vi 


77 


. 484 


i. 


60 . 


.469 


IT- 


l?2 . 


. 991 


a. 


60 


. . ti6 


vi. 


187 


461 


i 


6? 


4 



INDEX. 



Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


iii. 2 4218 


iii. 102 . 4513 


iii. 181 . . 199 


iii. 247 . 4274 


iii. 20 . . 469 


iii. 120 . . 382 


iii. 202 . . 51 


iii. 251 . . 212 


iii. 22 . . 315 


iii. 125 . . 254 


iii. 204 . . 178 


iii. 253 . . 441 


iii. 48 . . 263 


iii. 138 . 4361 


iii. 208 . 4499 


iii 262 | a87 


iii. 50 . -f 2l8 


iii. 143 . 4283 


iii. 213 . 4223 


(290 


iii. 97 . . 254 


iii. 144 . 4397 
iii / I 48ljt24zor 


iii. 223 . 4513 
iii. 234 . . 333 


iii. 266 . . 268 
iiL 274 . . 24 


iii. 98 .. 447 


I 1 49/l i 2 72 


iii. 239 . 4si3 


iii. 282 . . 461 


iii. loo . . 253 


iii. 168 . . 480 


iii. 243 . . 469 




d) A. W. v. 3. 297. (2) Folio, "too blame." (3) i Han. VI. iii. 3. 10. 
(4) Folio, "and" (&) for "an." (5) Folio, "tended." (6) Hen. V. iv. 3. 35-6. 
(7) Mcubeth, iv. i. 59. (8) Ib. v. 7. 1, 2. (9) But Folio, " importuned. 


LOVE'S LABOUR LOST. 


ACT I. 


l. 123 . . 500 


iii. 219 . . 165 


ii. 363 . . 187 


L 43 . . 176 


i. 133 . . in 


iii. 224 . . 344 


ii. 440 . . 200 


i. 65 .. 422 
i. So . . 220 


i. 156 . . 442 
i. 160 . . 460 


>. 345 4" 
ACT V. 


tel- 


i. 86 .. 5 


i. 174 . . 109 


1 ., 0. 


ii. 494 . . 184 


i. 107 . . 177 


i. 177 . . 364 


.v. IS i 

iL 8 . . 202 


ii. 322 . . 19 


i. 137 . . 492 


ACT III. 


ii. 9 . . 283 


" 75 333 








ii. 732 . .144 


ACT II. 

i. 2 . . 274 


i. 153 . . \yi 
ACT IV. 


ii. 6g . . 344 
ii. 190 . . 467 


ii. 778. .{344 


i. 18 . . 51 


iii. 108 . . 368 


ii. 213 . . 460 


>i- 799 434 


i. 28 .. 168 


iii 118 . . 368 


ii. 274 . . 430 


ii. 813 . . 285 


i. 42 .. 491 


iii. 150 . . 143 


ii. 332 . . 487 


ii. 923 . .178 


i. 45 . . 485 


(16 1 


ii. 349 . . 200 


ii. 923 . . 90 


i. 107 . . 2 


iii. { _g}- 349 


ii. 355 4 I 9 a 


ii. 926 . . 300 


MACBETH. 


ACT I. 


ii. 10 . 186 


ii. 43 2 75 


ii- 59 433 


i. i . 4s4 


ii. 13 . . 171 


ii. 45 . .306 


ii. 64 . .tsoi 


i. 12 . 4466 


ii. 20 .. 511 


ii. 46 . , 323 


iii. 32 . . 485 


ii. 3 -479 


ii- 34 477 


ii. 31 . . 511 


iii. 45 . .323 


ii. 5 . . 484 


ii. 37 . . 511 


ii. 53 . 4460 


iii. {S3}. .236 


. 7 -tso6 


ii. 4 5" 


" its'? 


iii. 57 . .t?8j 



INDEX. 



477 



$:. Line P.r. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


iii. 84. .{$ 


vii. 8 . .283 


iii. 62 . . 470 


i. 100 . . 158 


iii. 94 . .fi64 


vii. 23 . . 3 


iii. 64 . 4492 


i. 103 . , 485 


fi 1 


vii. 25 . ^283 


iii. 75 . . 513 


i. 105 . . 468 


iii. Iio 3 }- ' 5" 
iii. 107 . .1466 


vii. 26 . 4130 
vii. 28 . . 506 


-C3- -S'3 


i. 107 . . 162 
1. 108 t497 


iii. 109 . . 251 


vii. 34 . . 329 


iii. 109 . .fsii 


i. 112 . ,fi93 


iii. in . . 466 


vii. 50 . .t356 


iii. I" 7 1- 529 

\I2l) S V 


i. 118 . . 473 


iii. 120 . . 45 


vii. 77 . . 12 


iii. 127 . . 480 


i. 121 . . 150 


iii. {"J}; jt4 


ACT H 


iii. | I2 9}. . 5,1 


i. 122 . |3 t0 


\15 I 3 


i. 5 . . 212 


1.130.) 


35 


iii. 120 . l*^ 1 


/ \ 


iii. 143 . . i 


; ( 274 


\T468 


i- | I2 j- 5'3 


. 


* It2l8 


iii. 139 . . 467 


i. 17 . .147 


iii. 146 . < 335 


i. 132 .f M 


iii. 144 . .1295 




iv. 4 . . 290 


(378 


iii. 147 . .t336 


L X 9 ' '{484 


iv. 10 . . 438 


i. 139 . .t497 


iii. 154 . . 202 


i. 20 .. 485 


iv. 14 . . 471 


ii. ii . \ti97 


iv. 3 . .f343 


i. 24 . . 473 


iv. 17 . .tio? 


I 468 


iv. 8 . . 93 


i- {} .t5i3 


v. 32 - -tS'S 


ii. 13 . . 513 


iv. 9 . . 295 


V3 1 ' 




ii. 28 . . 460 


iv. n. .{ 3 
\I07 


s - 32 (tiS 


ACT III. 


ii. 30 . .t477 


- 

v. 19 .. 329 


i. 36 .. 3 
i. 4' 5" 
i. 51 484 


i. 14 . . 12 

L ^ te 


ii. 32 . . 284 
ii- 33 453 
ii. 49 (2) 


V. 21 . .f244 


i. 57 . .t4M 


i. 25 -{,02 


ii. 51 . .f5u 


V. 26 . .f2I2 


i. 61 . . 333 


i. 40 .. 512 


iii. 2 . . 308 


v. 28 . .t49i 
v. 30. 1*336 

\p. 12 


4 473 
ii. 7 . 4283 




iii. 4 . .187 
iii. 6 . . 290 


v. 40 .. 477 


ii. 21 . . 511 


fill- ' 5" 


iv. z . . 468 


r. 45 . .t 4 9o 


ii. 24 . . 283 


i. 49 385 


S'3 


v. 49 . . 467 


ii. 25 . . 479 


i. 51 . ^329 




v. 50 .. t3 

V. 52 . . |20 


ii. 28 . . 107 
ii. 29 . . 199 


i. 52 .. 185 
i, 54 . . 118 


f t24 
iv. 34 . ti4<j 
"414 


v. 58 .. 484 
r. 62 .. 511 


ii. 30 . .tsoo 
ii. 40 . ^467 


i. 65 .. 460 


iv. 36 . .| *g 






i. 74 .. 244 




vi. 3 . .t47i 


ii. 57(pun) (i) 




iv. 37 . .t 4 94 


vi. 17 . .t 4 i 9 


ii. 63 . .tsn 


i. |gJ. . 468 


iv. 42 . t74 


vi. 19 . .fi8s 


ii- 73 357 


i. 89 . .t28i 


iy. 57 . . 315 


i. 30 . 492 


iii. t . . 93 


i- 95 374 


i 53 . 453 



478 



INDEX. 



Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


iv. 61 . . fi6 


i. 153 497 


iii. 152 . . 15 


iv. 6 . . 494 


iv. 64 . . 187 


ii. 23 . . 399 


iii. (I54 1. . 200 


iv. 8 . . 17 


iv. 66 . . 491 


ii. 27 .. 282 


\iS9/' 


iv. 12 . . 17 


iv. 121 . . 468 


a. - .tsi3 


iii. 171 . .-I 8 ? 4 


iv. 19 . . 468 


iv. 126 . .{+73 


ii- 37 i54 


iii. 173 . . 131 
iii. 177 . .J477 


v- & -t343 


iv. 131 . . 81 


ii. 64 . .1513 


iii. 184 . . 94 


v. 13 .. 107 


iv. 133 . -I 47 , 8 


ii- 70 .. 357 


^287 


v. 30 . .isia 


145 


ii. 73 . .t466 


5 " "\288 


v. 31 . . 323 


iv. 138 . . 384 
iv. 139 . . 403 


8 < -C2 


iii. 191 . 4403 
iii. 194 . . 329 


v. 49 t4 
vi. 5 -t3S9 


v. i . . 447 


iii. 10 . . 189 


iii. 210 . ,f2oo 


vi. 7 ^364 


V. 10 . .t27I 
V. 21 . . 498 

v. 31 . . 460 


iii. ii .. 252 
iii. 16 . . 403 


iii. 212 . . 314 

iii. ( 2IS 1 tsn 
Ui 9 / ''** 


vii. .,, .{>* 


vi. 2 . . 420 


U8J 


iii. 222 . . 279 


vii. 18 . . 466 


vi. 8 . . 477 


iii. 28 . . 511 


iii- 235 447 


vii. 22 . .tso6 


vi. 19 . .t32 


iii- {Jj. 454 


iii. 239 . . 468 


vii. 28 .. 405 


vi. 21 . . 460 


iii- 47 315 


ACT V. 


viii. 4 . . 409 


vi. 27 .. 170 


iii. 48 . .202 




viiL 7 . 4ioa 


vi. 30 . ^498 
vi. 38 . .t342 


iii. 49 |{3 


L 12 .. 450 

i. 29 fol. 471 


viii. 9 . 3 
viii. 13 . . 200 


vi. 41 . .1-220 


iii. 74 .. 277 


i. 66 .. 266 


viii. 18 . . 423 


vi. 42 . . 257 


iii. 86 . .217 


i. 75 . . 252 


viii. 22 . . 513 


vi. 48 . 419*1 


iii. 82 . 4283 


ii. 4 . . 92 


viii. 34 . . 208 




Hi. 91 . .fsi3 


ii. 20 .. fss 


viii. 40 . .130 


ACT IV. 


iii. 93 . . 492 


ii. 22 .. 356 


{127 


i. 6 . . 484 


iii. 97 . .t4Q8 


iii. 5 496 


t27O 
1 ' 


i. 20 .. 504 

i- 59 (3) 
i. 65 .. 344 
i. 89 . .f 4 68 


iii. 106 . . 287 
iii. in .fol-48o 
iii. 125 . . 148 
iii. 133 . . 429 


iii- 7 . -tigi 
iii. 13 . .t 3 3S 
iii. 19 .. 513 
iii. 25 . . 113 

/__\ 


47 
viii. 48 . . (5) 
viii. 64 . .405 
viii. 65 . .1329 
viii. 66 . .fii3 


i. ( los l. . 485 


iii. 137 . 4463 


... |37| 
m. <4o>. ^231 


viii. 72 . . 286 


U3<5/' 


iii. 139 . .t 5 i 3 


(57) 




> MS -t343 


iii. 148 . . 429 


iv. 2 . 4284 


viii. g 4 }. . 80 


S Compare Macbeth, v. 8. 48. ( a ) Rich. III. iv. 4. H 
Lear, m. 2. 8. ( 4 ) H. ft. 7 . 64. (5) Compare ii. a. 67. 



% INDEX. 



479 



MEASURE FOR MEASURE. 





ACT I 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


ii. 


103 . 


. 266 


i. 


86 . . 


513 


iii. 


147 


469 


L 


42 


49i 





noj 


. 5" 


i. 


89- . 


495 


iii. 


185 . 


. 6 


L 


V 


474 




L' I 9l 




i. 


107 . . 


512 


iv. 


21 


315 


L 


54 


. 67 


ii. 


115 . 


34 


i. 


121 . . 


375 


iv. 


28 


. 290 


i. 


56 . 


. 501 


ii. 


119 . 


394 


i. 


240 . . 


86 


V. 


6 . 


. 467 


L 

ii. 


69. 

4 . 


. 290 

. 228 


ii. 
ii. 


156. 

159 


. 486 


ii. 
ii. 


32 

38 


467 
298 


vi. 


13 


\474 


ii. 


24 . 


. 64 


ii. 


160 . 


. 50 


ii. 


86 . 


396 


vi. 


14 


. 192 


ii. 


129 . 


494 


ii. 


180 . 


. 468 


ii. 


100 . . 


326 




ACT 


V. 


ii. 


163 . 


419 


iii. 


42 . 


174 


ii. 


126 . 


93 


i. 


3 


. 222 


ii. 
iii. 
iii. 


189 . 

31 . 

39 


. 367 
. 87 

'1503 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 
iv. 


57 
74 
80 . 

103 . 


492 
. 503 
. 342 
. 186 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


138. 
165 . 
172 . 

224 . 


77 
244 
39 
'45 


i. 
i. 


36 

5 


1397 
U74 

369 


iii. 


49 


J 7 


iv. 


104 . 


. 5 












fsoi 


iv. 


5 


. 498 


iv. 


Ill . 


.461 


ii. 


Mr 


504 


i. 


5 1 


v503 


iv. 

iv. 


26 . 

28 . 


. 230 
394 


iv. 


fill'. 
\"2/ 


.478 




ACT IV 




i. 
i. 


65 
74 


503 






J4 2 3 


iv. 


118 . 


. 501 








i. 


131 


. 461 


iv. 


7 


"1^60 








ii. 


78 . 


SO* 












\4"y 


iv. 


133 


. 39 








i. 


145 


. p. 16 


iv. 


79 


.469 


iv. 


141 . 


. 50 


ii. 


90 . 


43 


i. 


237 


. . 127 








iv. 


153 


. 86 


ii. 




92 . 
95 


. 460 

. 122 


i. 


240 


J423 
' '(480 


i. 
i. 


ACT II. 
15 <394 
28 . . iii 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 


170 . 
171 . 
172 . 


5 
.361 
453 


ii. 
ii. 


97 
103 . 


.376 
.461 


i. 
i. 


255 
35 


. . 41 
. . 265 














ii. 


in . 


. 378 


i. 


3H 


. . 484 


i. 


33 


. 469 




















ii. 


9 


. 500 




ACT III. 


ii. 


150 . 


. I2 7 


i. 


3*5 


. . 482 


ii. 


12 . 


l5 


L 


i . 


|i77 
\469 


ii. 
ii. 


172 . 

220 . 


93 
325 


i. 
i. 


347 
368 


. . 196 
233 


ii. 


16 . 


. ii 


i. 


5 


. 501 


iii. 


7 8. 


. 3i 


i. 


400 


. . 260 


ii. 


33 


. 244 


i. 


(Fol.)2o. 340 


iii. 


I 3 . 


.508 


i. 


408 


. 498 


ii. 


46. 


. 422 


i. 


28 . 


. 484 


iii. 


133 


492 


i. 


494 


. . 29 


ii. 


52 . 


. 3 


i. 


32 


. 501 


iii. 


I 3 8. 


349 


i. 


496 


. . 480 


ii. 


60 . 


. 408 


i. 


43 


357 


iii. 


144 


. 468 


i. 


498 


503 


it 


98. 


. 49" * 


4 


.469 


iii. 


'45 


.498 


i. 


534 


S 



INDEX. 



MERCHANT OF VENICE. 





ACT I 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 








ii. 


109 . 


93 


i. 


19 . 


.t2l8 


vi. 


53 . 


.tia5 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


iii. 


4 


t270 


i. 


42 . 


. t8g 


vii. 


i . 


t439 


* 


5 ' 


ItS" 


iii. 


7 . 


|t 3 07 


i. 


43 


.+406 


vii. 





. 264 


> L 

L 
L 


8 . 
7 

22 . 


479 
. t6g 
453 


iii. 
iii. 


12 . 

22 . 


(5) 

. (6) 


ii. 
ii. 


\2S/' 

45 


t3S6 
. 165 


vii. 


i 


. 501 










f \ 










vii. 


43 


345 


, L 


26 . 


.tnS 


iii. 


t t* 


151 


11. 


. 


t23I 
















(44* 










vii. 


53 


. 187 


L 
L 


35 

38. 


38 
t295 


iii. 


{55}- 


ti?4 


ii. 
ii. 


104 . 
108 . 


175 

. 460 


vii. 
viii. 


?i 

25 


275 
.ts68 


L 


50 . 


.tsoo 


iii. 


63- 


.ti?8 


ii. 


115 


. 22O 


viii. 


2 9 


474 


i. 


54 


t49 


iii. 


65 


295 


ii. 


124 . 


349 


viii. 


33 


t23<J 


i. 


55 


. t89 


iii. 


74 


. no 


ii. 


161 . 


.t226 






/ti59 


L 


69 . 


. 469 


iii. 


85- 


. 220 


ii. 


169. 


. 185 




42 . 


i 169 


i. 


74 


9* 


iii. 


89 . 


tzgi 




[189) 




ix. 


U5>' 


\t479 






fp.13 


iii. 


98 . 


^469 


* 


LI oof * 


23 1 








i. 


82 . 


1 / T \ 














ix. 


14 


5 








iii. 


107 . 


t373 


ii. 


189 . 


.t2I2 


ix. 


26 . 




L 
L 
i. 


93 
98 . 
in . 


257 
399 
490 


iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


no . 
119 . 
126 . 


. t6g 

t200 

499 


ii. 
iv. 


194 . 

I . 


.+401 
. 161 


ix. 
ix. 


28 . 
51 


t495 
.tsoi 


i. 


126 . 


356 










4 


\ti74 


ix. 


61 . 


492 








iii. 


137 


249 


iv. 


5 . 


tso? 


ix. 


68 . 


345 


V L 


143 


(466 


iii. 


140 . 


t426 


iv. 


6 . 


t343 


ix. 


90 . 


45i 






1 or 

Itsoo 


iii. 
iii. 


143 
146. 


514 
.+219 


. iv. 


10. 


{tS 


ix. 


91 . . 76 
ACT III. 


i. 


144 . 


43 


iii. 


150 . 


. 148 


iv. 


24 . 


171 


i. 


2 . 


76 


L 


148 . 


. 20 

/tiio 
Iti 3 6 


iii. 


162 . 


. 256 

/333 
"349 


iv. 
v. 


40 . 
'7 


315 

.ti40 


i. 

i. 


8 . 
57 


ti73 
.1980 


i. 


54 


356 


iii. 


167 . 


495 


V ' 


22 . 


\tioi 


i. 


no . 


. 198 


L' 


160 . 


(3) 


iii. 


176. 


t3 


v . 


37 


I 1 74 


ii. 


2 . 


372 


L 


163. 


. 6Sft 












1 4* 


ii. 


16 . 


. 462 


L 

i. 
I 


166 . 
175 
178 . 
185 . 


.ti8 7 
t244 
. 466 
.ti68 


i. 
i. 
J 4 


ACT II. 
3 -t264 
7 . . tio 
g . .+.--> 


V. 
V. 

vi. 
vi. 


47 
52 

2 . 
23 . 


t430 
319 
tSoo 
t297 


ii. 
ii. 


fi8| 

\20/ 
19 . 
21 . 


J(7") 
I 333 

.t2l5 


L ' 


7-9 


.t232 








vi. 


24 


483 


ii. 


29 . 


. 200 


L 


66 . 


.ti40 


i. 


9 


291 


vi. 


30 . 


t2?4 


ii. 


61 . 


. 361 


; 'L' 


75 


320 


i. 


{14}' 


. t8 9 


vL 


40 . 


3'4 


ii. 


63 


(8) 


L 


IOO . 


333 


i. 


16 . 


198 


vi 


ft 


323 


ii. 


64 . 


.ti36 



tffDEX. 



481 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc 


Line 


Par. 


Sc 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


ii. 


Is 6 }- 


123 


ii. 


279 


. 144 





57 


t399 


i. 


43i 


356 






((9) 


ii. 


283 . 


194 


i. 


76 . 


. 382 


i. 


444 


460 


ii. 


93 




ii. 


295 . 


398 


i. 


77 


344 


i. 


445 


.(12) 


ii. 


96. 


. 381 


ii. 


310 . 


. t30 


i. 


90 . 


. t8? 


i. 


45i 


. 488 


ii. 


97 


294 


ii. 


321 


. 209 


i. 


104 . 


. 192 






ft307 


ii. 


109 . 


. 113 


iii. 


/ 9\ 


. 281 




<iool 






* 


1(13) 










\ioj" 




i. 


uy 1 


tsi3 








ii. 


in . 


5" 


iii. 


I 5 


92 




ISQJ 






























ACT V 




ii. 


"5 


t5o6 


iii. 


25 


354 


i. 


127 . 


479 








ii. 


117 . 


. 136 


iii. 


30 . 




i. 


128 . 


.() 


i 

' 


i &c \ 


. 161 


ii. 


120 . 


t323 


iv. 


3 


. 467 


i. 


34 


376 




16 




ii. 


124 . 


. 466 


iv. 


14 . 


25 


i. 


145 . 


3*5 


i. 


ii . 


34' 


ii. 


127 . 


. 46 


iv. 


21 . 


'57 


i. 


164. 


T263 


i. 


20 . 


. 51 


ii. 


r s5 }- 


isoi 


iv. 


22 . 


*93 


i. 


166 . 


414 


i. 


25 


. tb 9 


ii. 


164 . 


. 127 


iv. 


25 


45i 


i. 


182 . 


3*4 


i. 


56 


159 
ft 340 


ii. 
ii. 


i6 S . 
169 . 


404 
472 


iv. 
iv. 


3 

40 . 


397 
348 


i. 
i. 


224 . 
242 . 


233 
. 180 


i. 

i. 


77 
94 . 


RH 

.t2 7 6 






_o 


i v 


46. 


. t2 


i. 


255 


. 471 


i. 


103 . 


. 200 


u. 





3 8 






r v>$ 


i. 


261 . 


37 


























i. 


148 . 


. 508 


ii. 
ii. 


i 7 8 . 

180 . 


t343 


iv. 


7 


32 


i. 

5. 


272 . 
275 . 


49 


i. 


159 


.() 


ii. 


193 


. 158 


iv. 


75 


.1283 


i. 


283 . 


. 266 


i. 


166 . 


{(i 7 ^ 


ii. 


205 . 


34i 


v. 


3 


.1200 


i. 


298. 


492 


i. 


169 . 


472 


ii. 


211 . 


ti33 


v. 


73 


. f87 


i. 


39 


t93 


i. 


175 


. 462 


u 


921 . 


t494 


v. 


89 . 


. 172 


i. 


312-4 


t5i3 


i. 


176 . 


.(12) 


M 


224 . 


. 287 




ACT IV 




i. 


327 


M 


! 


'77 


tzso 


n. 


226 . 


. 16 


i. 


i . 


ts 


i. 


332 


t342 


i. 


200 . 


. 218 


u. 


w 


t5i3 


i. 


5 


t442 


i. 


35i 


. 368 


fper- 


. 




, 


L 


8 . 


49 


i. 


355 


. 163 






"* l J J" 




230 . 


3 


i. 


9 


t28 S 


i. 


368 . 


. 348 


i. 


203 . 


tsi 


ii. 


3 33 




























i. 


22 . 


134 


i. 


379 


455 


i. 


204 . -j 


ta6o 


ii. 


1242!' 


t469 


i. 


35 


295 


i. 


382. 


ti33 


i. 


205 . 


t494 


ii. 


252 . 


494 


i. 


47 


.t44 


i. 


387 


t59 


i. 


272 . 


t38 


ii. 


254 


473 


i. 


Si 


.(10) 


i. 


389 


394 


i. 


297 . 


171 


ii. 


75 


4322 


L 


{55}' 


. 217 


i. 


402 . 


. 174 


i. 


298 . 


461 


!; 
^ 

(y 


Macbeth, v. 2. 5. 
R. and J. ii. 3. 54. 
Folio, "and." 
Folio, "makes." 


(2) C. of E. i. 2. 88. ($P.of T. iv. Prologue, 45. 
(5) Coriol. i. i. 16. (6) A. Y. L. it. 7, 57. 
(ja) Folio, "puts." (8) AT. Ado, iii. 2. 31. 
(10) Folio. " masters. " So Tempest, ii. i. 5. Compare 

. mnn 9 I wMiM cru^ilr TiMth /n**_ R > in 1 T? /"V? w7//j 



" Where be thy mastres, man! / would speak with her. B. and F. Coxcomb^ 
2. % ad fin. (ii) Compare "invaluable." (12) Folio, "and." 

(13) Macbeth, ii. 3. 2. '14) T. A. V. 3. TO. (15) Folio, "too blame." 



INDEX. 



MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR. 





ACT I. 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. Line 


Par. Sc. Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Lite 


Par. 


i. 


242 . . 


(204 

\2 9 8 


iv. 97 . 


|475 
\ 4 8o 


iv. 57 


I' 8 
1350 


i. 


287 . 


) 64 


ii. 


50 . . 


25 


iv. 103 . 


57 


iv. 87 


. 207 






39 


ii. 


278 . . 


41 


v. too . 


148 


v. 26 . 


. 38 


Hi 


i . 


237 
















iy 


80 . 


175 




ACT III 




ACT IV 




ACT 


V. 




ACT II 




i. 


"3 


189 


ii. 80 . 


349 


v. 72 


2 


i 


"3 


. ,99 


iv. 


14 . 


284 


iv. 5 . 


'94 


v. 231 


37 


MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM. 




ACT I 




i. 


182 . 


ts 


ACT II 




i. 83 


347 


i. 

i. 
i. 


4 
39 
45 


. 290 
133 


i. 
i. 
i. 


184 . 

188 . 
205 . 


83 
237 
425 


-ii 


{466 


i. 91 
i. 92 


' '(247 
tp. 13 


L 


69. 


.t 4 66 


i. 


212 . 


. t6 9 


i. 7 . 


. 484 


95 


-t 22 8 


L 


7* 


. tgo 


i. 


225 . 


.t 3 6 s 


i. 9 . 


t35<5 


i. 105 


492 


j 


f74\ 


.1281 


i. 


226 . 


. 21 


5. 14 . 


t349 


i. 106 


-t4?8 


i. 


\75> 
76 . 


. 


i. 


229 . 


.tn8 


i. 19 . 


t39 


i. 112 


. . 290 












, O 


i. 21 . 


t^B? 


i. 127 


^462 


I 


81 . 


. 2OI 


i. 


231 . 


.7170 




' 






i. 


100 




i. 


232 . 


d) 


i. 23 . 


. 487 


i. 138 


349 


i. 
i. 


103 . 
104 . 


t2?I 

ti7 


i. 
i. 


237 
245 


45 
. 66 


i. 24 . 
i. 30 . 


t329 

jtl21 


i. 146 
i. 149 
i. 158 


. . 132 

45 


i. 


in . 


t275 


i. 


251 


t3S6 


i. 32 . 


. 466 


i. 160 




i. 


117 . 


ti49 


ii. 


{ 2 V 

\93) 


t230 


i. 34 


. 224 


i. 161 


3" 


L 


123 . 


3 


ii 


2 5 


. ti 


i. 35 


4468 


i. 164 


43 


i. 
i. 


126 . 
141 . 


. 421 


ii 


27 


. t93 


i. {35-1 
\39 I 


45 


i. 171 


. .ti 3 6 


L 


151 


49 


ii 


52 


(2) 


i. 42 


506 


i. 179 


' \t244 


L 


156- 


.t46g 


ii 


{77}- 


.t28 3 


i. 48 . 


. ti6 


i. 191 


. -taps 


i. 


160 . 


tp. 13 


ii 


86 . 


. 104 


i. 56- 


332 


i. 201 


. .t 4 o6 


i. 


164. 


. 136 


ii 


90 . 


t2S 


i. 58. 


. 484 


i. 202 


. .t 4 66 


i. 


173 


43" 


ii 


95 


.t221 


i. 67 . 


. 390 


!. 220 


. 287 


L 


r ?5 v 


t343 


ii 


105 . 


1W 


i. 72 


34 


L 227 


t2J 









INDEX. 








483 


Sc. Line 


Par. 


Sc 


Line 


Par. Sc 


Lin 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


i. 232 . 


t457 


ii 


26 . 


. 217 


ii. 


35i 


460 


i. 


i So. 


/(8) 


237 


.tl22 




, , 






(358! 








'(484 


i. 244 . 


t355 


ii. 


4sr 


.W3 


11. 


\3S9T 


*75 


ii. 


9 


49 


i 249 . 


. 480 


it. 


45 


t323 


ii. 


360. 


Wg 


ii. 


16 . 


^335 


i 


(t68a 


ii 


49 


t5" 


ii. 


365 . . 


450 


ii. 


21 . 


. (2) 


' 


\I 7 6 


ii. 


78 . 


. (2) 


ii. 


368 . 


t228 


ii. 


29 


405 


i. 266 . 


. 180 


ii. 


81 . 


.1466 


ii. 


373 


tgo 








> i. 267 . 


.t3<9 


ii. 


90 . 


.ti68 


ii. 


377 


t8 9 




ACT 


V. 


i. 268 . 
. ' 35 


315 
ti93 


ii. 

ii. 


97 

99 . 


. 247 
. 142 


ii. 
ii. 


384 
385. 


45 
203 


i. 

i. 


i . 

2 . 


t244 

^307 


ii. 36 . 


t343 


ii. 


104 . 




ii. 


386. . 


1490 


i. 


5 


t279 


ii. 44 - 


. t?6 


ii. 


119 . 


. 18 


ii. 


402 . . 


374 


i. 


21 . 


378 


ii. 65 . 


t3*S 


it. 


122 . 


. 328 


ii. 


437 


484 


i. 


27 


t47 


ii. ( 73 "1. 


504 






/ (6) 


ii. 


438. . 


333 


i. 


34 


43* 


\77 J 




ii. 


I2 3 . 


M33<5 


ii. 


439- 


486 


i. 


43 


'79 


ii. 79 . 


(4) 


ii. 


124 . 


4*7 


ii. 


442 . . 


52 


i. 


59 


t477 


ii. 118 . 


t470 


ii. 


53 


. 356 








i. 


76. 


t97 


H. 153 


/ (2) 

\tio 5 


ii. 


169. 


- tS3 




ACT IV 




i- 


91 . 


. 51 




(169 


ii. 


T 7* 


. 41 








i. 


98 . 


399 


n. 154 . 


I 29 


ii. 


236 


402 


i. 


2 . . 


479 


i. 


143 


t29l 


ii. 156 . 


.t 4 66 


ii. 


202 . 


43 


i. 


21 . . 


(7) 




M4\ 








ii. 


204 . 


.t 4 6 5 


i. 


40 . . 


484 


' 




. 8a 


ACT III. 


ii. 


206 . 


.ti?8 


i. 


47 


457 


i. 


164 . 


. 490 


i. 2 . 


. ti 


ii. 


225 . 


ts8 


i. 


57 


t8g 


i. 


168 . 


374 


i. 14 . 


.t46i 


ii. 


237 


. 492 


i. 


67 . . 


284 


i. 


195 


(2) 


i. ei . 


. tn 


ii. 


272 . 


49 


i. 


71 . . 


tl2 


i. 


225 . 


. 82 


i- 33 


. 221 


ii. 


279 . 


t456 


i. 


72 . . 


399 


i. 


227 . 


43 


i. 44 . 


174 


ii. 


282 . 


477 


i. 


74 


{127 


i. 


252 . 


409 


i. 84 . 


333 


ii. 


290 . 


451 


i. 


IOI . 


457 


i. 


255 . 




/95-1 


5OI 


ii. 


292 . 


. 476 


i. 


109 . . 


284 


K 


318 . 


t37 






ii. 


302 . 


J 9 
























i. 


128 . . 


174 


i. 


325 


. B73 


i. 126 . 


348 


ii. 


314 


ti33 


i. 


133 


284 


i. 


379 


438 


I' 85 }- 
1193) 

. 3 


'74 
(5) 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


321 . 
33i 
334 


.f2l8 


i. 
i. 


137 . . 

M . 

Wr 


ll 


i. 
i. 
i. 


381 . 
387 
403 . 


441 
. 284 
.t226 


ii. 15 . 


ti59 


ii. 


337 


49 


i. 


150? . 


197 








ii. 18 . 


474' ii. 


339 


.ti68 


L 


i6 3 . . 


486 ' i 


I-}' 


342 


(i) Hamlet, iii. 2. 177. 


(2 


Folio, " and 


(3) Folio, "hath." 


(4) A. W. 


v. 3. 207. 


(5) 


Hamltt, iii. 


a. 188. 


(6) Folio 


, "comes. 


(7) L T 


r ^. v. i. 103-4. 


(8) 


Folio varies. 














\**/ 


I 1J 











484 



1NDF.X 



MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING. 





ACT I. 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. Line 


Par. 


Sc. Line 


Pi)-. 








i. 


375 


'4 


ii. 27 . 


. 4^4 


i. 220 . 


. 187 


Sc. 


Line J 


'ar. 


ii. 


13 . . 


62 


iii. 56 . 


. 44 


i. 225 . 


>9> 


L 


126 . . 


1x8 
















L 


3<>3 


284 


ii. 
ii. 


20 . 
53 


404 
93 


iii. 86 
iv. 9 


. I2O 
. 400 


i. 227 . 
i. 251 . 


. 37 


V. 


307 . . 


90 


ii. 


57 


423 


iv. 1 8 


. 400 


ii. i 


295 


L 


311 . . 


194 














~ 


i. 


318 . . 


297 


iii. 
iii* 


81 . 

no 


S 2 ? 
3 


iv. 44 


. 81 


ii- 33 
ii. 63 


"95 


i. 


320 . . 


57 
















Ii. 


4 


347 


iii. 


119 . 


33i 


ACT IV. 






ii. 


22 . . 


296 












ACT 


V. 














i. 24 . 


. 212 






Hi. 


32 . 


122 




ACT III 




i. 40 . 


. 368 


i. 22 


. 379 


iii. 


49 


I 4 8 


L 


x . 


1212 
57 


i. 4 6. 


. 480 


i. 116 


. 93 











4 


. 2OO 


i. 144 . 


. 2 7 8 


i. 212 


57 




ACT II. 




i. 


12 . 


.I'" 


i. 156 . 


. 399 


i. 249 


. . >. 3 8 


i. 


189 . . 


472 






(4OO 


i. 168 . 


247 


253 


. . 347 


i. 
t 
i. 

i. 


208 . . 
344 . . 
261 . . 
372 . . 


321 
l8 7 
3 60 
175 


i. 
i. 
i. 
i. 


42 
60 . 
72 

Jwl 

\8of- 


. 349 

. 46 
. 158 

193 


'. {:M 

i. 196 . 
i. 211 . 


. 364 

. 343 
Ii68 

1321 


i. 258 
i. 260 
i. 327 
iv. 62 


. . 191 

. . 284 
. . 166 
. . 7 


i. 


3. . 


166 


i. 


93 


. 118 


i. 216 . 


. in 


iv. 59 


. . 177 










OTHELLO. 








ACT I. 


ii. 


18 . 


. 47' 


iii. 165 . 


.{369 


L 67 


. . 400 


1. 


. 26 . . 


447 


ii. 


52 . 


. 274 
J477 


iii. 191 . 


. 46 


i. 70 
i. 83 


. 440 
333 


i. 


38 . . 


361 


ii. 


53 




iii. 267 . 


. 368 


i. 87 


. 440 


L 

L 


44 
55 


512 


ii. 
ii. 


7' 
72 


. 45 
. 365 


iii. 269 . 

iii. 283 . 


. 'Si 
. 247 


i. 149 


(268 
13' 


i. 

i. 


99 

100 . . 


439 
191 


ii. 
ii. 


93 
140 . 


. 161 
4'9 


iii. 390 . 
iii. 43 


33i 
. 451 


i. 159 
i. 260 


. . 3' 
. . 241 


i. 


124 . . 


435 


iii. 


55 


67 






ii. 3 


*5 


L 

L 

i. 


126 . 

132 . . 
151 . . 


(127 
\497 

158 

22 


iii 
iii 
iii 
iii 


62. 
74- 
9 1 - 
129 . 


35 
. 160 
(202 
'\4 2 3 

. 2OI 


ACT 
i. 13 

i M 
' U8f ' 


II. 

343 
. 44 


iii. 49 
iii. M4 
iii. 145 
iii. 152 


. 295 
. . 34' 
. 47S 
. . 44< 


L 


158 . 


343 


iii 


140 . 


/49 


i. 19 


. 368 


iii. 1 88 


. 2Q< 


t. 


172 . 


335 






/ 4 6g 


. i. 24 


. 89 


iii. 190 


34' 


L 


180 . . 


3 


iii 


147 . 




i. 31 


. 243 "' *3 


. . o. 



INDEX. 



485 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Liue 


Par. 


ACT IV. Sc, 


Line 


Par. 


iii. 


213 . 


163 


iii. 


211 . 


73 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


ii. 


108 . 


295 


iii. 


216 . 


163 


iii. 


212 . 


'74 


i. 


28 . 


353 


ii-. 


130. 


p. 16 


iii. 
iii. 
iii 


217 . 
301 . 

319 


477 
443 
81 


iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


238 . 
265 . 
282 . 


42 
295 

1 " 


i. 


H. 
(43) 

43 


5" 
247 


ii. 

iii. 


134 


5" 

{122 
I 44 


iii 
iii 


344 
35' 


461 
440 


iii. 


384 


. 299 


i. 
i. 


72 . 

80 . 


492 
. 460 




ACT V. 




iii 


368 . 


44 


iii. 


417 . 


279 


i. 


82 . 


. 440 


i. 


M 


. 361 








iv. 


22 . 


93 


i. 


125 


. 247 


i. 


64 . 


299 




ACT III 




iv. 


25 


. 466 


i. 


188 . 


. 24 


i. 


in . 


. 460 




(oK 1 




iv. 


44 . 


483 


ii. 


3 


. 211 


ii. 


4 . 


14190 


iii. 


SI 


500 


iv. 


105 . 


447 


ii. 


ii . 


349 


ii. 


45 


. 490 


iii. 


66 . 


29 


iv. 


15 . 


. 469 


ii. 


'3 


. 12 


ii. 


53 


59 


iii. 


'57 


251 


iv. 


195 


. 294 


ii. 


99 


274 


ii. 


197 


. 310 










PERICLES 












ACT I. 




iv. 


39 


. 264 


iii. 


80 . 


'79 


i. 


25 


. 172 








iv. 


9 2 


. 42 


V. 


13 


. 480 






i so 


'jower ii . . 


285 


iv. 


33 


. 264 


V. 




35 


iv. 


2 . 




,, 


38 . . 


377 




















i. 


14 . . 


244 




ACT IT. 


ACT III. 




ACT V 




i. 


41 . . 


247 


Gower, 8 . 


244 


Gower, 14 . 


. 29O 


i. 


125 . 


187 


i. 


59 


J244 




S 


. 404 


" 


35 


345 


i. 


170 . 


MS 














i. 


45 


. 128 








i. 
i. 


91 . . 
93 . 


5" 
460 


" 


28 . 
36. 


. 332 
S3 2 


ii. 


i? 


f 28 

bs 


i. 
i. 


208 . 
251 . 


. 234 
. 419 


i. 


153 


229 





37 


5 




ACT IV. 


ii. 


283 . 


. 3 


ii. 


31 . . 


350 





40 . 


/2OI 


Gower, 23 


. 465 


iii. 


38 . 


. 198 


ii. 


92 . . 


238 


i. 


3i 


2 4 


i. 


23 


37 








RICHARD II. 




ACT I. 




i. 


90 . 


. 270 


i. 


172 . 


^270 

[ 22 


ii. 


( i|\ 


t47 








i. 


104 . 


. 269 










/ 




i. 
i. 
i. 
j. 


12 . . 

20 . . 
22 . . 


t494 
480 

13 


L 

i. 
i. 
i. 


129 . 
145 
15 
160 . 


. l62 
174 
.1315 


i. 
i. 
i. 

i. 


i?3 
180 . 
190 . 

w 


. 522 
529 

f3" 

(489 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


23 

3 
36. 
39 


. 20 

.t4<5o 




\5)' ' 


t244 


i. 


162 . 


73<* 


ii. 


6 . 


ts64 


ii. 


40 . 


ItSio 


i. 


83 . . 


290 


i. 


171 . 


. 529 ii. 


7 


.t26 4 


ii. 


42 . 


. 296 



(<*) Lines 18 and 19 are perhaps to be transposed. Comp., however, W. T. iii. 2. IBf 



486 



INDEX. 



Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


ii. 44 . . 480 


iii. 232 . . 380 


i. 106 . . 156 


iL 2 . . 194 


ii. {}. .frfs 


iiL 233 . . 191 
iii. 243 . . 356 


*{} -'95 


ii. 9 . . 27 


ii. 54 8a 


iii. 247 . . 65 


L 108 . . 265 


M- {'3}- 193 


ii. 73 . . 475 


iii. 259 . . 380 


i. 129 .. 5 


ii. 15. .{ 293 


iii. 3 397 


iii. 264 . .1263 


' 134 . 434 


\247 


iii. 9 . .447 


iii. 260 . . 291 


i. ( I4I |. . 468 


ii. 18 . . 492 


iii. 15 . . no 
iii. 17 . . 263 


iii. 279 . . 505 
iii. 283 . .1490 


i. 148 . . 482 
L 157 . . 268 


ii. 25 . . 49 8 
ii. 27 . .t494 








11. 29 . . 497 


iii. 23 . -L o 


iii. 286 . .t252 


i. 158 . .tiso 




iii. 26 . .tsi2 


iii. 301 . . 194 


L 159 . .tisi 


"' 3 - '{280 


iii. 34 . . 133 


iv. ii . .fsi2 


i. 169 . .1408 


34 t6g 


nL 36 . .ta6s 


iv. 12 . .+151 


i. 173 . .{ 8 * 


ii. 41 -t468 


iii. 43 .. 2 
iii. 66 . .t447 


iv. 22 . .t368 

iv. J3J. .no, 


i- 1 2 a l I 338 


ii. 46 . . 291 
ii. 52 .. 244 


iii. 76 .. 124 


IV. 42 . . 20 


L 211 . .ti37 


ii. 57 . .j " 


iii. So . . 476 


iv. 43 . .tisi 


L 217 . . 479 


2 * 


iii. 82 .. 490 


iv. 49 . . 348 


L 218 . .1405 


* s8 * \t497 


iii. 95 .. 107 


iv. 53. .{ 


L 323 . . 13 


" 59 -t343 


iii. 118 . . 482 




L 233 . .1329 


ii. 61 . .tsu 


iii. 123 . .1513 


ACT II. 


L 339 . 17 


ii. 75 .. t3 


.. ("5\ 
m. ji2 7 . .tisi 
dig) 

iii. 127 . .1490 
iiL 136 . . 89 

(484 
iii. 151 . .< or 

(490 


. 3 35 
i. 9 . . 199 

L {9}. . 260 

. M -. 343 
L 16 . . 290 


L 242 . .1251 

L & 48 
L 247 . .1497 
i. 248 . .t463 


iL 76 . .t497 
iL 80 . .1243 
ii. 88 . .t 4 6s 
ii. 90 .. 512 
ii. 91 . .t497 
i* 95 .. 356 


iii. 164 . .1218 


L 18 . . 113 

L 19 . . 22 


i. 251 . . 24 
i. 254. (Fol. 


iL 96 . .1513 
ii. 98 . .155 


iiL 166 . . 440 


i. 27 . . f28 


omits "noble.") 


ii. 103 . . 5J2 


ill. 175 4<5o 
iii. 183 . .1315 


L 29 . . 20 


L 2s8 ItS 


ii. 105 . . 497 


iii. 196 . . 490 


L 49 . . ii 


i. 366 . . p. ia 


ii- {Juj 507 


iiL 201 . . 84 


L 52 . . 146 


L 268 . . 375 


ii. 114 . . 508 


iii. 205 . . tz8 

* 2o8 {ort'Ss 


L 79 . 203 
L 90 .. 124 
L 91 .. t94 


i. 289 . .t36i 


ii. 119 ./(Fol.) 
\Castle 


iiL 209 . . 490 


L 04 , . 470 


L 291 . . 315 


' U33 


iiL 211 . .^377 


i. 99 .. 268 


i. 300 . . 364 


ii. 128 . . 244 


IiL a 17 . .1490 


L os . . 440 1 ii. i . . 51 


iii. S . . 333 



INDEX. 



Sc 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line Par- 


iii. 


7 


492 


i. 


16 . 


. t8g 


iii. 


89 . 


. 218 


i. 


28 


ft22 


iii. 
iii. 


10 . 

IS 


. 162 
.t 4 6o 


i. 

ii. 


29 . 

2 . 


t497 
. 482 


iii. 
iii. 


98 . 
103 . 


529 
.t56 


i. 


33 


l 28 
. .t28 7 


iii. 


18 . 


t494 


ii. 


3 


t497 


iii. 


118 . 


. t8 9 


i. 


49 


' ( r 5 


iii. 


20 . 


. 506 


ii. 


4 


25 


iii. 


I2O . 


t497 


i. 


57 


. . 220 


iii. 


21 . 


. 478 


ii. 


5 


-+35 6 


iii. 


126 . 


t45i 


i. 


62 


oo 


iii. 


23 


tS'3 


ii. 


8 . 


194 


iii. 


I 4 6. 


. t2 4 




89 


. yw 

-t495 


iii. 


2 4 . 


497 


ii. 


34 


tp. 12 


iii. 


168 . 


' 335 


i. 


93 


. . 82 


iii. 


25 


5" 








iii. 


184 . 


.+468 








iii. 


26 . 


.+513 


iL < 


(") } ' 


.t 4 6o 


iii. 


191 . 


t3S 


i. 


94 


. . 290 


iii. 


29 . 


(U97 
\ \ 


ii. 
ii. 


64 . 
80 . 


. 478 


iii. 
iv. 


192 . 
ii . 


. 230 
.t5i3 


i. 
i. 


96 
104 


'(296 

485 


iii. 


33 


.t466 


ii. 


"3 


. 468 


iv. 


14 . 


t2gi 


i. 


112 


. . 484 


iii. 


55 


. 456 


ii. 


13 


.t 4 6 7 


iv. 


fF 


l-335 


i. 


II 7 


-tipo 


iii. 


62 . 


397 


ii. 


131 


. t22 




* 


505 


i. 


120 


.f29' 


iii. 


67 - 


. 506 


ii. 


140 . 


294 


iv. 


28 . 


ti93 


i. 


123 


. ,tl2O 


iii. 


80 . 


. 20 


ii. 


141 . 


t335 


iv. 


{3j}' 


. 268 


i. 


129 


. 95 


iii. 


87 


. 292 


ii. 


163 


. 200 


iv. 


55 


512 


i- 


139 


-t349 


iii. 


100 . 


.t 3 8 4 


ii. 


168 . 


378 


iv. 


57 


. 89 


i. 


I 4 8 


. . 460 


iii. 


104 . 


.t49i 


ii. 


175 . 


'{^o 


iv. 


63 


.tso6 


i. 


151 


. .t46 7 


iii. 
iii. 


107 . 
123 . 


. 181 

.t28 7 


ii. 

ii. 


i79 
183 . 


59 
t356 


iv. 
iv. 


6? 
74 


t 3 i5 
. 498 


i. 
i. 


171 

I 7 8 


. .t48o 


iii. 
iii. 


124 . 
127 . 


.1469 

.1322 


ii. 
ii. 


185 . 
186 . 


134 
X 74 


iv. 
iv. 


77 
80 . 


.4190 
MS 


i. 
i. 


l82 
I8 S 


. . 5'2 
. p. 290 


iii. 


130 . 


(338 

'U33 


ii. 


198 . 


5 


iv. 
iv. 


83 

102 . 


t243 
'33 


i. 


205 
2I 7 


447 
. . 216 


iii. 


138 . 


. 204 


ii. 


204 . 


tf268 


iv. 


I0 4 . 


.f2gi 


i. 


224 


-t494 


iii. 


145 


. 31 


iii. 


9 


. 487 








i. 


237 


. . 192 


iii. 


160 . 


159 


Sii. 


12 . 


. 281 








i. 


2 3 8 


. . 287 


iii. 


"61 . 


. 296 


iii. 


17 


t2 4 4 




ACT IV. 


i. 


256 


-tz44 


iii. 


iJ . 


t497 


iii. 


19 . 


. 506 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


i. 


264 


(0 tio 3 


iv. 


ii 


294 


iii. 


31 


.t5I2 


i. 


15 


. 466 


i. 


2 7 


. . 340 


iv. 


18 . 


82 


iii. 


35 


. 5" 


i. 


i? 


/39 


i. 


300 


. .t2l8 


1. 

i. 


ACT III. 

, IS9 

3 ' '1198 

9 lY 9 " 
\t494 


iii. 
iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


45 
61 . 
64. 
70 . 


. 272 
4M 
157 
.t468 


i. 
i. 


18 . 
19 . 


ti9<5 
tsoo 


i. 
i. 
i. 


308 
326 
329 

334 


. . 189 

-t497 




ft] 


Read "from off 


a 'nointed ;" or, as Folio, " 


From an anointed." 








w 


Folio, "and if. 


" 









INDEX. 



Sc 


ACT V. 
Line Par. 


Sc. 
ii. 


Line 


Par. 
("it" 
om.) 


Sc. 
Iii. 

iii. 


Line 

72 . 

88 . 


Par. 

. 387 


Sc. 

V. 


Line 


Par. 

t 3 43 


i. 


3i 


t356 


ii. 


56. 


197 


iii. 


97 


. 190 


V. 


52 . 


. 498 


i. 


37 


4i 


ii. 


57 


. 484 






(tsoi 


V. 


54 


. 164 


i. 
i. 
L 


38. 
44 

46- 


. 285 
. 225 
75 


ii. 
ii. 


59 

I 65 }- 
\70/' 


. 368 
499 


iii. 
iii. 


IOI . 

103 . 


or 
U497 


V. 
V. 


54-7 
56. 


. 425 


i a 


47 


. 200 


ii. 


75 


. 155 


iii. i 


{< ( F 


\tio3 


V. 


61 . 


. 290 


i. 


62 . 




ii. 


78. 


497 




an 


f 


V. 


62 . 


. 366 


i. 


6 4 . 


52 


ii. 


97 


. 468 


iii. 


137 


1466 


V. 


64 . 


.t2l8 


i. 


77 


. 291 


ii. 


99 


. 53 


iv. 


i . 


4'4 


V. 


66 . 


. 28 


i. 
i. 


80 . 
88 . 


473 
. 478 


ii. 
ii. 


101 . 

115 


.tSI2 
. 122 


iv. 


2 . 


/t2 44 

I 499 


V. 


SI- 


.tso6 


i. 


90 . 


. 82 


iii. 


4 


.ti90 


i. 


* ' 


257 


V 


69 . 


254 


L 


91 . 


t47 


iii. 


5 


. 144 


V. 


3 


151 


V. 


70 . 


.t4o6 


it 


94 


372 


iii. 


10 . 


. 272 


V. 


5 . 


529 . 


V. 


75 


498 








iii. 


17 . 


473 


V. 


8 . 


t6g 


V. 


76 . 


. 297 


ii. 


I")' 


.t28 S 


iii. 


21 . 


t499 


V. 


'7 


465 


V. 


83 . 


t275 


ii 


78 . 


. 80 


iii. 


27 


. 356 


V. 


18 . 


t243 


vi. 


6 . 


t494 


ii. 


28 . 


5" 


iii. 


34 


. 181 


V. 


22 . 


.ti S i 


vi. 


26 . 


. 460 


ii. 


48 . 


.t 4 o6 


iii. 


5 


t349 


V. 


25 . 


.t4o6 


vi. 


27 


133 


ii. 


53 . 


505 


iii. 


52 . 


. 296 


V. 


27 . 


. 284 


vi. 


40 . 


. 246 


RICHARD III. 




ACT 


I. 


ii. 


3 


. d) 


ii. 


155 


.+490 


ii. 


236. 


490 


i. 


16 . 


. 468 


ii. 


23 


.t49 


ii. 


{165} 


. 84 


ii. 


245 


479 


i. 


22 . 


397 


ii. 
ii. 


26 . 
27 . 


P-449 
. 225 


ii. 


163. 


.t28 3 


ii. 
ii. 


2-50 . 
255 


3<>S 
. ti 


i. 
i. 
i. 


58 
67 . 

75 


505 
t494 


ii. 

ii. 
ii. 


3* 

52 
56 


492 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


166 . 
170 . 
179 


.+428 

. 284 


ii. 
ii. 


259 
261 . 


/ 2 9S 
"1*93 

'59 


i. 


82 . 
84 . 


. 456 


ii. 


67 . 


474 


ii. 


Ji93\ 

\203J 


.500 


iii. 


i . 


. 468 


i. 


92 . 


p. 372 


ii. 


(681 


t233 


ii. 


ai i . 


t349 


iii. 


5 { ly 


T}(2) 


L 


94 . 


.498 


ii. 


71 . 


| 


ii. 


215 


.t468 


iii. 


6 . 


174 


L 


103 . 


. 456 


ii. 


76 . 


66 


ii. 


216 . 


342 






. X . 


i. 
L 


106 . 
137 


. 49 
. 200 


ii. 


ftp 


'.,500 


ii. 
ii. 


217 . 
226 . 


.2 


iii. 
iii 


19 , 


*! 


L 


157 . 


.t2?0 


ii. 


117 . 


.t446 


ii. 


232 . 


.356 




3 \ 


Ufio 


ii 


a . 


.t3Q7 


ii. 


54 . 


t39 


ii. 


3S 


. 466 iii. 


<53 


. l 



INDEX. 



489 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


iii. 65-8 . 
iii. 82 . 


. 376 

.<3> 


iv. 
iv. 


25 
27 


. 203 
375 




*57\ 
IssSj- 


277 


ii. 
ii. 


95 
"3 


151 
. (9) 


iii. 


88 . 


'59 


iv. 


30 . 


t295 


iv. 


273}' 


234 


ii. 


120 . 


.**i 


iii. 


90 . 


. 406 


iv. 


37 


. 69 


iv. 


288 . 


494 


ii. 


123 . 


469 


iii. 


in . 


. 5 


iv. 


45 


.t26 4 








ii. 


127 . 


t<97 


iii. 


113 . 


|t93 


iv. 


46. 


{1267 




ACT II 




ii. 


129 . 


. 367 


iii. 

iii. 


127 . 
142 . 


. 161 

a 


iv. 


58. 
59 


.+297 
. 460 


i. 


8 


133 


ii. 
ii. 


130 . 
133 


419 
. 490 
|(io) 


iii. 153-4- 


a?5 


iv. 


64 . 


- 463 


i. 


27 . 


.+443 


11. 


144 


I 479 


iii. 


159 . 


.ti64 


iv. 


65 - 


- 497 


i. 


33 


125 


iii. 


3 


.tsoo 


iii. 


162 . 


. 378 


iv. 


70 . 


,tl2I 


i. 


37 - 


95 


iii. 


4 


92 


iii 


2OI . 


.t468 




(78) 




i. 


43 - 


293 


iii. 


8 


ti37 








iv. 




'53 














iii. 


2O2 . 


. 148 




lJ 




i. 


50 . 


171 


iii. 


16 


t477 


iii. 


2o6 . 


. 460 


iv. 


95 


3i9 


i. 


| S5 1. 


tS'3 


iii. 


'7 


.tl29 


iii. 


207 . 


- 365 


iv. 


97 - 


t45 




Is 




iii. 


29 


. 105 


iii. 
iii. 


313 . 
214 . 


- 243 
1*94 


iv. 


( IOI 1- 

Usoj 


.(7) 


i. 
i. 
i. 


57 

59 
83 . 


. (8) 

.t223 

275 


iii. 
iii. 


35 Fol. 333 
39 29 








iv. 


122 . 


. 33 








iii. 


4i 




iii. 


216 . 


. 240 


iv. 


134 


-t33S 


i. 


90 . 


t474 


iii. 


42 


49 


iii. 


222 . 


{365 


iv. 


I 4 6. 


. 148 


i. 


116 . 


.t4S4 


iii. 


55 


9- 


iii. 


246 


-t349 


iv. 


152 . 


t329 


i. 


I2O . 


.f28l 


iv. 


i 


49* 




2<)6-\ 


. (5) 




(167! 




i. 


129 . 


. 372 


iv. 


M 


. 62 


iii. 


282 . 


5 




\i 7 6/' 


. 232 


i. 


134 


5" 


iv. 


18 


. 92 








iv. 


186 . 


-tiS7 






{217 








iii. 


287 . 


. 122 








i. 


137 




iv. 


22 


295 


iii. 


291 . 


. 22 


iv. 
iv. 


187 . 
205 . 


.t468 

.t2I9 


ii. 


7 


. 287 


iv. 


34 


. . 301 


iii. 


292 . 


355 


iv. 


206 . 


. 232 


ii. 


I ( F 


ol ;U 3 


iv. 


\4M 


5i3 


iii. 
iii. 


304 . 
35 


(6)24 

494 


iv. 


209 . 


. 462 


ii. 


IS 


479 


iv. 


46 


37 


iii. 


314 - 


. 186 


iv. 


2l8 {v 


;"r.}si2 


ii. 


24 . 


53 


iv. 


47 


75 


iii. 


323 


.+507 




f Fc 


j , 


ii. 


27 . 


. 326 


iv. 


M 


wr.} 48 * 


iii. 


325 - 


24 


iv. 


2I 9\'yo 


u -|t236 


ii. 


34 


. 356 


V. 


7' 


. . 297 


iii. 


328. 


-t438 


iv. 


241 . 


. 287 


ii. 


42 


t47 








iii. 


347 . 


t49 


iv. 


246 . 


. 290 


ii. 


47 


.t2?5 




ACT 


III. 


iii. 


348. 


. 295 


IT 


248{ Fo 


u tjia 


ii. 


49 


. 438 


i. 


1 S l 


. . 174 


iii. 


354 


t3<54 




IF 


1} 


ii. 


ill- 


.t 3 65 


i. 


10 


243 


iv. 


5 


- 85 


iv. 


25 {vs 


IT./+ 66 


ii. 


76 . 


. 118 


i. 


12 


. .1267 


iv. 


9 


297 


iv. 


251 . 


194 


ii. 


77 - 


t44 


i. 


26 


. . 243 


iv. 


{igf 


.1259 


V. 


54 


-t8 4 


" 


92 . 


-t46? 


i. 


32 


. .t46? 



*9 



INDEX. 



Sc. Line Par 
> 37 . 469 

j /39\ Jt490 
Uoj U5i 


Sc. Line Par. 

ii. 58 . f t2 <3 
1 159 
ii. 63 . . f 7 6 


Sc. Line Par 
v, 101 . 49 
v. 109 . . 460 


Sc. Line P ar . 

v". 184 . . f8 7 

vii. 197 . .ti96 


i. 44 - - 2 


ii. 67 . p. 449 


vi- 5 . 35<5 


vii. 210 . .fi IO 


i. 63. ( ( "> 
1297 


ii. 76 . . 487 
ii. 115 . .1243 


vi. 7 . .ti 4 o 
vi. 9 494 


V" 227 . . 469 
vii. 229 . .| 4 66 


4 . .21 


ii. 117 . . 98 


vi. 10 . . 137 


va. 233 . . IS 


i. 68 . . 409 




vii. 3 . . ( ts 


*" 2 35 . 243 


i 71 -t494 
i. |gj>. . 490 


iii. 23 . p. 16 


vii. {|f . . 490 


vii. 240 . . (16) 




iv. i . . 57 


vii. 9 . .t 494 


ACT IV. 


L 85 .. 252 


iv. 2 . . 492 


vii. 20 . .t 4 68 


* 3 - 150 


* IIO \ ^478 


iv. 29 . . 178 


Vii. 25 . . 487 


i. 4 . . i8 


i. ii | 47 


iv. 36 . .t40i 


vii. 26 . . f88 


i. 7 .t466 


' \t497 


iv. 40 . .109 


vii. 30 . . 492 


i- 43 -tisS 


i. Iig . . 2V>I 


iv. 41 . . fi 


vii. 5 - .1467 


i. 60 . .1405 


i. 126 . |^ 


iv. 50 . . 397 


vfi. |s a \ . 2J4 


i. 70 . ^267 


i. 136 . . 485 
i. i44 . .( 2I7 

(471 


iv. 51 . .{297 
iv. 62 . . 200 
iv. 67 . . 97 


vii- 57 .t343 
vii. 58 . . 487 


i. 76 . .1225 
i. 94 - 468 
(i) 


L 146 . . 419 


iv. 91 . .490 


vii. 7o{;jt S io 


ii. \2\ . .ts!3 


1 69- *- 


iv. loo . . fSg 
iv. 106 . .t 47 3 


vii. 81 . .faoi 
vii. 89 . . 414 


ii. 5 81 


i. 148 . / (lz ) 
(105 


v. 7 . . f8 9 


vii. 112 . . 439 


il2/' '^'3 


i- '57 . . 487 


v- 13 -tsi3 


vii. 113 . .t494 


ii. 27 . . 92 


i. 158 . . 497 
i. 164 . . 419 


(398 
v. 25 . .< or 

( tz 


vii. 120 . . 423 
vii. 127 . . 342 


" 35 . - (17) 
36 -t494 


i. 169 . .fi27 


v. 28 .. 229 


vii. 139 -t468 


" 55 -t2i7 


i. 177 . 235 


v. 29 .. (14) 


vii. {^j. . 382 


ii. 59 . . 204 


i. 189 . . 492 


v. 32 . .fisS 




ii. 71 . .1512 


i. 191 . .t497 


v- 33 - . t2 


vii. 150 . . 361 


ii. 81 . . 411 


i. 198 . .t46 7 


v. 35 .. 29 


vii. 155 .. 3 


ii. 85 . . 236 


ii. 10, Fol. var. 




vii. 157 . jt 28s 


ii. 87 . . 424 


ii. 14 . ./t349 
I 462 


V ' 47 --{t%7 
v. 55 412 


vii. 159 . 51 
t^ii 161 .tioo 


ii. 98 . .t 47 7 
ii. 103 . . 37 


ii. 26 .. 281 


v. 56 . . 411 




ii. 104 . .1470 


IL 29 .. 497 


v. 63 .. 107 


vii. i6s<, v '. , 
3 \ there is 


ii. 120 . . 466 


S3 . 357 

a. 55 .. 92 


v. 6f . . 97 
v. 69 .. 166 


vii. 175 . tp. la 
vii. 176 . . 474 


( 497 
11. 124 . < or 
((18) 


{ 56 .. iso 


v. 76 . .1494 


vii. 179 . . 34 2 


iil 8 . .164 



INDEX. 



49' 



ye. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. Sc. 


Line 


Par. Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


iii. 


20 . 


'93 


iv. 


209 . 


ti33 


iv. 


417 - 


. t2 


( 


rio^ 




iii. 


27 . 


.(19) 


iv. 


217 . 


. 375 


iv. 


426. 


t^49 


iii. 




4"3 


iii, 
iii. 


3i 

S3 


43i 
t494 


iv. 
iv. 


221 . 
229 . 


.t28 7 
. 69 


iv. 


428. 
458 . 


477 
tSi3 


\ 
iii. 


119) 
130 . 


. 484 




















iii. 


135 . 


. 291 


iii. 


229 . 


. 69 


. 


/ 2 3 I \ 


j 


iv. 


483. 


. 492 








iv. 


l"l 


. 419 




\ 2 34/" 


' 


iv. 


490 . 


. 202 


iii. 


148}' 


. 58 


iv. 

iv. 

iv. 


\12J- 

M 
W- 

23 . 
28 . 


Si5 

159 
49 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 
iv. 
iv. 


235 
240 . 
249 . 
250 . 
254 


ti33 
. 439 
. 196 
.ti33 
372 


iv. 
iv. 
iv. 

iv. 


492 . 
501 . 
504 
508. 


. 232 

49i 

. 469 


iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


156. 

185 . 
187. 

2OI . 


|45i 

1(22) 
. 460 

5" 
3'S 


iv. 


34 


. 118 








iv. 


515 . 


|20I 


iii. 


2O2 . 


. 287 


iv. 


53 


. t8 9 


iv. 


[260)' 


. 158 


iv. 


539 


. 3" 


iii. 


209 . 


512 


iv. 


65 


. 240 


iv. 


263 . 


477 


v. 


7 


. 466 


iii. 


210 . 


33 


iv. 


75 


S9 


iv. 


268 . 


. 247 


V. 


10 . 


. 469 


iii. 


224 . 


. 2OI 


iv. 


77 


.(20) 


iv. 


269 . 


. t99 


V. 


14 . 


. 492 


iii. 


228 . 


159 


iv. 


86 . 


. 24 


iv. 


274 . 


t494 


V. 


18 . 


. 3" 


iii. 


23O . 


.t2I9 


Iv. 


92 . 


. 3o 


iv. 


289 . 


353 








iii. 


=39 


. 498 


iv. 


[ "}. 


. 148 


iv. 


292 . 


315 




ACT V. 


iii. 


243 . 


. 118 




U4) 




iv. 


34 


341 


i. 


5 . 


t 4 74 


iii. 


245 


.t468 


iv. 


118 . 


. 202 


iv. 


326. 


t494 


i. 


21 . 


479 


iii. 


267 . 


. 417 


iv. 


122 . 


443 


iv. 


331 


49i 


ii. 


19 . 


.tl22 


iii. 


28l . 


. 5"4 


iv. 


135 . 


451 


iv. 


337 


4230 


iii. 


47 


. 140 


iii. 


292 . 


474 


iv. 


141 . 


.1287 


iv. 


338 . 


t3<29 


iii. 


48 . 


.t5'3 


iii. 


298 . 


505 


iv. 
iv. 


I4 . 
177- 


. (21) 
.t439 


iv. 


{!"} 


4336 


iii. 
iii. 


Si 
52 . 


159 

t494 


iv. 


II . 

3 


t299 
. 342 


iv. 


180 , 


. 2OI 


iv. 


354 


. 177 


iii. 


68 . 


469 


v. 


9 . 


. 507 


iv. 
iv. 


183 . 
188 . 


.t 4 66 
. 365 


iv. 
iv. 


358. 


t47 


iii. 


fe}' 




-. 


H 
w 


. 469 


iv. 


189 . 


. 490 




(3?i / 




iii. 


82 . 


. 478 


V. 


21 . 


337 


iv. 


199 . 


. 17 


iv. 


385. 


.t266 


iii. 


95 


. 378 


V. 


3. 


tp. 12 


(i) 


Hamlet, i. 2. 92. 


da 


1 A. Y. L. iii. 


T 18, 


(2) Cvtnb 


. iv. A 


132. 



' (3) " Majesty " when a dissyllable will henceforth not be noticed. 
(3<z) ? Pun on "noble." (4) Folio, "Ay, madam." (5) Macbeth, v. 8. 48. 

(6) Folio, "an end." (7) Compare Hamlet, v. i. 1-235. (8) y. C. i. 2. 317. 
(9) M. of V. v. i. 77. (10) Folio omits "weighty." (n) Folio, "thinks't." 
(12) Folio, "and." (13) Folio, " worshipfully." (14) Lear, iv. i. 64. 

(15) Folio omits "and." (16) Folio, " King Richard." (17) Rich. III. \. i. 158. 
(18) Folio omits " deep." (19) Folio omits "my lord." (20) Macbeth, iii. 2. 49. 
(21) A.W.v. 3. ?97. (22) y. C. i. 3. 22. 



492 



INDEX. 
ROMEO AND JULIET. 





ACT I. 


Sc 


Line 


Par. Sc 


Line 


Par. 


ACT IV 




Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


V. 


107 . . 


39 r 


i 


128 . 


3 


Sc. 


Line 


Pai. 


i. 


38 . . 


335 


V 


33 


411 


i 


158 . 


. 200 


i. 


16 . 


294 


L 


in . . 


24 








ii. 


117 . 


447 


i. 


60 . . 


457" 


i. 
i. 


119 . . 
140 . . 


264 
275 


ii. 


ACT II. 

42 . . 


460 


ii. 


141 . 


/45 
'147 1 


iii. 

V. 


20 . 
36. 


5'2 
480 


ii. 


14 . . 


118 


ii. 


76 . . 


1 20 


iii. 


17 


. 22 


V. 


59 


474 


lii. 


9 


(461 


iii. 


7 


429 


iii. 


19 . 


474 




ACT V. 




iii. 


17 . . 


497 


iii. 


91 . . 


281 


iii. 


38 . 


. 264 


i. 


40 . . 


178 


iii. 


98 . . 


440 


iii. 


93 


204 


iii. 


49 . 


492 


iii. 


52 . . 


400 


iv. 


19 . . 


440 


vi. 


9 


475 


iii. 


98. 


. 492 


iii. 


'43 . 


356 


iv. 


94 . 


479 


vi. 


21 .. 


492 


V. 


18 . 


. 133 


iii. 


211 . . 


490 


iv. 


99 . . 


'73 








V. 


84. 


. 206 


iii. 


2I 4 . . 


333 


iv. 


109 . . 


291 




ACT III. 




V. 


136. 


. 264 


iii. 


246 . . 


469 


v. 


61 . . 


4i7 


i. 


66 . .4191 


V. 


153 


. 392 


iii. 


247 


"4 


V. 


70 . . 


354 


i. 


122 . . 


198 


V. 


200 . 


13 


iii. 


275 


46$ 


TAMING 


OF THE 


SHREW. 




ACT I. 




i. 


50 . . 


10 


i. 


356. 


. 22 


iii. 


3 6. - 


24 


Induction. 


i. 


74 


507 


i. 


357 


247 


iii. 


189. . 


2< 


i. 


68 . . 


109 


i. 


78 . . 


351 


i. 


369. 


. 22 


iv. 


I . . 


[ 4 6l 


i. 


84 . . 


132 


i. 


90 . . 


57 


i. 


377 


489 






I3 61 


i 


87 . . 


472 


i. 


150 . . 


166 








iv. 


2 . . 


483 
















ACT II 


[. 






.120 


i. 


>!g . . 


i 


i. 


174 . . 


465 








iv. 


4 . 


190 


t. 


gc- . . 


76 


i. 


251 . . 


368 


i. 


9 


p. 14 


iv. 


12 . . 


301 


L 


ios . . 


461 


i. 


252 . . 


297 


ii. 


i . 


. 461 


iv. 


2O . . 


46t 


L 
L 

ii. 


ito . . 369 
ii* . 4i9 

: t . . 291 


ii. 
ii. 


a i 


220 

43 


ii. 

ii. 
ii. 


27 
105 . 
108 . 


. 35 6 
. 28 
297 


iv. 
iv. 


I 33 }- 

I34f 
46. . 


505 
SOS 


ii. 


?S . . 


9 


ii. 


4 6. . 


461 


ii. 


156. 


7 


V. 


9 . . 


3 


ii.* 


? 4 . . 


176 


ii. 


190 . .- 


201 


ii. 


186 . 


465 


V. 


26 . . 


482 


n. 


107 . . 


455 






4 4 


ii. 


236 . 


. 224 








ii. 


136- 


370 








ii. 


248 . 


397 




ACT V. 












ACT II. 


































i. 


77 


460 




ACT I. 




i. 


15 


126 




ACT IV 




ii. 


66 . . 


504 


i. 


3 


295 


i. 


18 . . 


49 


i. 


71 


175 


ii. 


72 . 


174 


L 


14 . . 


51 


i. 


158 . 


477 


i. 


125 . 


. 482 


ii. 


93 


485 


L 


32 . . 


34* 


i. 


259 


55 


ii. 


14 . 


. 460 


ii. 


'44 


281 


I 


48. . 


507 


i. 


(Fol.) 3 ss 


22 


ii. 


73 


465 


ii. 


175 


497 



tNDRX. 



TEMPEST. 



ACT I. 





Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 


Sc. Line Par. 




ii. 109 . . 494 


ii. 220 . . 460 


.. (3871 


Par. 


ii. no . . 458 


ii. 222 . 4178 


" t 3 8 y r ' 46z 


447 


ii. in . . 494 


ii. 226 . . 78 


ii. 390 . . a; 


13 


ii. 118 . 4312 


ii. 23, . {J 2 ? 4 


ii. 407 . (4) 
ii. 414 . . 120 


335 


ii. 119 . . 124 
ii 122 1*99 


ii. 232 . 4149 


ii. 419 . . 456 


. 90 


U95 


ii. 235 . . 511 


ii. 424 . 4285 


. 176 


ii. 127 . . 454 


ii. 243 . 4291 


ii. 435 . 4466 


154 


ii. 137 . . 270 


ii. 244 . . 220 


ii. 439 . . t" 


. 456 


ii. 138 . I (2) 


ii. 248 . 4456 


ii. 442 . . 333 


tiS 1 


(t467 


ii. 249 . 4136 


ii. 446 . 4364 


457 


ii. 141 . 4454 


ii. 255 . . 220 


.. < 447 ^ 


Jti79 


ii. 142 . 4457 
ii. 144 5 


* fig}- -t343 


"' 1 44 8 1' ' 38 ' 
ii. 450 . . u 


342 


ii i*8 I 341 


ii. 264 . 4494 


ii. 452 . . 485 


. 183 


4 ' M342 


ii. 297 . tp.i3 


:: .,, ft20o 


77 


ii. 157 . . 462 


ii. 298 . . 501 


"' 453 ' \t36 9 


f 480 
\t47S 


ii !*S 7 \ :. 
"' JisSf ' SI3 


-{) <# 


ii. 456 . . 182 
ii. 457 . 4244 


4457 


ii. 165 . . 494 


ii. 327 . . 450 


ii. 476 . 4^35 




ii. 168 . . 39 


( A77 




343 


ii. 173 . . 471 


" 333 {1330 


ACT II. 


. 158 


MX)- 


ii. 338 . . 471 
ii. 348 . 4494 


i. i . . 401 
i. i . . 45 


457 


ii. 193 . . 467 


ii. 352 . . 265 


i- 5 (5) 


. 47 


ii. 194 . . 187 


ii. 353 . 4468 


i. 6 . 4494 


497 


(196) 
ii. <2oi>. . 457 
(.204) 


" 357 471 
ii. 361 . . 159 


i. 28 .. 206 
i. 75 . . 189 


. 482 
. 472 


" & -'33 


ii. 363 . . 182 


i. 96 .. 200 
i. no . 4263 


294 


ii. 200 . tp.i3 


ii. 365 . . 291 


i. 127 . 4228 


4i?8 
4281 


ii. 206 . . 484 
ii. 209 . 4123 


ii. 366 . . 230 
ii. 369 . . (3) 


i. 121 . . 305 
i. 127 . . 264 


4soi 


ii. 210 . . 467 


ii. 370 . . 487 


i. 131 . . 400 


I t4 5 


ii. 211 . . 341 
( 2 4 


iL 3?I . |{ 2 83 


-CSV 


497 


\ 4 6 9 


ii. 379 342 


i. 145 . . 510 


fs 


!i - 2 '3 {^g 


i. 380 . . 226 


i. 150 . 7i 



494 



INDEX. 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


ACT V. 


i. 


151 . 


49 


i. 


3i 


203 


iii. 


100 . 


t457 


Sc. 


Line 


i. 


160 . 


t494 


i. 


S 2 


t494 


iii. 


IO2 . 


t5o 


i. 


4 


i. 


163 . 


. (6) 


i. 


42 


r 1467 








i. 


7 


i. 


*68 . 


.t28l 






ITp- 13 




ACT IV. 


i. 


9 








i. 


45 


(4) 












i. 


181 . 
185 . 


ftioi 
X (7) 
.ti 4 o 


i. 


57 
59 


ti77 
t5 


i. 
i. 

i. 


4 
8 . 

12 . 


t2?4 
. 469 
tsi3 


i. 
i. 


10 . . 
IS 


L 


202 . 


tsoo 


i. 


62 . 


/ 350 
tt478 


i. 


26 


ft473 


i. 


16 . . 


i. 


207 . 


t 3 2 3 


i. 


72 


255 






'X 490 


i. 


28 . 


i. 


215 . 


.t 4 69 








i. 


2 7 . 


307 






i. 


217 . 


. (8) 


i. 


Issf 


tS'3 


i. 


31 


. 480 





' 


i. 


220 . 


387 


. 




(263 


i. 


68 . 


. 487 


i. 


/33'1 










yj 


(196 




, 






1 39 i 


i. 


221 . 


58a 
























ii. 


27 . 


479 


* 


(74)" 


T35 


i. 


38 - 


i. 


236 . 

/275l 

\2 7 6/' 


4?i 
t5i3 


ii. 

ii. 


104 . 


.361 
492 


i. 


/7<5J 
94 . 


f 2 6o 

.t 3 6o 


L 
i. 
i. 


42 . 
43 
53 


*' 


\283/' 


47i 


ii. 


106 . 


2 44 


i. 


98 . 


t29S 


i. 


63 . 


L 


284 . 


47 


ii. 


108 . 


503 


i. 


101 . 


t473 






i. 


287 . 


.+322 


ii. 


127 . 


'37 


i. 


no . 


. 484 


i. 


64 .] 


i. 


292 . 


i45 


ii. 


i47 


330 


i. 


123 . 


. 422 


i. 


68 . 


i. 


296 . 


.1291 


ii. 


149 


.ti6i 


i. 


124 . 


484 




/7S-1 


'. 


308 . 


374 


iii. 


2 . 


333 


i. 


140 . 


t494 




\79 / 


L 


311 . 


t494 


iii. 


26 . 


. 5i 


i. 


143 


.461 


i. 


75 


1. 


3i7 


tsoo 


iii. 


40 . 


.487 


i. 


i4S 


439 


i. 


97 





319 - 


f t3 7 8 


iii. 


K)- 


t2 7 8 


i. 


146. 


483 


i. 
i. 


ICO . 

103 . 


ii. 


( 9 1- 

(10 1 


^467 
. 261 


iii. 


m- 

56. 


. 249 
. 240 


i. 
i. 


154 
155 


457 
. 260 
4442 


i. 
i. 


in . 
"3 


ii. 


IS 


. 96 


iii. 


59 


278 . 


L 


168 . 


.t3<5o 


i. 


114 . 


ii. 


121 . 


(7) 


iii. 


60 . 


. 16 


i. 


170 . 


. 484 


i. 


117 . 


ii. 


!37 


t4oi 


iii. 


62 . 


. 264 


i. 


186 . 


417 


i. 


119 . 


ii. 


152 . 


.456 


iii. 


63- 


43i 


i. 


188 . 


457 


i. | 


I32j 


ii. 


164 . 


457 


iii. 


64 . 


. t6g 


i. 


204 . 


. 484 


i. 


135 




ACT III. 


iii. 


65- 


.467 


i. 


217 . 


. 209 


i. 


139 






. 


iii. 


189)' 


t342 


i. 


231*. 


4356 


L 


MS . 


i. 


i . 


\ 300 


iii. 


80 . 


. 247 


i. 


259 


369 


i. 


146. 


i. 


4 


. 508 


iii. 


81 . 


. 404 


i. 


262 . 


It8 3 
*l 90 


i. 


149 


L 


6 . 


. 265 


iii. 


92 . 


. 410 








i. ] 


'lof' 


L 


S 


(9) 


iii. 


93 


. 238 


' 


264 . 


( f i 3 ) 


' 


1 ' 




















i. 


214 . 







Read either " 


let it aloue " (473, end) or '' 


let's along " (30) 





INDEX. 



495 



Sc. 


Line 


Pat, 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par 


L 


5 


.tai8 


i. 


235 


t494 


i. 


270 . 


., 279 


i. 


3'5 


. 279 


L 


316 . 


.taes 


i^ 


2AQ . 


(2 7I 


i. 


289 . 


. 276 


i f 


fEpil. 2 


1 8 


i. 


230 . 


. 168 




- . / . 


I 12 


i. 


33 


t35 




1 13 


' 


L 


232 { 


tp. 13 


i. 
i. 


250 . 
268 . 


295 

P- 34 


i. 


310 . 


4296 


i. 


18 . 


. 200 



(i) Folio, " th' outward." (2) " Impertinent." Lear, iv. 6. 178. 

(aa) y. C. iv. 3. 280. (3) " Old." Macbeth, ii. 3. 2. (4) " Owes." A. W. v. iii. 97. 
(5) "Masters." M. of V. iv. i. 51. "Mastres" is written for "mistress" in B. 
and F. Coxcomb, ii. 3. (6) " Againjt course and kind." Munday. 

(7) Folio, " and." (8) See Tempest, i. 2. 200. 

(9) Theobald, " busy less :" (?) " most busy feast." (10) Folio, " lies " 



TIMON OF ATHENS. 



ACT I 




ACT 


II. 


ACT IV. 




iii |334- 


1 6 


















1344 


/ * 


i. 44 . 

i. 63 . 
i. 107 . 


. 22 
. 5" 

385 


i. 

ii. 


23 
7 

12 


. . 343 
392 
. . 200 


i. 
i. 


33 
46. . 


492 

355 


iii. 401 
iii. 403 


325 
431 


i. 139 . 


. 28 


ii. 


28 


. . 484 


ii. 
ii. 


13 ' 
16 . . 


468 


iii. 454 
iii. 530 


. . 400 

. . 212 


i. 147 


J 


ii. 


36 


. . 512 












i. 206 . 


. 241 








ii. 


33 


35 










ii. 


119 


. . 407 












i- 257 . 


487 








ii. 


35 


252 


ACT 


V. 


i. 284 . 


.338 








iii. 


29 . . 


470 






ii. 151 . 

ii. 154 . 


479 




ACT 


III. 


iii. 
iii. 


180 . . 


361 
171 


i. 61 


P- 14 

. . 466 


ii. 156 . 


. 4S 


ii. 


39 


. . 400 


iii. 


232 . . 


172 


i. 203 


. . 487 


ii. 184 . 


. 480 


iik 


23 


. . 400 


iii. 


277 . . 


213 


iii. 8 


. . 497 


ii. 251 . 


. 57 v - 


56 


477 "i- 


287. . 


187 




TITUS ANDRONICUS. 




i. 


231 


. . 492 




ACT II. 




iii. 285 


. 431 


ACT I 




i. 


235 


479 








iii. 3S 


200 


i. ii . 


. 301 


i. 


288 


. . 480 


i. 


30 . . 


65 


iv. 18 


. . 229 


i. 20 . 


. 465 


i. 


301 


. . 145 


i. 
iii. 


69 . . 
75 


103 
492 


ACT 


III. 


i. 32 . 


'1491 


i. 


325 


. . 12 


ill 


92 . . 


463 


i. 38 


. . 264 


i. 189 . 


. 353 


i. 


347 


. . 477 


iii. 


IO2 . . 


322 


i. 51 


. 423 


i. IQO 


479 


i. 


368 


. . 195 


iii. 


160 . . 


490 i. 66 


. 484 



496 



TKDEX. 



Sc. 


Line 


Par. 




ACT 


IV. 


Sc. 


Line 


Par 


Sc. 


Line 


p.lf. 


i. 


151 . 


. 417 


Sc. 


Line 


Par. 


iv. 


10 . 


. 105 


i. 


IO2 . 


143 


i. 


269 . 


. 191 


i. 


95 


. 508 


iv. 


20 . 


. 3' 


ii. 


16 . 


. 57 


ii. 


4 


344 


i. 


IOI . 


472 


iv. 


65 


492 


ii. 


50 . 


456 


ii. 


9 


. 264 


ii. 


136 


. 485 


iv. 


76. 


78 


ii. 


137 


. 484 


ii. 


44 


. 69 


ii. 


162 


. 485 








iii. 


i . 


. 465 


ii. 


53 


338 


ii. 


176 


247 




ACT 


V. 


iii. 


99 


. 32 


ii. 


76. 


483 


iii. 


35 


. 478 


; 


40 . 


. 462 


iii. 


156. 


. 48- 


ii. 


83. 


295 


iii. 


58 


. 484 


i. 


46 . 


. 484 








TROILUS AND CRESSIDA. 




ACT 1 






ACT 


II. 


iii. 


44 


3 


V. 


12 . 


25 


ProL 21 . 
i. 7 . 


9 
. 187 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


64 
179 

211 


. . 294 
. . 285 
49 1 


iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


III 

120 

127 


. 264 

. 500 


V. 
V. 
V. 


93 
105 . 
170 . 


337 
433 
336 


ii. 
ii. 
ii. 
ii. 


185. 
189. 
312 . 


. 104 
. 81 
. 104 
. 372 


iii. 
iii. 
iii. 


45 
94 
US 


. . 202 

. . 430 
. . 51 

/ 12 


iii. 
iii. 

iii. 


142 
ISO 

155 


496 
. 480 
(129 
\279 


V. 

V. 
V. 

V. 


176 . 
195 
255 
272 . 


. 217 
. 69 
. 217 


ii. 


314 


. 224 


iii. 


I2O 


' '1431 


iii. 


59 


295 


V. 


292 . 


395 


iii. 


7 


. 481 


iii. 


135 


333 


iii. 


161 


. 90 








iii. 

iii. 
iii. 


' Si 
68 .